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Full text of "The history of Norfolk, Virginia"

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THE 



HISTORY 



OF 



ORFOLK, VIRGINIA. 



A review of Important Events and Incidents which 

occurred from 1736 to 1877; 

Also a Record of Personal Reminiscences and 

Political, Commercial, and Curious Facts, ' 



BY H. W. BTTRTON", 

"Harry Scratch" 

OF THE NORFOLK VIRGINIAN. 




NORFOLK, VA. 
Norfolk Virginian Job Print, 36 and 38 Roanoke Avenue. 

1877. 



IV. 



DEDICATION. 



TO 
M. GLENNAN, Esq., 

Proprietor of the Norfolk Virginian, 

This Volume is respectfully and affectionately dedicated — not 
only as a mark of personal regard and lasting friendship, but in 
admiration of his noble impulses, true patriotism, fidelity to duty, 
unfaltering energy, strict integrity, and devotion as son, brother, 
and friend — all of which good qualities are prominent in his 
character, and have endeared him to the heart of the 

AUTHOR, 



The City of Norfolk. 



ITS EAELT HISTOEY AND SUBSEQUENT 

PROGRESS; 

INTERESTING FACTS AND INCIDENTS. 



Norfolk, the chief shipping port and seaport town of good old Vir- 
ginia, is situated in Norfolk County, on the North side of the Elizabeth 
river, two hundred and twenty miles from the base of the Blue Ridge 
mountains, and thirty-six miles from the point at which the boundary line 
of Virginia and North Carolina intersects the Atlantic Coast. It is dis- 
tant from Boston, Mass., (by water) about 620 miles; from New York, 
300 miles; from Philadelphia, 270; from Washington, 1S5 ; from Bal- 
timore, 178 ; from Wilmington. N C, 242 ; from Charleston, S. C, 350; 
from New Orleans. 1,§26 ; from Lynchburg, Va., 204 ; from Richmond. 
Va , 102 ; from Petersburg, 81 ; from Fortress Monroe, (Old Point Com- 
fort), 1.6; from Hampton Roads, 8 ; "and it is almost within ' hearing 
of the deep toned roar" of the Atlantic Ocean 

The site of the city is a flat peninsular of about 850 acres of land, 
bounded on the South and Southwest by the Elizabeth river and Smith's 
Creek, and by Newton's Creek on the East; it is near the Southern ex-j 
tremity of the State, in latitude 36°, 50', 50"; longitude West frorrA 
Greenwich 76°, 13', 47"; and East from Washington 0° 42' 43". 

The natural advantages of its harbor and its close proximity to the 
Ocean and Chesapeake Bay, make it the best shipping port for Virginia 
and North Carolina, and for a large portion of the trade of the South - 
West, and the West. The Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio railroad, start- 
ing here, passes through portions of Nansemond, Isle of Wight, South- 
ampton, Sussex and Prince George Counties, to the city of Petersburg 
(familiarly known as the " Cockade City" of Va.,) and onward through 
IHnwiddie. Nottoway, Cumberland, Prince Edward, Appomattox, and 
Amherst counties, into Lynchburg, the old " City of Hills," and thence 
through the rich Counties of Campbell, Bedford, Botetourt, Roanoke, 
Montgomery, Pulaski, Wythe, Smith and Washington, to Bristol Ten- 
nessee, 408 miles from Norfolk, where it connects with the East Tennessee, 
Virginia and Georgia railroad, which runs through the. best portion of 
East Tennessee, and connecting with other roads at Knoxville,- Dalton 



and Chattanooga, penetrates a vast portion of the Western and Southern 
country, giving direct and convenient access to our port as a shipping 
poir^,. 

The shipping and trade interests of North Carolina, are directly iden- 
tified with Norfolk by means of the Seaboard and Roanoke railroad, 
which begins at Portsmouth (just across the river from here), and ends 
at Weldon, N. C, where it connects with Wilmington and Weldon, and 
the v Raleigh and Ga ton railroads Tliereare also various line* of Steam- 
boats, and trading vessels which run from our city into the " Old North 
State," via the Albemarle and Chesapeake, and Dismal Swamp Canals, 
about which we will write hereafter. 

THE ANCIENT BOROUGH. 

The history of the (; Ancient Borough of Norfolk" would fill volume 
upon volume with interesting reading matter. It dates back to the " days 
when people were honest;" when ?eligion was pure and u n defiled ; when 
true chivalry was appreciated ; when poor men's wives did not spend all 
of their husbands' surplus earnings in peacocks' feathers and fashionable 
finery; when tyranny and oppression were hated and ''resisted even unto 
death ;" when " Returning Hoards " were not created to rob the people 
of their priceless liberty, and when " bull-dozing" was unkown in our 
land. The valuable and very interesting history written by Mr. W. S. 
Forrest, in 1853, entitled, " Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Nor- 
folk and Vicinity," contains a full account of the early history of the city, 
and is familiar to our people. Therefore this writer will not attempt to 
lay before his readers a lengthy report of the town in the good old days 
of yore, but will devote a few pages to some interesting incidents of the 
past, in a condensed form. 

In 1833, while some men were boring for water in this vicinity, a coin 
was found thirty feet beneath the surface of the earth, and which was 
supposed to be of Roman origin. From its singularity and antique in- 
scriptions, it was thought to have been a specimen of money circulated 
by unknown aborigines, who ceased to exist before the mysterious red men 
inhabited this country. However, it furnished evidence that Norfolk 
'couuty was a place of human habitation during or before the fifteenth 
century." 

Norfolk is a Saxon word, compounded from North and folk, and as 
Mr. Forrest says, "may with some propriety, be rendered North people." 
The name was given by Col. Thorogjod, one of the earliest settlers, in 
honor of his native county in England. Norfolk county originally in- 
cluded Princess Anne and Nansemond. It was laid off" in parishes, 
known as Saint Brides', Lynnhaven, Klizibeth River Parish, &c. In those 
days the local government erected Parish churches and supplied them with 
pastors, and the people were required to attend church under penalty of 
law. The first Court-house was built upon the stream now known as 
Lynnhaven River, at the Ferry Landing; but the " seat of justice " was 
aiterwards removed to "Newtown," at the head of the stream, now the 
village of Kempsville. 

On the 8th day of June in 1680, seventy-three years after the perma- 
nent settlement of Va., at Jamestown, an Act of Assembly was passed, 



called an " Act for cohabitation, and encouragement of traae and manu- 
facture/' which directed the purchase of filty acres of land for the town 
of Norfolk. The land was purchased from one Nicholas Wise, a carpenter 
of Elizabeth Piver Parish, in a Lower Norfolk County, for the «um of 
"ten thousand pounds of good merchantable tobacco and caske " The 
appointed trustees who made the purchase were Capt. Win. liobinson and 
Lieut. Col. Anthony Lawson. 

The land sold embraced all that from one end of Main street to the 
other, bounded on the North by Back Creek, which, at that time, " flowed 
from the river eastwardly (Bank street marsh) nearly to Church street," 
and was navigable for lighters and small crafts to the point where the 
City Hall now stands Most of the land south of Main street has been 
since made by filli g up the river. The deed from Mr Wise for this 
property is said to have been quite a curious, legal document, and in it the 
location of the land is thus described : '"Situate and lying in Elizabeth 
River Parish, north side of Elizabeth River bounied with said river to 
the South and West, to the North with a Creek, and to the East with 
several stacks, running partly across an old field and partly through some 
points of woodland,'' &c The deed concludes thus "In the year of the 
reign of our sovereign lord. King i harles the Second (by the grace of 
God), over England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, 
&c." 

In October, 1705 the Assembly established Norfolk as a town ; and in 
1730 the business of the place had greatly increased, and two dozen 
vessels might have been se«m any day, loading at our wharves. Col. 
Byrd, about that time, thus wrote about Norfolk. " The two cardinal 
virtues that make a place thrive — industry and frugality — are seen here 
in perfection ; and so long as the people can banish luxury and idleness, 
the town will remain in a happy and flourishing condition." 

ANCIENT COUNCILS. 

On the 15th day of September, 1736, the Royal Charter was granted 
to the Borough of Norfolk, and Sand. Boush, Esq., was appointed Mayor ; 
Sir John Randolph (knight) Recorder, and Geo N:wton, Saml. Boush, 
the younger, Jho. Hutchings, Kobt. Tucker, Jno. Taylor, Saml. Smith, 
the younger, James Ivey, and Alex. Campbell, were appointed aldermen. 
Provision was made in the charter for electing councilmen and other 
officers. Soon after this charter was granted, Mayor Boush died, and 
was succeeded in office by Mr Geo. Newton. The first council meeting 
was held Nov. 18th. 1736. Sir Jno. Randolph, Recorder, administered 
the oath of office to Mayor Saml. Boush. 

At one time, as will be seen from the following extract from the pro- 
ceedings of an ancieut council, every citizen was required to be armed 
when he went to church, under penalty of a fine. Here is the extract : 

" At a Common Council held the 7th day of July, 1741, it was Eesolved that 
in future the (white male) inhahitants of this Borough (to prevent any invasion 
or insurrection shall be armed at the church upon Sundays or other days of 
worship or divine service, under the penalty of five shillings, to be recovered 
before the Mayor, or any one of the aldermen." 



In those days, it is said, that the pastor of the only church in the 
borough (St. Paul's) delivered his sermons with a pistol lying - upon his 
Bible stand — for what particular reason, we are not informed. 

SPECIAL EVENTS. 

April 6th, 1746, the battle of Culloden was fought, and the Pretender 
Was defeated by his Royal Highness, the Duke of Cumberland. So on 
the 23d day of July, same year, the people of Norfolk, had a grand cele- 
bration jubilee, and burned the Pretender in effigy. 

From Forrest's history, and from old records, we condense such extracts 
as may be interesting to the community, to-wit : 

In 1765, Talbot street was opened by Capt. Talbot, the owner of the 
land, from whom it derived its name. It soon became a fashionable 
thoroughfare, and was the first street paved in the Borough. 

March 31st, 1766, the people assembled at the Courthouse and formed 
m organization called the Sons of Liberty. The object of this Society 
vas to oppose the detestable Stamp Act. The resolutions adopted were 
signed by fifty-seven of the most prominent citizens of the Borough. 

In 1769, the imports of Virginia, principally of the Port of Norfolk 
ind Portsmouth, amounted to £851,000 — about 3-1,300,000. 

In 1775, the people of Virginia begun to prepare for war, and the 
ittention of Lord Dunmore, Commander of the British fleet, was di- 
rected to Norfolk, and our harbor was made the rendezvous of said fleet. 
In October of that year, Dunmore destroyed Holt's printing office, and 
the citizens protes^ ted against the act The British Commander replied 
in a very insulting manner — saying, he " could not have done the people 
a greater service than by depriving them of the means of having their 
minds poisoned, and of exciting in them the spirit of rebellion and sedi- 
tion " This greatly exasperated the citizens and united them in hatred 
to the British. 

It is not the intention of this author to give an account of the trials, 
troubles, victories and defeats that came to the patriots of this section 
during the Revolutionary war. That has been given in full and by abler 
pens. But a few incidents of the great struggle of our forefathers will 
prove interesting and convenient for reference. 

The battle of Great Bridge (the first that occurred in our vicinity) was 
fought Dec. 1 9th, 1775. Lord Dunmore's troops were defeated by the 
Virginians, under command of Col. Woodford. It has been truly said 
that the conduct of our troops on that occasion manifested " Noble dis- 
position of soul and undying patriotism." 

Five days after the battle of Great Bridge, the Virginians entered 
Norfolk, and Cornel Howe assumed command next morning. And on 
the first day of January, 1776, between three and four o'clock in the 
morning, Lord Dunmore ordered the town to be bombarded. A heavy 
cannonade was opened from the frigate Liverpool, two sloops of war, 
and the ship Dunmore. The British Commander sent some sailors 
ashore, under cover of the guns of the fleet, to fire the town. They 
applied the torch to the houses on the wharves, and as the wind blew 
from the water, the flames spraed very rapidly. The conflagration 
raged for nearly three days, and nine-tenths of the town was destroyed . 



Norfolk was abandoned by Col. Howe, on the 6th day of February, 
1776, and stationed his troops at Kemp's, at the Great Bridge, and at 
Suffolk. The habitants of the ruined town mournfully marched away 
with the soldiers, and all who were able, armed themselves to fight the 
enemy that had so cruelly made them homeless. The first house erected 
in Norfolk after the great fire, was built by Mr. Wm, Goodchild, on 
the north sick of Main street, where Johnson's Hall now stands. In 
the fall of 1776, and spring of 1777, business men and fortune hunters 
seeing the peculiar advantages of this position, began to build stores, 
dwellings. &c. Many of the former residents returned and built small 
houses, or shanties, for they were so impoverished they could not afford 
much comfort. From that time, the town of Norfolk begun to grow 
to its present importance. 

During the winter of 1779-80, our harbor was frozen across, and 
the residents traveled between Norfolk and Portsmouth on ice for the 
first time in their lives. January 14th, 1780, was the coldest day ever 
known in the State up to that date, (people at that time walked across 
the Chesapeake Bay, from Annapolis, Md. to Kent's Island.) 

In 1782, the charter of this Borough was amended, so as to allow 
Councilmen to be elected by the votes of the people.- 

In 1785, a protracted and damaging drought distressed our people 
and water was in great demand. Animals perished, flowers withered, 
and vegetation was almost killed out. J 

In 1787, the Lismal Swamp Canal was commenced under a joint 
charter of Virginia and North Carolina. This canal is now a very 
important work and a great feeder to the trade of the city. It con- 
nects the Sounds and principal rivers of North Carolina, with the 
waters of the Elizabeth River, Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. 
Jt passes through the Great Dismal Swamp, from which it takes its 
name. The immortal Patrick Henry, was a champion of this great 
work of internal improvement, and was one of the first subscribers to 
its stock. 

In 1788, a newspaper called the "Norfolk and Portsmouth Chronicle," 
was started by Messrs. J. & A. McLean, from New York. It did not 
live long, on account of the death of one of the proprietors. 

In 1790, a Courthouse was built on Main street, east of Church 
street. The population of the Borough at that time was nearly 3,000, 
and the value of exports from Virginia, principally from Norfolk, 
amounted to about three million dollars. 

On the 13th day of August, 1794, the first number of the Norfolk 
Herald was printed — a semi-weekly paper, published by Mr. Chas. 
Willet. The name of the paper was afterward changed to The Nbrjolk 
and Portsmouth Herald, and flourished for many years. 

In 1798, the number of houses in the Borough had increased to more 
than nine hundred; but in 1799, another disastrous fire occured, which 
destroyed a large number of buildings on the eastern side of Market 
Square, from Main to Union streets. This is truly an unlucky square, 
destructive fires having occurred there nearly a dozen times since the 
ona above alluded to. 

January 25th 1800, the General Assembly passed an act authorizing 



the Governor to convey to the U. S. Government, the property called 
Gosport, for the establishment of a Navy Yard. The yard was regu- 
larly established about the middle of February following. 

On the 22d of February, 1800, business was suspended and the people 
of x^forfolk, with tearful eyes and saddened hearts, assembled to pay a 
tribute of respect to the memory of George Washington, the '" Father 
of his country, the first and greatest of Presidents," whqpe death had 
cast a gloom upon the entire land. The solemn ceremonies took place 
in St. Paul's church, Rev. James Whitehead, officiating at prayers. 
The military procession, under command of Maj. Ford, or the U. S. 
Army, comprised the following companies, viz : 

Norfolk Cavalry, Capt. Jiio Nivision ; the Norfolk Light Infantry, 
Capt. Saml. Smith ; Norfolk Volunteers, Capt. Moses Myers ; Norfolk 
Artillery, Capt. P. Lugg ; the Ancient Artillery, Capt. W. P. Pollard. 
The Masons also participated. 

In 180-1, Norfolk was a busy place, and its population was nearly 
9,000 souls. Wm. Wirt, a distinguished lawyer, who afterward became 
the Attorney General of the U. S., moved here in that year and thus 
wrote to one of his friends concerning the cost of living in the Borough. 
"Norfolk is very expensive. I keep a pair of horses here which cost 
me eight pounds ($10,) per month. Wood is four to eight dollars per 
cord ; Indian meal, through the winter, is nine shillings per bushel : 
flour, eleven and twelve dollars per barrel ; a leg of mutton, three dol- 
lars ; butter, three shillings per pound ; eggs two shillings and three 
pence per dozen, and so on." 

During this year another fire destroyed many houses on the east side of 
Market Square,near Main street. ' ; The Market house was pulled down 
to save more valuable property;" it was situated then where the 
Market Square water plugs now stand. This was also the year in which 
Thomas Moore, the poet, visited Norfolk. 

In 1809. the following places of amusement were conducted here, 
to-wit: One Theatre, Botanical Gardens, Museum Naturae, the Wig- 
wam Gardens, Vauxhall's Gardens and Baths, Rosainville's Bower and 
Lindsay's Retreat. 

In 1810, the Common Council favorably considered the propriety 
of filling up the water lots in the town. (The Bank Street Marsh, we 
presume ; but it stands there yet.) 

January 5th, 1812, was set apart by the Mayor for an expression of 
condolence from the citizeus, on account of the dreadful calamity oc- 
casioned in Richmond, by the burning of the Theatre there, on the 
26th of the preceeding month. Our people exhibited evidences of pro- 
found sorrow for the mournful event. 

The Congress of 1812, declared war against Great Britain, and a large 
force was concentrated here. On the 22nd of June (1813) the British 
fleet attacked Craney Island, and met a glorious repulse. The fortifi- 
cations then on the Island were erected by order of Major Genl. Wade 
Hampton — (father of the gallant Hampton now of South Carolina), 
but at the time of this attack the troops there were commanded by 
Col. Beatty. This District was then under command of Genl. Robt. B. 



Taylor, as gallant a Virginian as ever drew sword in the cause of 
freedom ! 

In March 1814, another fire occurred on Market Square, which 
destroyed the Market House and several stores. 

April 7th, 1815, the American Beacon was first published. It was 
destroyed by fire in 1847. Its first owners were Capfc. Hamilton Shields 
and Saml. Shepherd, Esq. 

May J 5th, 1818 the Council authorized the borrowing of money, for 
the purpose of building the Stone Bridge on Granby street, " across 
Back Creek." 

On the 20th of March 1821," two Spaniards, named Castilano and 
Garcia, murdered a young Frenchman named Peter Lagaudette. The 
heartless murderers dissected the body of their victim and hid it in a 
trunk. They made their escape, but were, soon captured, and were hung 
Frida June 1st, 1821. 

The first steam ferry boat ever used between Norfolk and Portsmouth, 
made its trial trip January 19th, 1822. The fare on the boat then was 
the same as it is now — 5 cents for each passenger. 

February 2nd, 1823, a destructive fire occurred on the West, side of 
Market Square, and Mr. B. W. Talbot, a native of Baltimore, County, 
Md., perished in the flames. A Mr. Barrett, of Norfolk County, was also 
killed at this fire. | 

Rev. Enoch M. Lowe, then pastor of Christ Church, died February 
26th, and Major Geo. W. Camp, (father of our present esteemed towns- 
man of same name) died September 7th ; and Col. Wm. Sharp, died 
December 7th, of the year 1823. 

On the 22d of October, 1824, Lafayette, the great friend to America 
in her struggle for liberty, arrived in Norfolk on a visit, and was most 
cordially received. Jno. E. Holt, Esq , was Mayor at the time, and or- 
dered a grand procession of the people to receive the distinguished 
visitor, whose pathway was strewn with flowers by the school children 
of the Borough. 

In February, 182 1, the old Courthouse and jail buildings, which stood 
at the head of Market Square, were destroyed by fire. 

On the 9th of March, 1827, a fire occured where the National Hotel 
now stands, and proved very destructive. By it, the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church (where the First Presbyterian Church now stands) was des» 
troyed — also, a block of buildings then known as Murray's Bow, and the 
beautiful residence of Walter Herron, Esq., where the St Vincent Hos- 
pital now stands. The latter house was fired by sparks from the burning 
church. More than sixty buildings were destroyed by this unfortunate 
conflagration. 

The present Dry Dock at the Gosport Navy Yard, was commenced 
January 1st, 1828. On the 5th day of April following, Midshipman 
Wm. J. Slidele, Robt. M. Harrison and Frederick Rogers, of the U. S, 
Navy, were drowned in our harbor by the capsizing of a pleasure boat 
in which they were seated. During this year Christ Church was erected 
under the direction of L. Swain, Esq., a skillful architect and builder. 

January 20th, 1832, an act of Assembly was passed, granting the free- 
holders of Norfolk the privilege of electing the Mayor of the Boi :>ugh ( 



- 



which blessed privilege they continue to enjo\y, assisted by the votes of the 
o-ood people who are not so fortunate as to be freeholders. 

On the 13th of October, of this year Mayor Jno. E. Holt died. He 
had been Mayor fur twenty years. On the 8th of December following- 
Mr. Jno. Tunis, another valuable citizen, departed this lite. 

In March 1 33. the Cumberland Street Methodist Church was built, 
and formally dedicated to the service 'of God by Rev. Wm. A. Smith, its 
chief founder. 

Nov. 4th, 1833, another fire occured on the East corner of Main street 
and Market Square, which destroyed about 20 buildings. 

December 4th, 18*33, the Common Council subscribed $40,000 (in ad- 
dition to $20,000 previously subscribed) to the stock of the Portsmouth 
and Roanoke Railroad Company; and on the 19th of January, 183 t. 
the people of this Borough reeeived#the joyful tidings that the Assembly 
had passed the bill, authorizing the aforesaid road The bill had many 
enemies, but finally triumphed. When the good news came, the inhabi- 
tants of both places (the " cities by the sea,") rang their public bells 
and raised a joyful noise over their important success. The road, how- 
ever, failed, and was abandoned. 

In the same year, April 14th. Juc'ge Robt. B. Taylor died ; August 
27th, the shock of an earthquake was felt in the borough ; November 
25th, the Council ordered the filling up of Back Creek, to make a public 
square — (the present site of our City Hall.) February 29th, interments 
in the "old burying ground" ^St. Paul,s Church-yard) were prohibited, 
as the new ground (Elmwood) had been prepared for use. 

THE CENTENNIAL YEAR. 

1836 was the Centennial year of the " Ancient Borough." An hun- 
dred long and eventful years had been consigned to oblivion, but the 
old town still flourished. Mr. Forrest has truthfully said that " War 
pestilence, storm, flood and fire had done their work of desolation, and 
the Borough had shared largely in the calamities of the Revolution. 
Once in ruins, she had nobly risen again, and with increasing strength 
and beauty had already taken a respectable stand among the towns of the 
Atlantic Coast. Many a severe blow had been leveled at her prosperity ; 
but all seemed willing on this Centennial occasion, to acknowledge that 
she had bravely and successfully contended with every difficulty, and 
agreeably to the views of Jefferson and others, was surely, though slowly, 
rising in the scale of commercial importance." 

At sunrise, September 15th, a salute of twenty -six guns was fired, and 
the Church bells rang for divine services. Later, a grand military and 
civic parade was formed, and the entire day was spent honoring the an- 
niversary day. 

In October following, the first Presbyterian Church was completed. 
It was dedicated on Sunday, November 20th, by Rev. Doctor Wm. S. 
Plummer. 

On the night of March 12th, 1837, another fireaccurred on East side 
of Market Square, near Main street, which destroyed seven large brick 
stores. After this fire, Newton's Row was built on the grounds. 

On the 19th April of this yeaV, Louis Napoleon, Emperor of France, 



9 

arrived in Norfolk, and was royally entertained. On the same day, 
French's Hotel, (now the National) was opened, and the Emperor and 
his suite were the first guests therein entertained. 

In 1838, the population of Norfolk was about ten thousand souls ; the 
value of the houses in the city that year was. according to the Commis- 
sioner's books, $2,704,430. 

November 12th, of this year a Commercial convention was held here, 
which was presided over by Jno. Tyler, Esq., then Governor of the State. 
The convention was held in the interest of direct trade, agriculture and 
internal improvements. 

In 1839, "the cove which extended east from Bank street, nearly to 
the southern terminus of Cumberland street, was filled up, enclosed, or- 
namented with shade trees, and denominated the " Public Square." 

On the 25th of May, 1840, the corner stone of the Norfolk Academy 
was laid (now used as the Norfolk Library.) "It is of the Grecian-Doric 
order, the model having been copied from the Temple of Theseus,, at 
Athens." The plan was drawn by a Philadelphia architect named Wal- 
ter, and the building was directed by C. Hall, Esq., a prominent book 
merchant in this city. 

The population of the town in 1840 was nearly 11,000; that of the 
county, to- wit: whites, 11,280; slaves, 7,845; free colored persons, 
1,967— total (of county), 21,092. 

On the 19th of November of this year, the Whigs of the Borough 
had a grand jollification and illumination in honor of the election of Wm. 
Henry Harrison as President of the United States. The glory of the 
Whigs did not last long, for just one month from the date of his inaugu- 
ration as President, the good old "hero of Tippacanoe" died, and was suc- 
ceeded by John Tyler (Vice-President), who afterwards allied himself 
with the Democratic party — however, Tyler was a good man and his 
official acts were acceptable to all parties. 

June 2d, 1842, twenty-five houses were destroyed by fire, on Little 
Water street, Holt's and Woodside's lanes. One person was killed and 
several wounded by the falling of walls. July 10th, the new Catholic 
Church was dedicated, with Rev. Father A. L. Hitselberger as its 
pastor. 

In March, 1843, twelve houses were destroyed by fire on Little Water 
(now Elizabeth) street. June 24th, W. D. Delany, Esq., was elected 
Mayor of the Borough. 

On the 24th of April, 1844, Hon. Henry Clay arrived in Norfolk and 
was tendered a public reception. The military, consisting of the Light 
Artillery Blues, under Captain R. W. Bowden ; the Junior Volunteers, 
Captain F. F. Ferguson ; the Norfolk Riflemen, Captain Dunstan, and 
the Virginia Guards, Captain L. W. Williams, paraded in grand proces- 
sion. The Blues fired a salute of twenty-six guns. Mr. Clay was the 
guest of our present esteemed, aged citizen, Col. Myer Myers, who resides 
in his same old residence, corner of Bank and Freemason streets. 

The Evening Courier, the first penny paper ever published in Norfolk, 
made its appearance July 29th, 1844 — Wm. C. Shields, proprietor. In 
1851 its name was changed to the Daily Courier, and it became neutral 
in politics. 



10 

NORFOLK A CITY, 

By special Act of Assembly, Norfolk became a city on the I3th of 
February, 1845, and her charter was very materially changed, to-wit : 
the Council was divided into two bodies- (as it is now), Common andi 
Select. The Councils to consist of thivty -seven freeholders, eleeted every 
three years, and they to elect all city officers (except the Mayor aud 
Sergeant) annually — choosing from tfceir own bodies one Recorder. The 
Mayor and Sergeant to be elected triennially, by the qualified voters-. 
These are only a few of the amendments to the charter. It has often 
been amended since, and now (1877) all the City Officers (except the 
Clerk of the Courts — six years' term) are elected every two years by the 
voters and any qualified voter is entitled to hold office — if he can get 
himself elected to it. ana: there's the rub. 

From the time that the Borough became a city, it began to improve 
rapidly and had it not been retarded in its growth by unwise legisla- 
tion (of both State and General Governments), the ravages of the yellow 
fever (1855) and the late civil war between the States (1861-2-3-4-5") 
it would now be nearly as large as Richmond. But we will not dwell 
upon this subject. Let us return to the special and important events 
that transpired after it was dignified by the new title of A City. 

By the Commissioner's books for the year ending February 1st, 1846, 
it will be seen that the value of real estate in the city increased over the 
previous year, 8122,048, which shows how rapidly the place was 
growing. 

On the 6th of March, 1845, the MethodistProtestant Church, on Fen- 
church street, (formerly a theatre) was destroyed by fire. 

In December, 1846, the Mexican war question excited the people of 
this city, and a company of volunteers was raised; and on the 26th of the 
month, 0. E. Edwards, Esq., was elected Captain of it. In January 
following, this Company offered its services to the Government, and 
served with distinction during the entire war. 

January 16th, 1847, another fire occurred on the south-side of Main 
street, next the east side of Market square, which destroyed about 
$75,000 worth of property. 

On the 10th of March, 1847, Rev. Upton Beall, then the pastor of 
Christ Church, departed this life, and another saint was added to the 
Kingdom of Glory. 

On the 15th of May, the first number of the Virginia Temperance Ad- 
vocate was issued — "a weekly paper, devoted to temperance, morality, 
literature, health, &c," edited by Mr. W. S. Forrest, the gifted author 
of Forrest's Sketches of Norfolk, and who, at present, is one of our use- 
ful and highly esteemed citizens. 

On June 13th, Rev. S. J. P. Anderson was installed as pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church. On July 10th, Rev. Geo. D. Cummins 
(successor of Rev. Upton Beall) preached his first sermon as the Rector 
of Christ (Episcopal) Church.' On the 24th of July, the U. S. ship 
Pennsylvania left the Navy Yard and anchored off Smith's Point. This 
was the largest ship in our Navy, and cost $800,000. She was built at 
Philadelphia, and the only voyage she ever made was from that city to 
Norfolk. (She was burned when the Confederates evacuated Norfolk 



11 

Sm 1862.) August 5th, Hon. Thos. Newton died, and August 14th 'otiy 
■citizens mourned the death of Dr. Moseley, of the medical faculty of 
Norfolk. August 23d, the corner stone of the City Hall was laid by the 
Masons, in presence of a large concourse of people. A Masonic address 
was read by Mr, J. C McCabe, and Rev, Father Hitselberger, of St* 
Patrick's (Catholic) Church, the chosen orater of the day, delivered a 
long, eloquent and patriotic speech, appropriate to the auspicious occa- 
sion. On the 27th of November, the Norfolk. Beacon office and reading 
. room was destroyed by fire. 

January 8th, 1848, the first number of the Soutkem Argus was 
issued by S, T. Sawyer, editor and proprietor. March 2d, the M. E. 
Church, on Cumberland street, near Cove, was destroyed by fire, June 
14th, a fire occured in the lumber yard of Messrs. Ferguson & Milhado 
— extending to adjacent buildings and destroying nearly $200,000 worth 
•of property. The Mariner's Bethel was destroyed by this fire, August 
15th, the corner stone of the Freemason Street Baptist Church was laid 
by the Masons, During the balance of this year the California fever 
agitated the people of Virginia, and many citizens of Norfolk left for 
that far Western clime ; some returned, poorer than when they left— * 
others never more saw their loved ones at home. 

The Cumberland Street M. E. Church having been rebuilt, it was 
dedicated Sunday, January 8th, 1849, Rev. John E. Edwards (now of 
Richmond) pastor. On the fourth Thursday in April of this year, 
General John S. Millson was elected to Congress from this the (then) 
First Congressional District. He was a well known and able Demo- 
crat at that time. May 17th, the Asiatic cholera broke out in our 
midst for the first time since 1832, and carried off many valuable citi- 
zens. In July of this year — 1849 — the 'Norfolk Female Institute'* 
was established. Dr. Wm. Selden, an eminent physician, aged 77 
years, died in the same month. December 8th, Captain Miles King 
died. He had often been Mayor of the Borough, and Representative 
in the Legislature, and at one time was the beloved Captain of the 
Norfolk Blues. 

February 14th, 1850, the U. S. steamship Powhatan was launched 
at the Gosport Navy Yard. "Commodore Sloat and his officers, 
Captain Farragut and Lieutenant Glisson, threw open their houses 
on the occasion and displayed a generous and whole-souled hospital 
ity." (The keel of this ship was laid in 1847 ; she was constructed 
under the direction of S. T. Hartt, Esq. — then Constructor of the 
yard — according to the plans and specifications drawn by Francis 
Grice, Esq.) On the evening of this day, the Mechanics' Hall, on 
Main street, was first opened for inspection, and was visited by hun- 
dreds of persons. On the morning of the 15th, between one and 
two o'clock, the Avon Theatre was burned to the ground. On the 
23d, the Lexington Cadets (V. M. I.) visited Norfolk and remained a 
few days. Their military evolutions were the admiration of our citi- 
zens. April 24th, General Winfield Scott visited Norfolk and was re- 
ceived with a salute fired by the Blues' Battery. 

On the 20th of May, 1850, "The Worshipful Court of the City of 
Norfolk" convened for the first time in the new City Hall. On the 



12 

30th the Freemason Street Baptist Church was dedicated — Rev. Dr, 
Fuller of Baltimore, (died in the fall of 1876) preaching the dedica- 
tory sermon. Rev. Tiberius G. Jones was installed as pastor. July 
10th our people mourned the death of General Z. Taylor, President 
of the United States. Flags floated at half-mast, bells were tolled and 
business was generally suspended. September 26th, Hon. Henry A. 
Wise, of Accomac county, (died in fall of 1876) delivered an eloquent 
address to our citizens upon the subject of connecting Norfolk with the 
interior by railroads and canals. 

November 1st, Dr. Francis Mallory, of Elizabeth City county, (a 
former member of Congress) located in Norfolk as Navy Agent of this 
station. He was the successor of Geo. Loyall, Esq., who had held the 
office for thirteen years, during which time he disbursed "more than 
$14,000,000 of the public money without the loss of a cent to the Treas- 
ury." November 9th, the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad was com- 
pleted as far as Suffolk, and hundreds of our citizens enjoyed an excur- 
sion trip to that town. The Granby Street M. E. Church was also 
completed this month — Rev. D. S. Doggett (now Bishop) was the first 
pastor of it. The population of Norfolk at that time was 14,320 souls, 
an increase of 3,400 since 1840. 

January 1st, 1851, the first number of a paper called "The Daily 
News" was issued, T. F. Brotherly and C. H. Beale, editors and pro- 
prietors. It was independent in politics at first, but soon espoused the 
Democratic cause. 

April 21st, of this year, two of Norfolk's oldest and most respected 
citizens died, viz: Commodore James Barron, aged eighty-three years, 
and Caleb Bonsai, Esq., a book merchant, aged seventy-six. The 
Commodore was buried on the morning of the 23d, with naval 
and military honors, and Mr. Bonsai in the afternoon of the same day. 

Forrest's History of Norfolk gives a brief synopsis of the public ca- 
reer of the gallant Commodore Barron — including an account of his 
duel with Commodore Decatur, fought at Bladensburg, near Washing- 
ton, D. C, March 22d, 1820, in which affair both principals were 
wounded, Decatur fatally. But the facts concerning this unfortunate 
meeting are so familiar to our people they need not be recorded here. 
We will state, however, that the duel was fought with the pistols now 
in possession of Col. Myer Myers, and which have been used so often 
upon the "field of honor ;" they have gained great notoriety and are 
very highly prized. 

June 24th, Simon S. Stubbs, Esq., was elected Mayor of the city. 
He was a good man, but not very popular as an officer. On this same 
day, His Excellency, Millard Fillmore, President of the United States, 
visited Norfolk and Portsmouth, and was tendered a public reception. 

November 4th, Mr. John McPhail, an esteemed citizen and useful 
Christian, died. November 27th, the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad 
was completed to Weldon, N. C, and a large number of our citizens 
enjoyed an excursion trip over the road. 

January 23d, 1852, the Elizabeth River was frozen accross for the 
first time since 1836. The ice, however, was not thick enough to seri- 
ously obstruct navigation. April 8th, Norfolk and vicinity was 



visited by a destructive hail storm. May 12th, a large and important 
meeting was held in Mechanic's Hall, to discuss the question of the 
proposed railroad from this city to Petersburg. June 29th, our people 
mourned the death of Henry Clay, and paid honor to the memory of 
the great statesman. October 25th, Daniel Webster died, and the "citi- 
zens paid puplic tribute of respect to his memory. 

November 14th, Wm. B. Lamb, Esq., died at the ripe age of eighty- 
nine years. " He was an alderman of the Borough from 1803 to 
1810; and Mayor from 1810 to 1815," when he was elected Presi- 
dent of the Virginia Bank. November 2Qth, Dr. Jonathan Cowdery, 
died, aged eighty-five years. '* He was the oldest surgeon and the 
oldest officer in the U. S. Navy." He was born in Massachusetts, but 
came to Norfolk to reside about fifty years, previous to his death. 
November 22d, the Norfolk Democrats had a grand jollification and 
illumination in honor of their recent victory. In December of this 
year (1852) a new line of packets was established between Norfolk 
and New York. On the 10th of this month Norfolk subscribed 
8200,000 to the stock of the 

NORFOLK AND PETERSBURG RAILROAD COMPANY, 

upon specified conditions, one of which was this : " if the road is built, 
there shall be a satisfactory connexion with the Southside Railroad at 
or near its terminus in Petersburg." (This was, of course, to afford a 
continuous line of communication between Norfolk and the "Great 
West " but strange to say, when a bill was proposed in the Legisla- 
ure to consolidate the Norfolk and Petersburg, Southside, and Vir- 
ginia and Tennesseee Railroads, making Norfolk the lap into which 
the products of a vast country, would be poured, some of our citizens 
opposed the measure. They no doubt see now the folly of their oppo- 
sition, since the consolidation of these roads, more than doubled the 
cotton business of the city in about four years after it was consumated). 
An able writer, in treating the subject of this proposed road, and of 
course anticipating its consolidation with other roads, (as effected by the 
determined will, energy and perseverance of Genl. Wm. Mahone, its first 
Engineer,) says : " The Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad, when viewed 
in its proper light, and its important bearing upon the railway economy, 
not only of our own State but of the whole country, cannot but strike 
the reflecting mind as one of the most essential lines of intercommuni- 
cation which is now either in contemplation, or under actual construction, 
to unlock those rich treasures so much needed to invigorate the com- 
mercial enterprise — not only of our seaboard towns, and our own back 
country, but of the whole South and West, from Memphis on the Mis- 
sissippi, to Cincinnati on the Ohio. It is the last, but by no means the 
least link in the grandest scheme of internal improvement ever projected 
in the United States, forming, as it were, the trunk of a gigantic tree, 
deriving soil for its nourishment at Hampton Roads, and ramifying 
with its immensely long branches, portions of Western Virginia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, and even Missouri ; South Western Virginia, Ten- 
nessee, Kentucky, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Ar- 
kansas ; and it may at no very distant day, thrust one of its topmost 



14 

leading limbs even to the Pacific Ocean, while its tap root is insinu- 
ating its minute fibres into every European port. 

" This road (the contemplated line from Norfolk to Memphis, via Petersburg), 
will be one thousand and thirty miles long — of the same gauge throughout, with- 
out break — and with only two regular termini : one being Memphis and the other 
Norfolk. At Suffolk, it will cross the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad, and take 
a northwesterly direction toward Petersburg, and from that point will compare 
favorably with any other road in the country in point of directness." 

[This is only one extract from the many able articles written upon 
the great importance of the proposed road and its multiplicity of 
connections with the South and West. And yet there were blockheads 
in our midst, who opposed the great scheme — who could see no good 
to come from it, and even noiv in 1877, are foolish enough to say that 
" the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad does Norfolk no good," 
and that she would " be better off without it." But we congratulate 
the city upon the fact that the counsels of such stupid asses did not 
prevail, and Norfolk's great railroad scheme was successfully carried 
out, and she has reaped the benefits of it. The greatest aim of her peo- 
ple should now be to hold on to the consolidated line from Norfolk to Bristol ; 
for if it should, once be broken, farewell to the best interests of our trade — 
some of our people will never appreciate the wisdom of Genl. Wm. 
Mahone, until such a calamity befalls this great railway line.] 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY THREE. 

On Sunday the 2d of January, 1853, Mr. William Pannell.aged 63 
years, departed this life. He was a native of Baltimore, but had 
been an honored citizen of Norfolk for forty years. He attended 
Christ Church in the morning and died the same afternoon. His 
death was a great shock to the community. 

January 24th and 25th, Norfolk was charmed with concerts by Ole 
Bull. Mechanic's Hall was crowded to its fullest capacity and the 
audiences were delighted. This great violinist was accompanied by 
Adelina Patti, who was then only eight years old. She was at that 
early age called the " musical wonder." Madame Strakosch also ac- 
companied Ole Bull. 

January 25th, the Steamer William Selden, of the Old Bay Line 
(chartered in place of the steamer Herald, which was being repaired) 
made a trip from Baltimore to Norfolk, in ten hours and forty-fiv/e 
minutes, the quickest trip ever made between the two cities up to 
that time. (We don't believe it has ever been beaten.) 

February 22d, the Military of Norfolk, had a grand parade in 
honor of Washington's anniversary. The Cadets of the Norfolk 
Academy also paraded and made a very handsome display. Our 
German fellow citizens gave a grand ball at night in honor of the 
twenty -second, which was largely attended and well conducted. (That 
ball will be remembered for years by some of the young folks present, for 
it marked the begining of the earthly happiness of more than one 
couple.) 

February 25th, the Norfolk & Portsmouth Herald of this date pub- 
lished a long editorial upon the bad condition of the city, and urged 
upon the councils in forcible language the importance of thorough 



15 

draining. The article particularly complained of the Cove street nuis- 
ance, and ur^ed the authorities to act promptly in the matter, and thus 
protect the health of the community. The article concluded as follows : 
" Let sickness prevail within the limits of the city to a degree to excite 
alarm abroad, avid our storekeepers may almost as well close their 
doors." 

February 28th, the " Law Greys," a splendid volunteer infantry 
company of Baltimore, arrived here en a visit to our soldiers, and were 
received with grand honors. The company numbered about fifty-five 
men, and was commanded by Captain Richard France. They came 
here on the steamer Herald, and were received by " The Blues," Captain 
R. W. Bowden, and " The Juniors," Captain F. F. Ferguson. 

The first meeting of the stockholders of the Norfolk and Petersburg 
Railroad was held in the City Hall the 6th day of April, 1853. Chas. 
Reid, Esq , was called to the chair, and George Blow, Jr., appointed 
Secretary. A committee on organization was appointed, and reported 
that a majority of the stock was represented. The meeting then pro- 
ceeded to permanently organize the company and establish rules and 
regulations for its government ; after which a President and two Direc- 
tors were elected, viz : Dr. Francis Mallory, President; George W. 
Camp and A. F. Leonard, Esqs., Directors. 

April 11th, an adjourned meeting of the Railroad Company was held, 
and the by-laws, rules, regulations, &c, reported by the committee 
appointed f r the purpose, were adopted. The Board of Directors met 
on the 12th instant, and appointed Mr. William Mahone, of South - 
anii ton county, as Chief Engineer of the roal, with a salary of $2,500 
per annum. Mr. George W. Camp, of Norfolk, was appointed Treas- 
urer, with a salary of $500 per annum. The Board of Directors met 
again on the 13th instant and elected William T. Harrison and John 
Tunis, Esqs., as Directors, in place of A. F. Leonard and Greorge W. 
Camp, resigned. 

April 19th. About 200 citizens went to Raleigh to unite with the 
North Carolinians in "jollifying" over the connection of the Seaboaid 
and Roanoke and the Raleigh and Gaston Railroads. This excursion 
party was joined here by a delegation from the City Conncil of Balti- 
more. The citizens of Raleigh gave a grand banquet in honor of the 
event, and the Norfolk people returned home full of praise (and " so 
forth ") in regard to the splendid time they enjoyed. 

May 14th, the Whigs of Norfolk had a " grand rally" meeting pre- 
paratory to nominating candidates for the Legislature. Stirring speeches 
were made by Messrs. L. H. Chandler, Robert E. Taylor and Dr. Francis 
Mallory. 

May 18th, the contracts for building the Custom-House were entered 
into by the following parties : Messrs. Denby, Ridley and Burnham, of 
Norfolk, and Mr. Kilpatrick, of Washington, D. C, for the stone work, 
and Mr. John Holmes, of this city, for the plastering. Messrs. William 
D. Roberts, Jr., and Isaac M. Smith also entered into contracts for work 
on the building before Mr. Young, the Government architect. 

May 20th, the Democrats held a " grand rally " meeting, and were 
addressed in a very long and able speech by General John S. Millson 



16 

in vindication of his Congressional record and in advocacy of his claims 
to re-election. (He was opposed for the nomination in that contest by 
Tim Rives, the " war-horse" of Democracy. Millson, however, secured 
the nomination and was elected. The Whigs had no regular nominee 
against him. 

June 1st. The new Collector of Customs entered upon his duties 
to-day. The following Democrats were appointed as Custom-House 
officials, viz : Aaron Jeffrey, Inspector and Storekeeper; R. Q. Druni- 
mond, Samuel L. Lightfoot, Thomas P. Chiesman, W. R. Woodend 
and Charles H. Whitehurst, Inspectors ; Darius J. Hill, Collector's 
clerk; Joseph Bunkley, Measurer ; George M. Lovett, Assistant In- 
spector ; George S. Ferguson, Weigher and G-auger ; Joseph Deans, 
Watchman ; C. C. Robinson, Naval Inspector, with Alexander W. 
Martin as his clerk. 

The 4th of July was celebrated here in grand style this year. All the 
military and fire companies paraded, and many eloquent orations were 
delivered. The " Old Street Fire Company," from Petersburg, paid a 
visit to our firemen on this occasion, and many were the " bumpers 
filled and drunk " to the health of the firemen of the " Cockade City " 
and the " Cities by the Sea." (It takes old-time firemen to enjoy such 
occasions.) 

July 5th, a difficulty occurred between two young men named Geo. 
J. Churchward and William Searles, in which the former was stabbed 
and almost instantly killed. Searles was shot twice by Churchward and 
was very seriously wounded. 

July 9th, the resignation of Rev. Geo. D. Cummins, the pastor Christ 
Church (for past 6 years), was accepted by the trustees of the church. 
Mr. Cummins resigned to accept a call from St. James (Episcopal) 
Church, in Richmond. 

November 16th, the first exhibition of the Norfolk Agricultural Society 
was held. The fair grounds were visited by over six thousand persons, 
and the city was in a great state of pleasurable excitement. The ex- 
hibition continued three days, and was a financial success for the city. 

Wednesday, December 21st, Rev. Dr. Chas. Minnegerode arrived in 
this city to assume charge of Christ Church as its newly elected rector. 
He preached his first sermon to his new flock on the 25th (Christmas.) 

December 26th, the new ferry freight steamer, Princess Anne, Capt. 
Marshall Parks, arrived here from Wilmington, Delaware. She was 
purchased by Capt. Parks, as agent for the city, to ply between the Nor- 
folk and Portsmouth railroad depots. She had a railway track on her 
deck, made of heavy rail, and cars were hauled in and out of the boat at 
any state of the tide, by a pony engine, placed under deck. 

December 29th, the citizens of Norfolk gave a supper at the National 
Hotel, in honor of visiting members of the Legislature. Among the 
speakers on the occasion was G. P. R. James, Esq., the British Consul. 

December 30th, our young townsman, Virginius Freeman, was pro- 
moted from Third Assistant to Second Assistant Engineer in the U. S. 
Navy — he having passed a good examination before a Board of En- 
gineers in Washington, D. C. (Our friend " Gincey," as he is familiar- 
ly called, was again promoted ; but when the war came on in 1861, he 



17 

resigned his position and tendered his services to the Confederate Gov- 
ernment, as did many other patriotic Virginians, and was a gallant de- 
fender of the lost cause ! He is still a resident of Norfolk, and is still 
the " same old Gincey.") 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FOUR. 

The Norfolk and Portsmouth Herald of February 18th, of this year, 
thus speaks of Norfolk, editorially : "A new spirit has been infused 
into our people, and through them it ha3 produced a quickening influence 
upon the City Councils, who have nobly kept the ball in motion and 
brought about the present salutary change in the condition of the city. 
The business establishments have nearly doubled in number, within the 
last seven years. New streets have been opened, paved and partly built 
up. Elegant public and private edifices, becoming a flourishing com- 
mercial city, are to be seen now where recently there were sunken 
grounds, vacant lots and dilapidated buildings ; and still the work of 
improvement, and preparations to meet the demands of business enter- 
prise, are steadily progressing. In short, wherever we go we are glad- 
dened by the neat, cleanly and thriving aspect of our city, and we are 
almost ready to exclaim — "Behold a new town and anew people! 

"Of the future, our auguries cannot be overstrained. With a back 
country extending to the Mississippi and all the South, and brought 
in immediate inter-commercial relations with the flourishing cities at 
the head of tide-water in Virginia, who can set bounds to the destiny 
of such a sea-port as Norfolk ? Nor is the period of its fulfillment as 
distant as some may imagine. As her prosperity rolls onward its ac- 
cumulation will increase until all will be astonished at its rapidity." 
This was all true enough, no doubt, at the time it was written ; but 
man proposes and God disposes. That writer doubtless felt the force of 
the old saying that "more frail than frailty itself are man's calculations 
for the future," when he saw the desolation and prostration of Norfolk, 
just eighteen months after he had penned the above encouraging edito- 
rial — when the terrible fever scourge came to blight the hopes and dim 
the future of our city. 

March 20th, Wm, Wallace Davis, editor of the Daily Courier, de- 
parted this life. He attended divine service at the Freemason Street 
Baptist Church the day previous, apparently in good health. 

March 30th, a convention of the soldiers who served in the war of 
1812, was held in the gun room of the Light Artillery Blues — Chas. 
H. Shield in the chair, and Chas. A. Grice, Secretary. The conven- 
tion numbered just seventy-six persons, and it was gratifying to witness 
the social reunion of these old veterans after a forty years' separation 
at the close of a war in which their patriotism and valor made them 
renowned. 

The Merchants' and Mechanics' Savings Bank was revived this month 
and started business under favorable auspices, with upwards of seventy 
stockholders. On Thursday (30th of March) the following Directors 
were elected, viz: Wm. D. Egberts, Jr., President; Geo. W. Farrant, 
Dr. Maurice Fitzgibbon, Geo. W. Bluford, Edward Delany, Wm. 
Johnson, Jr., and John R. Ludlow. 

April 5th, Robt. E. Taylor died. He was a fine lawyer and a 



18 

distinguished citizen. He always manifested a deep interest in the affairs 
of Norfolk, and several times represented the city in the State Legis- 
lature. 

April 13th, the second annual meeting of the stockholders of the 
Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad Company was held in this city. 
James M. Smith, Esq., was called to the chair, and interesting reports 
were read from the President, Dr. F. Mallory, and the Chief Engineer 
of the road, Wm. Mahone, Esq. Mr. Geo. W. Camp, Secretary and 
Treasurer of the road, read his financial statement, which was highly 
satisfactory. Dr. Mallory was re-elected as President, and Messrs. Win. 
I. Hardy and Wm. T. Harrison were elected as directors fthe other three 
directors being appointed by the State Board of Public Works). At 
this meeting the President's salary was raised from SI, 500 to $2,000 per 
annum. 

April 26th, the corner-stone of the Methodist Protestant Church was 
laid by the Masons, according to ancient rites and customs. The Odd 
Fellows, Rechabites, Sons of Temperance, Masons, volunteer companies 
and citizens generally, participated in a grand procession on this occasion 
and beautiful addresses were delivered by L. H. Chandler, Esq., and 
Rev. John Whitfield, pastor of the church. 

April 27th, Peter Brown, Esq., the porter (or runner" 1 ) of the Farmers' 
Bank, committed suicide by taking poison. On the next day a young 
woman of this city (name not known to this writer) attempted to kill 
herself by taking laudanum, but her life was saved by Dr. Manrice Fitz- 
gibbon, who was at that time one of Norfolk's best physicians. (The 
Doctor is now one of our enterprising capitalists, and is a public spirited 
and useful citizen.) 

August 1st, the Democrats of Norfolk held a meeting and nominated 
Hon. Henry A. Wise as their candidate for Governor — subject to the 
ratification of the State Convention to be holden at Staunton, November 
30th. 

October 23rd, the Board of Commissioners appointed by the Hustings 
Court to value the property at the east end of Main and Widewater 
streets, which has been selected as the site of the Norfolk and Petersburg 
Railroad Company, reported the assessment at $11,250. The depot 
buildings are soon to be erected. " Work on the road is progressing rapidly 
under the skillful management of Chief Engineer Mahone, who is one 
of the most practical and accomplished business men in this section." 

October 25th. This was the Agricultural Fair Week. Large crowds 
of strangers were present from all parts of the State. The articles on 
exhibition embraced a greai, variety. The trotting horses attracted a 
great deal of attention — a 2:40 trotter at that time was a wonder of the 
age. 

During this month the Democrats of Norfolk (and the county) 
addressed a letter to Hon. Henry A. Wise, Democratic candidate for 
Governor, asking him if he was a member of the " Know Nothing " 
organization. Mr. Wise replied, "No;" he said : "The present state of 
affairs is not such as to justify the formation, by the people, of any secret 
political society." His letter created much comment, and concluded in 
the following characteristic style : 



19 

"In every character, in every relation, in every sense, with all my 
liead, and all my heart, and all my might, I protest against this secret 
organization of Native Americans and of Protestants to proscribe Roman 
Catholics and naturalized citizens ! Now, will they proscribe me ? 
That question weighs not a feather with your obedient servant." [This 
letter effectually broke up the Know Nothing organization, and was the 
chief cause of Mr. Wise's success over his Whig competitor, Mr. W. L. 
Ooggin, in the Gubernatorial contest.] 

October 30th, the city was excited over a balloon ascension by Prof. 
Ellott. The descent was made on Bell's farm in Princess Anne county, 
six miles from the city. 

November 8th, the Internal Improvement Convention of Virginia, 
met in this city, in Cumberland Street Baptist Church, Capt. Samuel 
Watts, of Portsmouth, acted as temporary chairman ; prayer was offered 
by Rev. Mr. Winston, of the Baptist Church ; James A. Cowardin, 
Esq., of Richmond, was appointed temporary Secretary ; the Conven- 
tion being organized, Messrs. Watts and Cowardin were elected as 
permanent President and Secretary. This convention was in session 
two days. Some fine speeches were made upon the subject of uniting 
the waters of the Ohio River and Chesapeake Bay, and upon the estab- 
lishment of Ocean steamers between Norfolk and European ports. 

November 9th, the new steamer Louisiana, Captain Gr. W. Russell, of 
the " Old Bay Line," arrived here on her first trip from Baltimore. On 
Friday, the 10th instant, she made an excursion trip to Old Point and 
the Capes, carrying a large number of ladies and gentlemen from the 
two cities and surrounding country. While on this pleasure trip a 
magnificent silver speaking-trumpet was presented to Captain Russell by 
his friends of Norfolk and Portsmouth. 

November 16th, the Norfolk and Portsmouth Herald published an 
interesting letter written on board the U. S. steamer Powhatan at 
Victoria, Hong Kong, August 22d, 1854. [The "Old Powhatan " is 
still in the Service, and at this writing — February, 1877 — she is lying 
at our naval anchorage.] 

Sunday, the 10th November, Dr. Joel Martin died. He served 25 
years in the United States Navy as a surgeon, and died at the age of 
sixty-eight, loved and honored in our midst. 

Nothing of importance transpired during the balance of this year. 
The political fever was at a high pitch throughout the State, and the 
Whigs made a vigorous fight against the Democrats for the State 
offices. The winter was remarkably cold, and navigation upon the rivers 
was greatly impeded by ice. 

We now arrive at the beginning of 1855 — a year that will never be 
forgotten in Norfolk. We shall not trouble the reader with a synopsis 
of minor events, but will pass directly to a brief notice of the dire 
calamity that befel the people in the Summer. 



20 
THE YELLOW FEVER. 

TERRIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF THE EPIDEMIC IN 1855. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Norfolk is one of the healthiest cities 
in the United States, she was visited by that terrible disease, Yellow 
Fever, in the Summer of 1855. The dreadful malady was brought to 
our harbor early in the month of June by the ocean steamship Benjamin 
Franklin. The first case discovered was that of a workman on board the 
ship ; he afterwards died in Gosport, which is the southern end of 
Portsmouth. The disease begun to spread rapidly from that moment, 
and of course was brought to Norfolk. 

This writer not being a resident of Norfolk at that time (thanks to 
God !) can only repeat what others have said and written concerning: 
the great pestilence, and will therefore condense an account from the 
very interesting work by Mr. W. S. Forrest, entitled " The Great 
Pestilence in Virginia." After the fever got beyond the control of 
the health authorities of the two cities, the citizens began to leave town ; 
they fled in all directions " from the frightful scenes of disease, wretched- 
ness and woe — amazed and horror-struck at the ravages of the unsparing 
agent of destruction." Many escaped, though not a few of the unhappy 
refugees sickened and died, and found graves in the midst of sympa- 
thizing strangers, away from their deserted homes. 

"Families that left in one unbroken, fond and cherished circle, 
earnestly hoping to elude the vigilance of the pursuer, were overtaken 
and deprived of one or more of the most loved and endeared members. 
The strongest link in the golden chain of affection, that bound them in 
close union and held inviolate the sacred family compact, was suddenly 
severed, and fell, shivered to the ground, and deep and festering wounds 
were inflicted in many a true and trusting heart, that time can never 
heal." 

It is a well known fact that previous to the arrival of the steamer 
aforesaid, there was no yellow fever in this section ; consequently its 
presence cannot be attributed to the climate, nor to the sanitary condi- 
tion of the " Twin Cities by the Sea." It should be remembered that 
" with the same sanitary laws and regulations, with similar weather, 
and with far greater apparent local cause of sickness, Norfolk and 
Portsmouth had long been uniformly healthful — the bills of mortality 
comparing very favorably with those of other places known and 
acknowledged to be exceedingly free from epidemic maladies, and fully 
entitled to their claim to salubrity of climate." 

With a feeling of sympathy which will never be forgotten, the people 
of the neighboring counties, particularly of the Eastern Shore of Virginia, 
threw open their doors to those of our citizens who fled from the 
dangers of the dreadful pestilence, and extended them true hospitality 
and kindness during the continuance of the scourge, which lasted until 
the frosts of October came. Never since the time of the great fire in 
1776 had such a calamity befallen our beloved city, the results of which 
were felt by our business men for years and years ; and by its ravages 
the hearts of many persons now living were saddened for life with 
sorrows which Heaven alone can heal. 



21 

When the fever was in its worst stage, Norfolk attracted the sympathy 
•of the entire country. Public meetings were held in a majority of the 
cities of the Union, and money was liberally contributed to the relief of 
the sufferers. Nurses came from various parts of the land to offer their 
services to the sick, and many of them lost their lives in the cause of 
humanity. " On the 16th of August (wheu the danger was fearful) 
Mis3 Annie M. Andrews, a young lady from Syracuse, New York 
(formerly of Louisiana), arrived here and offered her services to Mayor 
Hunter Woodis as a nurse. She immediately entered upon her martyr- 
like labors at the hospital in the true spirit of self-sacrificing, generous 
and heroic devotion ; ana hither she was soon followed by others, whose 
kind attention to the sick and suffering will ever be gratefully remem- 
bered." Nurses came principally from the cities of New Orleans, 
Charleston, Mobile, Savannah, Richmond, New York, Philadelphia and 
Baltimore. 

"The Howard Association, of Norfolk, and the Relief Committee, of 
Portsmouth, had been fully organized, and had commenced their career 
of great usefulness. The utility of these timely organizations was 
strikingly apparent. The citizens of Norfolk were soon falling at the 
fearful rate of 60, 70, and even 80 per day, and of from 20 to 30 per 
day in Portsmouth. It was then that some were appalled and chilled 
with fright, while others were apparently callous, careless and reckless, 
and went about the work of boxing up and removing the dead, with but 
little appearance of fear or agitation. 

"About the first of September the fever attained its most appalling 
fury. Long will that period of terror and death be remembered by 
those who had not fled from the pestilence. Bermuda street was like 
one great hospital ; every house had its sick, or dead ! On Brigg's 
Point, the most eastern portion of the city, the people were dying by 
the dozen per day, and in a space of considerable width, and extending 
thence across to the western limits, people of every class were falling 
like withered leaves shaken by the winds. It was a time of intense 
excitement and consternation. It was too late to fly ! for those who 
fled as certainly fell as the bird fatally wounded by the fowler's ?hot. 
They had gone to Richmond, Petersburg,. Hampton and elsewhere; but 
the venom had entered the blood, and they lay down but to die ! Here, 
there were five hundred cases, and the number of deaths at one time 
reached eighty in twenty-four hours, in our small remaining population. 
The corpses accumulated so rapidly that coffins could not be supplied 
for them. Hearses were driven rapidly out to the grave-yards with two, 
three and often four at a load, and the coffined dead were piled upon 
the ground awaiting the opening of the graves and pits, by the insuf- 
ficent force at work. In that memorable week, four hundred of the 
citizens of Norfolk were buried !" The work of burying the dead went 
on hastily and fearfully by day and night. " But the heart shudders 
at the thought of the appalling scenes that were witnessed during the 
months of August, September and October. No pen can adequately 
portray the horrors of that dark period, which, brief as it was, has 
sufficed to produce an age of misery and woe, unprecedented in the 
records of similar visitations." 



23 

Tlie many sad scenes and incidents of the " fever months of Norfolk/ 7 
which have already been written and published, and which are so well 
remembered by a great number of oar people, would fill a large volume 
of interesting reading matter ; but this writer does not propose to go 
into such details, and will conclude his writing upon this sad subject by 
giving the names of some of the prominent citizens who fell victims to 
the terrible disease. , 

Among the thousands of persons who died with the fever, Mr. 
Forrest particularly mentions the following : Jno. G. H. Hatton, 
President of the Select Council ; Alex, Feret, of the Exchange 
Bank ; Ignatius Higgins, teller of the Virginia Bank ; W. E. 
Cunningham, Senior Editor of the American Beacon; Win. D. 
Roberts, delegate elect to the Legislature ; Richard Gatewood, Jr., 
of the Norfolk Beacon ; Wilson B. Sorey, U. S. Deputy Marshal - T 
Bray B. Walters, proprietor of the National Hotel ; R. S. Bernard, 
druggist ; Archibald Briggs, an extensive merchant; John Tunis, 
of the Board of Health ; Josiah Wills, an extensive merchant and 
President of the Virginia Bank ; Ex-Mayor Wm. D. Delany ; 
Alex. Gait, postmaster ; Wm. B. Ferguson, an extensive merchant 
and President of the Howard Association ; Wm. Reid, a ship- 
broker ; Chas. H. Beale, a former editor of the Daily News ; Caleb 
Bonsai, one of the proprietors of extensive flour mills ; John D. 
Gordan, banker ; Joseph Murden, of the Exchange Bank ; Rev. 
Wm. M. Jackson, pastor of St. Paul's (Episcopal) Church ; Rev. 
Messrs. A. Dibrell and Wm. Jones, of the Methodist Church ; 
Rev. Wm. C. Bagnall, of the Baptist Church ; Rev. Vernon 
„EskrLdge (M. E.) chaplain in the navy ; and Hunter Woodis, Esq., 
Mayor of the city. 

The following resident physicians died in the discharge of their 
professional duties — 1st, Dr. Richard W. Sylvester ; 2d, Dr. 
Thomas F. Constable ; 3d, Dr. George I. Halson ; 4th, Dr. R. J. 
Sylvester ; 5th, Dr. Francis L. Higgins ; 6th, Dr. Junius A. 
Briggs ; 7th, Dr. Thomas Nash ; 8th, Dr. George L. Upshur ; 
9th, Dr. Richard B. Tunstall ; 10th, Dr. Henry Selden. 

Of the forty-five physicians who came here from other places to 
attend the sick, twenty-five died with the fever, to-wit : four from 
Richmond, seven from Baltimore, four from Philadelphia, one 
from Sussex county, Va., one from Pennsylvania, two from Dis- 
trict of Columbia, three from New York, one from Georgia, one 
from Tennessee, and one from Alabama. 

The following resident physicians were all severely ill with the 
fever, but recovered : Drs. Wm. Selden, Wm. J. Moore, Robt. B. 
Tunstall, E. D. Granier, H. M. Nash, G. W. Cowdery, F. S. 
Campos, Thomas I. Hardy, Robt. H. Gordon, D. M. Wright, V. 
Friedeman, and D. W. Todd. 

Dr. J. J. Simpkins was called to Hampton during the fever to 



23 

attend his sister, who was dangerously ill with the disease. He 
escaped an attack. Dr. Wm. M. Wilson was Health Officer of the 
city, and was appointed chief physician at the Julapi Hospital, at 
Lambert's Point, where he labored faithfully. He also escaped 
an attack, having had ihe disease in the South in 1852. Dr. Robt. 
W. Rose also worked faithfully for the sufferers. He had a slight 
attack of the malady and soon recovered. 

One of the most lamentable deaths from the fever in this city 
was that of His Honor, Hunter Wood is, the Mayor. He was a 
gentleman of fine talents and culture, a faithful friend, a genial, 
sociable companion, an able lawyer, and the best of Mayors. He 
died on the 25th of August-of that memorable year, in the very 
prime of life and usefulness ; and around his memory will cluster 
those feelings of admiration and regret of the people that will 
make his name immortal in the annals of our history. He was 
not content with performing the mere duties of his office as the 
Chief Magistrate of the city during the fever, but was indefatigable 
in his efforts to afford comfort and relief to the sick and the dying, 
to the poor and needy. He was everywhere he could see a chance 
to do good, and when the news was spread that he was prostrated 
with the disease, the entire community was stricken with new grief; 
and when his noble spirit had fled to the God who gave it, a 
darker shade was added to the sombre pall of sorrow that enshroud- . 
ed the city, and deep were the pangs of regret that saddened the 
hearts of the people. The shaft of death never struck a brighter 
mark — Norfolk never mourned the loss of a better friend, a nobler 
man. 

The following ministers took the fever while actively engaged 
in nursing the sick, and were dangerously ill, but were spared to 
continue their usefulness : Rev. D. P. Wills, Methodist Episco- 
pal ; Rev. Father M. O'Keefe, Catholic; Rev. Dr. George D. 
Armstrong, Presbyterian ; and Rev. Louis Walke, Protestant 
Episcopal. 

A. F. Leonard, Esq., editor of the Southern Argus, whose labors 
among the fever sufferers are well remembered, thus wrote about 
the scourge after it had abated : " We have seen our lately flourish- 
ing mart reduced to the scanty number of 4,000 surviving souls. 
In the short space of less than ninety days, out of an average popula- 
tion of about 6,000, every man, woman and child (almost without 
exception) has been stricken with the fell fever, and about 2,000 *" 
have been buried, being not less than^wo out of three of the whites, 
and one out of three of the whole abiding community of Norfolk, 
white and black. One-half of our physicians who continued here 
are in the grave, and not less than thirty-six, resident and visitant, 
have fallen in Norfolk and Portsmouth. But the storm is over, 
and again our good ship lays her course. Her sails are swelled to 



24 

fullness in the crisp October wind, and anon, her flag is given to 
the breeze, but it floats sadly at halt-mast ; and the call to quarters 
reveals that wide havoc has been made in our crew ; our deck has 
been swept by the pestilential billow. All have been disabled, 
from the quarter deck to the forecastle, and one-half of our white 
complement will never more greet us with the once-familiar smile." 
The helpless dead, in their promiscuous groups, have proved 
monitors of awe and condemnation to hearts that were callous 
to other teachings ; and deep grief and untold sorrows have 
worked changes that may in the last day be pleasing to Him who 
doeth all things well. Thy will, not mine, O ! Lord be done; for 
Thou hast the glory, and the power forever — amen ! 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY-SIX. 

Once more our city enters upon a new stage of life. Her citizens 
have returned to their once deserted homes, and again assume the 
duties and responsibilities of a fresh career. They shudder when 
they think of the past six months, and endeavor to shut out from 
their minds the horrors and sorrows of the past. The future invites 
them to press on and be encouraged, and their energies are once 
more revived. 

Thursday, January 17th, the employees of the Baltimore Steam 
Packet Company (of the Norfolk and Baltimore Line), purchased 
a set of silver as a present to M. i\ T . Falls, Esq., the popular Presi- 
dent of the Company. The presentation took place in Baltimore. 
The employees at this end of the line contributed liberally to the 
purchase. 

Sunday, January 27th, Rev. Mr. Posser preached a sermon in 
the Gran by Street M. E. Church, upon the occasion of the death of 
Pev. Anthony Dibrell, late pastor of that church, who fell a martyr 
in the discharge of his high obligations of duty during the preval- 
ence of the fever epidemic of last year. 

March 7th, the Herald says ; "The ice has at last been broken 
up the bay, and the coolness which has existed for so many weeks 
between Norfolk and Baltimore is now, we hope, to be set aside for 
a warm and cordial daily greeting." The Norfolk and Baltimore 
boats this day resumed their regular trips between the two cities. 

March 18th, Pight Rev. Bishop Johns preached the funeral of 
Rev. W. M. Jackson, late pastor of St. Paul's (Episcopal) Church, 
who died a victim of the fever. 

March 21st, the Whigs held a large and enthusiastic meeting in 
Ashland Hall, to ratify the nomination of Filmore and Donelson, 
for President and Vice-President of the United States. Speeches 
were made by A. Judson Crane, Esq., of Richmond, and others. 

March 28th, the Norfolk L. A. Blues, 50 strong, under command 
of Capt. T. J. Corprew, paraded through the streets of Norfolk and 
Portsmouth, eliciting much admiration. 



25 

June 2nd, the new theatre (now the Opera House) was opened 
under the name of the ''Norfolk Varieties, by Mr. Henry C. Jarrett, 
of Baltimore, as the manager and lessee. A large audience was 
present and the play was greatly admired- Mr. John E. Owens, 
the talented Baltimore com median, appeared in the characters of 
Paul Pry and Horatio Pruggins, and was supported by the follow- 
ing actors, some of whom were very good : T. B. Kemble, D. R. 
Allen, C. Went worth, J. Procter and wife, A. F. Blake, P. Bryne, 
Miss V. Kemble and Mrs. Cappell. Between the two plays, Miss 
Salome danced a national medly. (This was the first theatrical 
troupe that played in the city for about three years.) 

June 9th, 10th and 11th, Robinson & Eldred's circus and 
menagerie performed here to the great delight of the little folks and 
darkies. 

June 12th, Mr. James E. Murdoch, the eminent tragedian, 
appearedat the Theatre in the character of Alfred Evelyn, in theplay 
called " Money." Mr. John E. Owens assumed the amusing part 
of "Graves." This was a "gala night" at the theatre. Mr. 
Murdoch remained one week, and played some of Shakespeare's 
favorite characters. During the whole of the succeeding week, 
Mrs. Farren and Mr. J. B. Howe, delighted our play-goers with 
some very fine acting. 

Monday evening, June 23rd, a grand complimentary benefit was 
tendered to Manager Palmer (of the theatre), and the audience 
was the largest that had ever assembled in the new building. The 
play selected for the occasion was Sheridan's brilliant comedy of 
"School for Scandal." The principal characters were as follows : 
Charles Surface, Mr. Jas. E. Murdoch ; Sir Peter Teazle, Mr. Geo. 
Farren; Crabtree, Mr. John E. Owens; Lady Teazle, Mrs. Geo. 
Farren. (Persons who remember that performance say it was the 
best ever given in this city.) 

July 19th, the community was greatly shocked to learn of the 
death, this day, of Mr. Americus M. Morse. He was accidentally 
drowned under the draw bridge, while fishing from a small boat, 
in company with his friends, Bockover and Land. His funeral 
was preached in the Granby Street M. E. Church (of which he was 
a consistent member), Sunday afternoon, the 20th instant, by Rev. 
D. S. Doggett. This melancholy accident cast a deep gloom over 
the city. 

July 21st, Dr. N. C. Whitehead, an useful and dearly beloved 
citizen, departed this life, in the 64th year of his age. He was for 
some time President of the Farmers' Bank ; he acted as Mayor of 
the city during the fever, upon the decease of the lamented Mayor 
Woodis, and was ever ready to do a kind act. He was a Ruling 
Elder in the Presbyterian Church, and was an earnest and exem- 
plary Christian. 



26 

August 1st. Rev. Dr. Charles Minnegerode tendered to the 
Board of Trustees of Christ (Episcopal) Church his resignation as 
their pastor. He resigned to accept a call to St. Paul's Church in 
Richmond. (This good man is still the pastor of St. Paul's 
Church in Richmond, and is likely to continue as such as long as 
he lives. The people of Norfolk parted with him very reluctantly.) 

September. During the past Summer the people of Norfolk 
were interested in but three public topics, to-wit: the proposed 
City Water- Works, the new dog law T , and politics — each particular 
topic being at times a subject of excited discussions upon the streets 
and in private circles. The weather for two months was particu- 
larly warm and dry, but the health of the community Mas unusually 
good. 

September 18th, the Odd Fellows' Hail (on Church street) was 
formally dedicated in the presence of a very large congregation of 
citizens and members of the time-honored Order. The dedicatory 
address was delivered by Rev. Bro. J. C. McCabe, of Baltimore, 
and it was pronounced a grand and brilliant effort. 

September 20. The Norfolk and Portsmouth Herald this day 
hoisted at the head of its editorial columns the Old Line Whig 
flag, bearing the names of Millard Fillmore and Andrew J. Don- 
elson, the National Whig nominees for President and Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

September 30th, the celebrated actor Mr. Neafie appeared at our 
Theatre for the first time. His debut was mads in the character 
of Hamlet, Shakspeare's ideal Prince. The house was crowded, 
and Mr. N. was well appreciated and applauded. He played here 
nearly two weeks upon this engagement. 

October 8th, Dr. E. C. Robinson was elected Captain of the 
Norfolk Junior Volunteers, vice Capt. George G. Garrison, recently 
resigned. 

October 20th, a youth about 15 years of age, named Edgar 
Beale, accidentally shot himself while gunning. He received 
prompt and skillful treatment from Drs. Grauier and Tunstall, but 
could not be cured. He died the following day. • 

November 1st. Just at this time the Old Line Whigs were 
having a glorious time. " Whig rallies " were the order of the day. 
The citizens w : ere also making grand preparations for the annual 
fair of the Seaboard Agricultural Society. 

November 11th, the American newspaper office was destroyed by 
fire. Messrs. Bisbie & Hathaway, the proprietors of the paper, 
estimated their loss at $2,500. They were not insured. 

November 12th, the Agricultural Fair was in full blast. A 
large number of strangers were in the city, and the military and 
fire companies paraded in full uniform through the principal streets, 
and the fair grounds. 



27 

November 26th, the Democrats had a grand torch-light proces- 
sion in honor of the election of their candidate, James Buchanan, 
as President. The Whigs looked upon the scene of rejoicing with 
sad hearts, and no doubt thought how happy they would be if such 
demonstrations had been given in honor of Mr. Fillmore's election. 
[Wonder what would be the condition of the country now, had Mr. 
Fillmore beaten Mr. Buchanan?] 

Monday morning, December 8th, a fire broke out in a frame 
house on Virginia street, and before the flames could be subdued, 
they reached St. Patrick's Catholic Church. The firemen worked 
gallantly, but their efforts were in vain ; the entire roof was soon in 
a blaze, and the beautiful building, one of the finest architectural 
ornaments of the city, became a mass of ruins ! The church had 
been finished about fourteen years. It was insured for $10,000 — 
all the church property, except the organ and a few valuable 
paintings, was saved. One of the destroyed paintings represented 
"the Assumption," and was a present from Adelaide, Queen of 
France. Another burned painting represented " the Crucifixion," 
and was presented to the church by Miss Herron. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY-SEVEN. 

The Great Snow Storm and Freeze. 

January 1st, a Corn Exchange was organized in the city and 
the following officers were elected : President, James Gordon, 
Jr.; Vice-President, John B. Hardy; Secretary, Solomon Cherry; 
Treasurer, C. W. Granby ; Directors, C. W. Grandy, John B. 
Hardy, Myer Myers, Alex. Bell, D. D. Simmons, E. T. Hardy, 
Sol. Cherry and Kader Biggs. A committee was appointed to 
draft by-laws and to make necessary arrangements for establishing 
a reading room. 

January 6th, Wm. Dey departed this life in the 49th year of his 
age. He was a highly esteemed, useful and efficient member of 
this community and a consistent member of the Baptist Church. 

January 9th, Peter P. Mayo, one of the oldest members of the 
Norfolk Bar, departed this life, in the 60th year of his age. On 
the 10th instant the members of the Bar held a meeting, with 
Tazewell Taylor, Esq., in the chair, and adopted resolutions of 
respect to his memory. 

January 15th, the Trustees of the Norfolk Academy held a 
meeting and adopted resolutions of respect to th/e memory of John 
S. Gamble, the former Principal of the Academy, who died a short 
time previous to the above date. 

January 17th, a terrible snow-storm begun and continued inces- y 
santly for two days. The weather during the storm was the 
coldest ever experienced by the oldest inhabitants, and the suffering 
in this section was beyond the description of man. Our rivers 
were tightly frozen from shore to shore, and wild ducks and geese 



actually froze to death upon the ice. This was the beginning' of 
the severest winter that the people of Virginia (and in fact of the 
whole United States) ever experienced. For the first time since 
1836 the people of Norfolk and Portsmouth passed from one city 
to the other upon the ice in the harbor. During the severe storm 
on the 18th instant the porch of Colonel Myer Myers' house r 
fronting on Freemason (corner of Bank), was blown down ; the 
steeple of the Freemason Street Baptist Church received such 
injuries as to cause serious alarm from residents of its vicinity j the 
tin roofs of the City Hall and Odd Fellows' Hall were ripped 
from their places and blown into the streets, and many chimneys in 
various parts of the town were tumbled to the ground. 

January 22d, the city ferry steamer " Hunter Woodis " succeeded 
in forcing a passage through the ice from this city to Portsmouth. 

January 25th, the weather was the coldest of the season, and 
navigation in the harbor was completely stopped. The ice over 
the deepest water between here and Portsmouth was ascertained to 
be eight inches thick by actual measurement. Passengers from 
New York by the steamer Roanoke, Captain Skinner, came from 
Old Point to Norfolk on the ice. The lady passengers were drawn 
upon a sleigh. During this freeze the distance (in a direct line) 
from the ferry wharf at the foot of Market square to the ferry dock 
in Portsmouth, at the foot of High street, was measured and found 
to be exactly twelve hundred and sixty-one yards and two feet — 
nearly three-quarters of a mile. 

January 26th, two gentlemen embarked upon the ice at Stone 
Bridge in a one-horse sleigh, and drove all around the vessels at the 
naval anchorage. 

January 28th, the weather had moderated considerably, and a 
passage way was cut through the ice for the ferry-boats to run to 
Portsmouth. The weather continued to grow milder after this 
until this ice blockade was raised between here and Hampton 
Roads. 

March 24th, the corner-stone of the new Catholic Church (St. 
Mary's) was laid at the corner of Holt and Chapel streets, Bishop 
McGill, of Richmond, performing theaccustomed ceremonies, assisted 
by Father Mathew O'Keefe, pastor of the church in this city, and 
Father Plunkett, of the Portsmouth church. 

April 9th, the third annual meeting of the stockholders of the 
Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad was held, when Dr. Francis 
Mallory was unanimously re-elected as President, and Messrs. 
William T. Harrison and John E. Doyle were elected as Directors. 
The President and Chief Engineer submitted their annual reports, 
which showed that the work on the road was progressing rapidly 
and satisfactorily. The Herald of the 10th of April said : " The 
report of Chief Engineer Mahone was a luminous and able docu- 



29 

ment ; not only valuable and interesting for the volume of infor- 
mation it contained, but highly creditable as a composition." 

April 17th, the Atlantic Flour Mill was destroyed by fire. 
Dr. N. C. Skinner, its sole proprietor,' estimated the cost of the 
building, machinery, &c, at $40,000. The property was insured 
for only $20,000. 

June 8th, Alexander A. Martin, aged 69 years, departed this 
life. He was an upright citizen, and a faithful Christian of the 
Methodist persuasion. 

June 24th, there was much excitement in the city over the 
municipal election. The Whigs and Democrats each had a full 
ticket in the field, and the contest was stubborn and close. Victory 
perched upon the Whig* banner, ana that party was once more 
happy and contented. 

October the 3rd, of this year, the Norfolk Day Booh, "a strictly 
Neutral Daily Evening penny Paper," was first issued to the public 
— John R. Hathaway, editor and proprietor, and Thomas O. Wise, 
publisher. 

November 13th, the stockholders of the Albemarle and Chesa- 
peake Canal Company, met at their office in this city, and elected 
the following officers : Marshall Parks, Esq., President. Directors, 

B. T. Simmons, of North Carolina; Thos. V. Webb, of Virginia; 
James Gordon, of Virginia; Addison M. Burt, of New York ; J. 
Cary Weston, of Virginia ; L. H. Chandler, of Virginia. 

At a meeting of the Seaboard Agricultural Society, held on the 
12th November, Joseph T. Granbury, of Perquimons county, N. 

C, was elected President ; Messrs. George W. Camp and G. F. 
Anderson, Secretaries, and John E. Doyle, Esq., Treasurer; W. H. 
C. Lovitt, Esq., chairman of Executive Committee. 

November 18th, Maggie Mitchell, the actress, made her first 
appearence before a Norfolk audience, and was received with great 
delight. 

December 1st, Ex-President Franklin Pierce and lady arrived 
in the city. The following day they visited the United States ships 
Pennsylvania and Powhatan, when a national salute was fired in 
honor of the distinguished visit. 

December 30th, the new Postoffice at the new Customhouse, was 
duly christened by Postmaster A. M. . Vaughan. December 31st, 
total number of deaths in the city for the month, 30 — 19 whites 
and 11 blacks. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY-EIGHT. 

January 3rd, a colored woman named Jane Johnson, fell into 
the river while attempting to get aboard the steamer Jamestown, 
and came near being drowned. She was saved by her "Sunday 
hoop skeart," which she said kept her "a swimmin' 'till dat dare 
gemman (Mr. Roberts, second mate of the steamer) flung me de 



30 

line, which I cotch and hilt on to 'tell dey pulled me on de land." 
Jane was very much frightened, but was loud in her "blessings on 
hoop skearts." 

February 19th, Lieutenant General Winfield Scott, U. S. A., 
arrived here in the steamer Coffee, Captain McCarrick, from Old 
Point, and took quarters at the National Hotel. There was no 
public demonstration made in honor of the distinguished Virginian, 
as he had to depart for Richmond early the next morning. 

February 19th, the rail of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad 
were being laid on the depot grounds on " Bramble's Point," and 
east end of Wide Water street. 

February 21st, the N. L. A. Blues, under command of Captain 
Thomas J. Corprew, left for Richmond in, the steamer Glen Cove, 
to participate with the Richmond military in honoring the " glorious 
Twenty-Second " and to attend the inauguration and unveiling of 
the Washington statue. The Blues were escorted to the boat by the 
Independent Greys, Captain V. D. Groner. On the morning of 
the same day (Sunday) the Baltimore City Guards, Captain J. P. 
Warner, arrived in this city on board the steamer Georgia. They 
were met by the Norfolk Juniors, Captain E. C. Robinson, and 
escorted to the Juniors' drill-room, where speeches and refreshments 
were administered "in broken doses." At 11 o'clock a. m. ihese 
two companies attended divine service in a body at the Freemason 
Street Baptist Church, and then returned to the drill- room and 
partook of an elegant dinner. At 3 o'clock p. m. the two companies 
marched to the steamer Georgia and departed for Richmond. The 
Independent Greys, Captain V. D. Groner, left for Richmond that 
night on board the steamer Jamestown. Many of our private 
citizens accompanied the military boys to Richmond on this trip, 
and they will never forget the great crowd, bustle, confusion, bad 
weather and inconveniences they encountered on that memorable 
day. (Whenever this writer looks upon that equestrian statue of 
Washington he remembers that it was the first time he ever saw a 
Norfolk soldier in uniform. He also remembers how the ladies of 
Richmond complimented the Norfolk companies upon their hand- 
some and martial appearance as they marched through the town. 

March 5th, the warehouse No. 11 Roanoke square, occupied by 
J. G. Pollard, and the one No. 13, occupied by Messrs. Jesse Jones 
& Co., were damaged by fire to the amount of about $15,000. Loss 
nearly covered by insurance. (This was the fire at which the fire- 
men had such an exciting " free fight.") 

March 9th, the snow was over one foot keep and our citizens 
enjoyed sleigh riding to their hearts' content. 

March 18th, the Woodis Riflemen, a new military company, 
perfected its organization and elected Wm. Lamb, Esq., as Captain. 
Captain Lamb accepted the honor in a handsome speech. 



31 

March 25th, the accomplished actress, Miss Mary Devlin (after- 
wards married to Edwin Booth, Esq., and died in 1862) appeared 
at our theatre as Grace Harkaway, in Bouccicault's beautiful 
comedy of London Assurance. She was supported by the following 
well known actors from Ford's Holiday Street Theatre, in Balti- 
more, to wit : Messrs. Charles Bass, J. B. Studley, Jas. Harrison, 
Stuart Robson, S. E. Browne and that most charming of " Old 
Ladies," Mrs. Helen Muzzy. Miss Devlin's engagement lasted 
two weeks, and her audiences were large and fashionable each 
night. Her reception in London Assurance was a perfect ovation. 

March 30th, the Chief Engineer of the Norfolk and Petersburg 
Railroad announced that freight would be received for transporta- 
tion to Suffolk and other points between here and there. 

April 1st. " For several days past the "Peak Family, of Swiss 
Bell Ringers," have been delighting the people of Norfolk, with 
their elegant parlor enterments at Johnson's Hall. Notwithstand- 
ing the attractions at the theatre, the Bell Ringers have had full 
audiences every night during their stay here." 

December 29th, the Councils met in joint session and adopted the 
following resolution, to-wit : " Resolved, That the Finance Com- 
mittee are hereby authorized to purchase from the Norfolk and 
Petersburg Railroad Company any number not exceeding five 
hundred and fifty shares of the guaranteed six per cent, stock of 
said Company ; provided, such purchase can be made by any means 
not involving increased taxation on the city of Norfolk." This 
resolution was opposed by Councilmen Belote and Bluford, but was 
finally adopted by a small majority. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY-NINE. 

January 4th, Ex-President John Tyler arrived here from his 
nome in Charles City county, and took rooms at the National Hotel. 

January 6th, the first boat passed through the Albemarle and 
Chesapeake Canal. It was the barge Enterprise, from Wilmington, 
Delaware. She was towed through by the company's steamer 
Calypso. 

January 12th, the remains of the people from Philadelphia, who 
died here and in Portsmouth with yellow fever in 1855, were 
taken up and sent to that city for burial. Those who died here 
were Herman Kierson, M. D.; Thomas Craycroft, student ; Thomas 
W, Handy, druggist ; A. J. Thompson, druggist. Those who died 
in Portsmouth were Dr. Courtland Cole; E. R. Barrett, student ; 
E. P. Miller, druggist ; Fred. Murfeldt, cupper and leecher ; R. 
W. Graham, Singleton Mercer, Willian Herson, Mrs. Olive Whit- 
tier and Miss Lucy Johnson, nurses. The remains of these noble 
people were escorted to the steamer by the Howard Association, 
the Riflemen, the Masons, Odd Fellows, and a large number of 
citizens, who joined in the procession in testimony of their grateful 



32 

rememberance of those who devoted their energies and gave their 
lives to the cause of suffering humanity. 

Sunday morning, January 30th, the steamer Georgia arrived in 
our harbor and brought the startling intelligence of the burning of! 
the steamer North Carolina, on the previous day, while on her 
passage from Baltimore to this city. The unfortunate steamer had 
26 passengers on board, all of whom escaped unhurt, save the Rev. 
Mr. Curtis, a Baptist minister from South Carolina, and Isaac 
Watters, the eqlored steward of the boat. The fire occurred about 
2 o'cloek at night, in one of the upper state-rooms, while the boat 
was about five miles below the Smith's Point Light-boat. Among 
the passengers were seven ladies who barely escaped in their night 
clothes. One of the ladies threw her infant overboard and jumped 
after it — her husband at once plunged in to save them, and the 
gallant Captain Henry Fitzgerald, of Norfolk, also went overboard 
to assist the devoted husband and father in saving the lives of his 
dear ones, who were drawn into the life-boats almost lifeless, bat 
saved ! After Mr. Crapon and his wife and child were safely in 
the boat, Captain Fitzgerald saw another lady jump into the water, 
and he also saved her life. This heroic citizen was a passenger on 
board the boat, and lost everything he had with him. The com- 
mander of the boat was Captain James Cannon, who was the last 
person to leave the scene of conflagration. 

Mr. Wra. Denby, Jr., of this city, who was aroused from slumber 
by the stopping of the steamer, jumped up and hastily awoke his 
sister, who was sleeping in the next room ; they scarcely had time 
to escape the flames — she having to leave all her clothes except 
those in which she slept. Mr. Denby succeeded in launching a 
boat from the hurricane deck, and as soon as it passed the guards, 
eighteen persons jumped into it. Miss Denby was the last to get 
in, having eourageously waited until her brother was ready to 
receive her. Mr. Denby was highly complimented for his coolness 
and presence of mind in that trying time, and to him many persons 
were indebted for saving their lives. 

When the passengers and crew were safely in the boats, they 
pulled for the Light-boat, where they remained until the steamer 
Locust Point came along aud took them to Old Point, where they 
embarked on the Georgia and were brought to this port. Rev. 
Mr. Curtis and the steward, Watters, were supposed to have been 
burned, as their bodies were never seen again. The steamer was 
burned to the water's edge, and the total loss sustained by the 
dreadful disaster was estimated at §85,000 — nothing was saved 
excepted what the passengers bore on their persons. 

The list of passengers on the ill-fated North Carolina, was as 
follows : Dr. J. R. Troup and two daughters, Darian, Ga.; R. H. 
Northrop, Pioneer Mills, N. C; Thomas W. Field, Gloucester 



33 

Court-house, Va.; E. Clayton and lady, Beaufort, N. C; R. J. 
Gregory. Goldsboro, N. C; J. Lurch (boy), Philadelphia; E. A. 
Craig, John A. Green and Wra. B. Parks, Baltimore; John A. 
Boyden, Salisbury, N. C; Dr. John G. Rieves. Edgecomb County, 
N. C; E. H. Lively, Williamsburg, Va.; S. T. Harth, United 
States Navy ; R. Mathews, Boston, Mass.; Peter Adams, Greens- 
boro, N. G; Mat, W. Aylwin, Portsmouth ; D. A. Wicker, Raleigh, 
N. C; H. Crapon, wife and child, and Miss Mary A. Bryan, 
Wilmington, N. C; Rev. Dr. Curtis, Chester, S. C; Henry Fitz- 
gerald, Wm. Denby and sister, and Miss Mary Thompson, ISorfolk. 
The officers and crew of the boat were as follows : James 
Cannon, Captain ; Lloyd B. Parkers, Purser ; James Marshall and 
Thomas J. P. Walker, Mates ; Noah Bratt and James Brownley, 
Engineers; Isaac Williamson, Mail Agent; Edward Chamberlalne, 
Express Agent ; Isaac W x atters (colored), Steward ; and several 
colored waiters and laborers — all of whom were saved — exeept 
Watters. 

Upon arriving in our port, the passengers of the North Carolina 
were supplied with all necessaries, through the kindness and 
sympathy of the ISorfolk and Portsmouth people, and for which, 
resolutions of thanks were tendered in meeting assembled — thanks 
were also voted to the officers and crew of the steamer, and to other 
persons, for their services in saving so many precious lives. 

February 11th, the Democrats met in Ashland Hall to ratify 
the nomination of Hon. John Letcher and Hon. Robert L. Mon- 
tague for the offices of Governor and Lieutenant Governor of the 
State. William Lamb, Esq., presided over the meeting, and Wil- 
liam E. Foster, Esq., acted as Secretary. The nomination of Hon. 
John Randolph Tucker, for Attorney General, was also ratified. 

February 18th, the (old) Odd Fellows' Hall on Wolfe street 
(now Washington street), at the head of Avon street, was entirely 
destroyed by fire. This building was erected in 1828 by William 
H. Maxwell, Esq., and was arranged for and used for several 
years as a Lyceum. In 1839 it was purchased by Washington and 
Lafayette Lodges, I. O. O. F., for the sum of $2,000. This Order 
spent about $5,000 in improving it, and then insured it for $5,000- 
At the time it was burned it was used as a Jewish Synagogue and 
Temperance Hall. Captain Young also taught a school in one of 
the basement rooms, and all of his books and school fixtures were 
destroyed. The lire was evidently the work of an incendiary. 

February 22d. This anniversary was appropriately observed by 
our military companies. It was also the first anniversary day of 
the Woodis Riflemen, Captain William Lamb, and that company 
gave a grand feast in the Blues' Armory, where a large number of 
invited guests assembled and enjoyed the festive occasion. Among 



34 

the many toasts offered during the evening was the following to 
" Th e Ladies of Norfolk :" 

" One toast to them is due — 

Their virtues and their charms ; 
Ever dear and true 

In peace or war's alarms ; 
Still admired, whenever seen, 
In or out of crinoline." 

(This sentiment was responded toby our good old friend Colonel 
George Washington Camp, who was at that time, as he is now, a 
great admirer of the fair sex). 

Sarah Mallory, a colored woman who belonged to the estate of 
Captain James Gilbert, deceased, died on the 22d instant at the 
advanced age of one hundred and twenty years — this was known 
to be her real age, and no mistake. She had always been a faithful 
servant, and died respected and regretted by all who knew her, 
both white and black. She had the largest fuueral procession that 
ever took place from the Bell Church. 

March 8th, Major Robert W. Bowden, one of our esteemed and 
valuble citizens, departed this life in the 52d year of his age. At 
the time of his death he was Cashier of the Bank of Virginia in 
this city. He died at the residence of his brother, W. F. Bowden, 
Esq., in Prince George connty, near Petersburg, where he had gone 
to recuperate his failing health. He was a former Captain of the 
Norfolk Light Artillery Blues, and his remains were buried with 
military honors, in the presence of a large concourse of sorrowing 
friends and relatives. 

March 14th, Judge Vespasian Ellis, father of our esteemed and 
talented townsman, W. H. C. Ellis, Esq., departed this life at his 
residence in Washington. 

March 30th, the new steamer Adelaide, of the Old Bay Line, ar 
rived in this harbor to take the place of the lost steamer North Car- 
olina, on the Norfolk and Baltimore route. All the officers of the 
North Carolina were assigned to duty on her. 

Monday evening, October 3d, 1859, a large audience assembled 
at the Theatre to welcome the third appearance in Norfolk of the 
talented actors, Mr. and Mrs. D. W. Waller. The play was Ham- 
let, and the evening's entertainment was delightful. [As we have 
previously stated, our theatre was first called "The Norfolk Varie- 
ties." In 1857 the name was changed to "Odd Fellows' Hall," 
and when the Wallers commenced the engagement above referred 
to, the place was advertised for the first time as "The Opera House" 
— by which name it is now familiarly known.] 

Tuesday evening, October 11th, Mr. Frank Chanfrau, the cele- 
brated comedian, commenced an engagement of six nights at the 
Opera House. 

October 18th, the military companies of Norfolk and Portsmouth 



35 

offered their services to Gov. Wise, to aid in suppressing the John 
Brown insurrection at Harper's Ferry, but their services were not 
needed. 

October 23d, Wm, W, Lamb, Esq., was appointed a director of 
the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad Company, by the Board of 
Public Works, vieeJno. B. Whitehead, Esq., resigned. 

October 31st, "the wonderfully talented Marsh children delighted 
the people of this city by their very extraordinary theatrical per- 
formances. 

November 12th. "The fifth annual exhibition of the Seaboard 
Agricultural Society has been open since the 7th instant, and closes 
to-day." On the 10th instant a tournament took place at the Fair 
Grounds. Twenty Knights engaged in the friendly contest- The 
charge was delivered by L. H. Chandler, Esq. Mr. Geo. K. Good- 
ridge, Knight of Hiawatha, won the first honor, but resigned it to 
Captain W. H. Morgan, of the Lexington (V. M. I.) Cadets, who 
crowned Miss Lucy Walters, of this city, as Queen of Love and 
Beauty. 

Mr. R. B. Baylor, Knight of the Silver Star, selected Miss Cow- 
dery, of Norfolk, as First Maid of Honor. 

Mr. J. C. Friend, Knight of Petersburg, named Miss Ayres, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., as Secnod Maid of Honor. 

Mr. F. E. Goodridge, Knight of the Old Dominion, named Miss 
Webb, of Portsmouth, as Third Maid of Honor. 

November 20th, our esteemed townsman, Col. N. C. King (of 
King & Toy, druggists) departed this life. He had filled the posts 
of Colonel of the Fifty-fourth Regiment, Chief Engineer of the 
Fire Department, and various other offices of trust, with credit to' 
himself and honor to the community. 

November 26th, Col. E. C. Robinson (54th Regiment) received a 
telegraphic dispatch from Gov. Wise, ordering one company of soldiers 
from this city and one from our sister city of Portsmouth, to Charles- 
town, Va., near Harper's Ferry, to do duty while the notorious John 
Brown and his allies were being tried for treason and insurrection- 
ary acts. Accordingly, Col. Robinson ordered the Woodis Rifle- 
men, Captain Wm. Lamb, and the National Grays, of Portsmouth, 
Captain Deans, to be ready to start for the scene of action. 
This caused great excitement in the city — particularly among the 
ladies. The next day (Sunday) the aforesaid companies left on the 
steamer Louisiana for Baltimore, where they arrived that afternoon. 
Col. Robinson accompanied his gallant little battalion, and when 
they arrived in Baltimore he sought Captain Parks, of the Balti- 
more City Guards, from whom he borrowed overcoats for "the 
boys," and they proceeded on their journey, arriving at Charles- 
town on Monday night, the 28th instant. The Riflemen mustered 



36 

64 men, rank and file, and the Grays, 59 men — total number of 
the battalion, 123. 

^ At noon of December 2d, John Brown was hng, and when the 
news reached Norfolk our people became calm. But the diabolical 
attempt of the blood thirsty fanatic upon the lives and liberties of 
the people of Virginia created a spirit of revenge that lasted for 
years. A martial spirit was aroused in the breasts of our young 
men, every one of who*n wanted to be a soldier. New companies 
were organized and warlike preparations were made in real earnest. 
On the 30th of November, a new company called the Washington 
Light Infantry Guards was organized, and Dr. W. N. McKenney 
was elected Captain ; R. B. Wright, First Lieutenant, and J. F. 
Wilkins, Second Lieutenant. Lieutenant Wright declined to serve, 
when Wilkins was promoted, and B. K. Taylor was elected Second 
Lieutenant. The Southern Guard was organized December 2d in 
the reading room of the (new) Atlantic Hotel, and the following 
officers were elected : E. A. Bradford, Captain; H. W. Williamson 
and R. C. Taylor, Lieutenants; W. H. Taylor, First Sergeant. . 

December 5th, a grand banquet was given at the new hotel (the 
Atlantic, then recently built and opened by A. G. Newton, Esq.) 
by a number of citizens in honor of Mr. Thos. Winans and party 
from Baltimore, who was then on a visit to this city in his curious 
little pleasure steamer. (This is the little boat that made a trip 
from Norfolk to Old Point and back in one hour and forty 
minutes.) 

December 9th, the community was thrown into the most intense 
excitement by the announcement that little Virgin ius Leonard, aged 
11 years, and only son of Abram F. Leonard, Esq., editor of the 
Norfolk Argus, had been foully murdered at the National Hotel. 
"The damnable assassin had stabbed the innocent little boy in the 
neck, in the broad day light, and left him to die at the very thres- 
hold of his parents' door' ; — said one of the city papers. 

December 10th, the Coroner's jury, after examining into the 
facts connected with the supposed murder of Virginius Leonard, 
„ame to the conclusion that the lad "came to his death by the acci- 
dental discharge of a gun in his own hands." [There is yet and 
probably will ever be a mystery connected with the untimely death 
of this bright and promising child.] 

December 20th, the Woodis Riflemen, of this city, and the 
National Grays, of Portsmouth, arrived home from Charlestown. 
When they left for home, General Taliaferro (the officer in com- 
mand at Charlestown) ordered a salute of 15 guns to be fired in 
honor of the gallant battalion. [The battalion was under com- 
mand of Captain Wm. Lamb, acting Major. Col. E. C. Robinson 
returned to his post of duty here, after parting with the two com- 
panies at the Relay House, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 



37 

He expected that the remaining companies of his regiment (54th 
Virginia) would be ordered to the scene of excitement ; this occa- 
sioned his return to Norfolk.] 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SIXTY. 

This year commenced with very cold weather, and on the 5th of 
January navigation between this city and all the regular communi- 
cating ports, except New York, was suspended on account of ice. 
The Richmond, Baltimore, Washington and Fredericksburg boat' 



were fast frozen in the harbors of those places, while our harbor 
was perfectly free from ice. The Albemarle and Chesapeake and 
the Dismal Swamp canals were frozen from end to end. 

January 6th, the Boston Line of steamers, between this city, Bos- 
ton and Providence, was established to run in connection with the 
Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad, and the steamer S. R. Spaulding 
started on her first trip from Norfolk to Providence this date, with 
a good cargo of freight and several passengers. 

The financial condition of Norfolk on the first day of this year 
was as follows, according to the Treasurer's renort : 

Total receipts for past year .". f 136,829 23 

Total disbursements $113,964 14 

Cash on hand 22,865 09— 136,829 23 

CITY DEBT AS FOLLOWS. 

Eegistered stock $1,113,910 00 

Coupon bonds 153,500 00 

Bills payable ' 68,100 00 

Total debt $1,335,510 00 

March 20th, the new Market House (the present one) was com- 
pleted at a cost of $1 9,000. It is 210 feet long and forty feet wide, 
and contains seventy-two stalls, which are to be rented annually to 
the butchers. 

March 23d, the Southern Guard (Company F, of the 54th Regi- 
ment) paraded yesterday for the first time. Captain E. M. Brad- 
ford was in command, and the company made a fine appearance, 
numbering 54 men, rank and file. 

April 12th, the seventh annual meeting of the Norfolk and P& 
tersburg Railroad Company was held in this city. At this meeting 
it was resolved to consolidate the offices of President and Chief En- 
gineer. William Mahone, Esq,, was then elected President and 
Chief Engineer by a majority of 923 votes. The official reports 
read at this meeting showed the road to be in a flourishing condi- 
tion, considering the great disadvantages under which it had been 
completed. 

April 25th, Opera House theatricals were closed for the season — ; 
Joe Jefferson, the popular comedian, having been the chief attrac- 
tion for several weeks previous. But Robinson & Lake's circus 
arrived here this date and the young people were all in a good hu- 



38 

mor. (Everybody went to the circus in those days, and the per- 
formances were better then than they are now.) Each performance 
for two days and nights was witnessed by a large crowd. 

May 2d, the 54th Regiment Virginia Militia was this day dis- 
rupted by the withdrawal of several volunteer companies, who 
formed a new battalion and selected William E. Taylor, Esq., as 
Major of the same. A committee waited upon Mr. Taylor to ask 
if he would accept the command, and he replied in the affirmative. 

May 4th, James J. Cunningham, a member of the Norfolk Light 
Artillery Blues, departed this life in the 29th year of his age. He 
was highly esteemed, in the community. 

May 7th, Ex-Governor Littleton Waller Tazewell died in the 
86th year of his age. A meeting of the Norfolk Bar was held on 
the 8th instant, when resolutions of respect were adopted in memory 
of this great and good man. A resolution was also adopted request- 
ing Mr. Hugh Blair Grigsby 10 write a discourse upon the life and 
character of Mr. Tazewell, to be read to the Bar at some future day. 

May 24th was election day, but there was very little excitement 
attending it, and everything passed off very quietly. R. H. 
Baker, Esq., was elected Circuit Judge of the First District without 
opposition. W. W. Coke Esq., was elected Commonwealth's Attor- 
ney of Norfolk, by a majority of 44, over George Blow, Jr., Esq. 
George W. Steed, Esq., was elected Commissioner of the Revenue 
without opposition. 

During this month (May) there were half a dozen excursions to 
Lake Drummohd, which were highly enjoyed by our citizens and 
some distinguished visitors from New York and Baltimore. (This 
Lake has ceased to attract the attention of our people now, and 
strange to say, for it is a beautiful place.) 

May 30, Mr. H. B. Reardon, an old an highly esteemed citizen, 
died. His death was not a surprise, as he had been in feeble health 
for some time. 

June 4th, the new bell for Christ Church was raised to the 
tower and placed in position. It was made in West Troy, N. Y., 
and weighed twelve hundred pounds. 

June 5th, the Merchants' and Mechanics' Exchange held its 
annual meeting. John B. Whitehead, Esq., was elected President, 
vice Kader Biggs, Esq., who declined a re-election. Upon being 
notified of his election Mr. Whitehead declined to serve ; where- 
upon, Mr. Biggs was unanimously re-elected, against his will. 

June 25th (Monday) was the election day for municipal officers. 
The Democrats got the inside track for the first time in many 
years, and defeated some of the Whig nominees. Mr. William W. 
Lamb (Dem.) was elected Mayor over F. F. Ferguson, Esq., 
(Whig) by a majority of 130. (The number of votes polled for 
Mayor was li088). The following gentlemen were also elected: 



39 

Tbomas J. Corprew, Sergeant; R. A. Worrell, Collector; 3„ 
Hardy Hendren, Register ; John B. Branham, Assessor ; William 
Hawkins, Keeper of Almshouse; Dr. W. M. Wilson, Physician to 
Almshouse; James M. Steed, Ganger; E. L. Young, Surveyor. 
During the latter part of the day there was much excitement at the 
polls, and several fights occurred, resulting in black eyes, bloody 
noses, bruised heads and many arrests. (We do not think, how- 
ever, from the accounts given in the papers next day. that the 
fighting was a party affair. It was caused by whisky, and confined 
to a certain element known as " election bummers "). 

June 25th, at night a daring attempt was made to burn Johnson's 
Hall, on Main street. The incendiary's torch had been applied, 
but the flames died out before doing any damage. The building 
and the goods in the stores on the ground floor were insured for 
about $50,000 at the time. 

July 4th was appropriately celebrated by the military. At night- 
there was a grand display of fireworks on the Academy lot. The 
Norfolk Light- Artillery Blues spent the day in Smithfield as 
guests of the Smithfield Artillery Company. (Captain Jacob 
Vickery was Captain of the Blues at that time). 

July 11th, a boiler exploded at the marine railway and ship- 
yard of William A. Graves, Esq., which demolished a valuable 
engine and the building in which it was located. Mr. Graves and 
four other persons were injured, but not dangerously. 

July 14th, W. L. Walters, Esq., died. He had been proprietor 
of the National Hotel ever since the death of his father in 1855, 
and was widely known and respected. 

July 15th, Governor Letcher and his excellent lady paid a visit 
to this city and were the recipients of much attention. 

July 19th, at 9 o'clock at. night, the steamship Pennsylvania, of 
the Philadelphia, Norfolk and Richmond line, was burned in 
James river while en route from this city to Richmond. She had 
seven passengers on board, viz : G. D. Graham, Esq., Mrs. 
McCleary, Mrs. Deitz and her four children, aged respectively 
two, four, nine and eleven years. All of Mrs. D.'s children were 
drowned except the infant, two years of age, by being washed from 
a raft upon which they had been placed by the officers of the boat. 
The other passengers and the crew were saved. This unfortunate 
disaster occasioned much sorrow among our citizens. All the 
passengers were natives of Philadelphia, but were residents of Rich- 
mond, and were returning from a visit to their friends North. 

Friday, August the 8th, the steamship Great Eastern — the 
largest ship in the world — arrived at Hampton Roads from New 
York, en route for Baltimore (or as near there as she could go). 
A large number of our citizens went to Old Point to see this 
" monster of the wave " come in. She anchored between Fort 



-40 

Calhoun and Fortress Monroe, in fifty feet water. The crowd 
of persons assembled on the beach at Old Point to witness the 
arrival was estimated at ten thousand persons — people came from 
all parts of Virginia and North Carolina to see the " big ship.' 7 
The hotels of Norfolk and Portsmouth, and of Hampton and Old 
Point, were literally packed with visitors, and yet there were hun- 
dreds who could get no place to sleep each night that the ship 
remained in the Roads. (She remained two nights and days). 

August 25th, Hon. Stephen a Douglass arrived here from Balti- 
more. At night he addressed a large congregation of citizens from 
the City Hall steps. Mr. Douglass received many courtesies from 
the people of Norfolk on that occasion. 

August 31st, Mr. James A. Taylor, son of Mrs. Ann B. Taylor, 
departed this life in the 28th year of his age. He was an honored 
member of Company F, and was loved by a large circle of friends 
and relatives. 

September 3d, one hundred guns were fired by the Whigs in 
honor of Hon. Win. L. Goggin, who came here to address the peo- 
ple of Norfolk and Portsmonth in the interests of Bell and Ever- 
ett, the Whig nominees for President and Vice-President. The 
political campaign had then been fairly opened, and at different 
parts of the city could be seen floating in the breeze the flags of 
"Breckenridge and Lane," "Douglass and Johnson," and "Bell 
and Everett." [That was the beginning of the ruin that was after- 
ward brought upon the country by the division of the Democratic 
party.] 

September 13th, Benjamin Pollard, Esq., died in the 73d year 
of his age. He was a native of this city and in his younger days 
was a successful lawyer. He served as a Lieutenant in the 54th 
Virginia Regiment during the war of 1812, and his subsequent life 
Avas useful and honorable. 

September 25th, the Third Battalion of Virginia Volunteers, 
under command of Major Wm. E. Taylor, paraded for the first 
time in public and presented a handsome appearance. Lieutenant 
B,. C. Taylor, of Company F, acted as Adjutant. 

September 28th, a political meeting was held in Ashland Hall 
and a large audience was present. It was a joint discussion in which 
all political parties were interested. During the evening a diffi- 
culty occurred between one of the Bell and Everett electors and a 
Breckenridge elector, which resulted in a fight. Just as the com- 
batants had clinched, General Blow, the Douglass elector for this 
district, interfered and separated them — thereby gaining for him- 
self credit as a peacemaker between his political opponents. [Had 
the Douglass men withdrawn their candidates from the contest 
about that time and thus have united the Democracy, they would 
have been the greatest peacemakers this country ever had]. 



41 

The remainder of the year 1860 was spent in continual strife in 
our midst between party politicians. The whole country became 
alarmed at the threatening aspect of national affairs. It was well 
known to the leading men of the country that if the Democratic 
party was anything like equally divided the large vote of the 
Northern and Eastern States would surely elect Mr. Lincoln, the 
Abolition candidate for the Presidency ; and this fact occasioned 
great alarm in the slave States, where the bulk of the people's 
wealth consisted in negro slaves, which had been inherited from 
their ancestors, and which they held as personal property under 
the laws of the land. The people of Norfolk were not behind 
their Southern brethren in predicting the results which would 
follow Mr. Lincoln's election, and they worked day and night in 
the interests of their favorite candidates. There were no aboli- 
tionists here — at least none who were bold enough to avow such 
political sentiments; but the policy of that party had been boldly 
proclaimed from the rostrum throughout the North and published 
in the Abolition papers throughout the country, and there was no 
mistaking it. Mr. Lincoln had accepted their leadership upon a 
platform which he was in honor bound to stand by and carry out, 
if elected. 

In the face of these important facts the Democrats, unfortunately, 
could make no compromise between the Douglass and Breckenridge 
factions of their party — each claimed an unconditional surrender 
from the other, and thus the gulf between them daily grew wider 
and wider. A large number of the Whigs in the North were also 
opposed to slavery, and as soon as they saw the Democrats divided, 
and knew that Lincoln's chances were good, they deserted the 
standard of Bell and Everett and joined the abolition ranks, and 
the whole country knows the sequel. Mr. Lincoln received (solely 
on account of the split in the Democratic party) a larger number 
of the electoral votes cast than did either one of his opponents, and 
was consequently declared elected. Great was the excitement 
throughout the country, and the extreme Southern men threatened 
secession. Norfolk gave Bell and Everett, the Whig candidates, a 
very respectable majority, and Breckenridge got a larger vote in 
the city than Douglass did. 

[The writer must be pardoned for thus referring to political 
matters; as they have a significance concerning the succeeding 
pages of this book, and could not well be omitted. The facts 
alluded to are familiar to a large majority of the people ; but there 
are boys growing up to be men in our midst — boys who are to 
make names for themselves, and who already give promise of future 
usefulness and distinction; and when they read these pages they can 
find enough in the foregoing political preface to interest them in 
the causes which lead to our unfortunate civil war, and cause them 



42 

to seek for information which may prove very valuable to them m 
lime to come]. 

We now pass to the most eventful year in the- history of our 
country j but will only give a brief synopsis of events that occurred 
In and around Norfolk;, according to the evidence in our possession 
— and that is very limited. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SIXTY-ONE. 

January 1st, the U. S. brig Dolphin was put out of commission. 
Her crew was paid off and discharged at this port. 

Friday, January 4th , was "fast and prayer day/' ordered by 
President Buchanan. It was very generally observed here. [There 
was a great deal to pray for at that time.] 

January 5th, there was an immense meeting of the citizens held 
in Ashland Hall to take the necessary steps toward "organizing 
effectively the military force of the city." Major F. F. Ferguson 
was called to the chair and West wood A. Todd, Esq,, appointed 
Secretary. "Attachment to the Union, with guarantees of our 
safety and honor ; devotion to Southern rights, and a firm deter- 
mination to maintain them to the last extremity — by force of arms 
if necessary" — were the sentiments of all the speakers of the oc- 
casion — some of whom were not so "gushing and rushing" in their 
patriotism when the war came on. 

On same day Lieutenant R. T. Chapman and Master Thos. B. 
Mills, resigned their commissions in the U. S. Navy. Both were 
from Alabama and were attached to the Brooklyn, then at our 
Navy -yard. [These were the first Navy officers, as far as we can 
learn, who resigned their positions on account of Southern sympa- 
thy.] Lieutenant Pelote, of South Carolina, resigned a few days 
afterwards, in this port, and tendered his services to his native 
State. [He was well known in Norfolk, and was afterwards a 
gallant Confederate soldier, and gave his life to the lost cause !] 

January 10th, Company F, Captain Bradford, of the Third Vir- 
ginia Battalion, was presented with Springfield muskets of the Har- 
per's Ferry make. The muskets cost $8 each and were paid for 
by our generous and patriotic fellow-citizen, Andrew Sigourney, 
Esq., who presented them in person. 

January 15th, F. F. Ferguson, Esq., late Mayor, was elected 
Captain of the " Juniors." This was the second time he had been 
Captain of the same Company. 

January 24th, Ashland Hall was filled to overflowing with 
secession citizens, to nominate a candidate to represent the city in 
the State Convention. On motion of Captain James E. Barry, 
Mr. James R. Hubard was elected chairman, and Messrs. W. S. 
Forrest and William E. Foster appointed secretaries. Mr. W. A. 
Swank addressed the meeting in favor of sending a man who would 
certainly vote for secession. Major Thomas J. Corprew was nom- 



43 

inated, but declined to serve — whereupon, Mr. James R. Hubard 
was chosen, and accepted the nomination. (He was regarded as 
the *' very man " for the Secessionists). 

January 26th, the Union Conservatives held a meeting, with 
Thomas C. Tabb, Esq., in the chair, and Mr. David D. Stone as 
secretary. General George Blow was nominated for the Conven- 
tion, and accepted the honor in an able speech. This meeting was 
not half so large as the one held by the " seceders.' ; 

P'ebruary 4th, the election for a delegate to the State Convention 
took place with the following result in the city, to-wit : Blow, 
Union candidate, 992 ; Hubard, Secession candidate, 442. Gen. 
Blow's majority, 480. [The election for delegates to that Conven- 
tion was held on the same day throughout the entire State, and a 
majority of said delegates were elected as Union men. It was also 
decided by a large majority vote that the action of the Convention 
should be inferred to the people of the State for their ratification or 
rejection. The hurried action of Mr. Lincoln, however, in call- 
ing for troops from Virginia and other States to coerce South 
Carolina, caused many of the Union men to change their tactics, 
and they finally voted for Secession — and the action of the Conven- 
tion was afterwards ratified by the people at the polls by a very 
large majority, which plainly proved that Mr. Lincoln's war policy 
was a death blow to the Union sentiment in Virginia, and partly 
caused the adoption of the Secession ordinance by her Convention]. 

February 18th, Jefferson Davis, Esq., was inaugurated at Mont- 
gomery, Alabama, as President of the Confederate States of 
America, and when the telegraph brought the news to Norfolk 
there was great excitement among the people, and hundreds of 
(heretofore) Union men openly proclaimed themselves in favor of 
the " New Southern Republic." [Some of our impatient young 
men immediately set out for Charleston, S. C, and there joined the 
Confederate Army]. 

February 26th, Mayor Lamb received numerous telegrams from 
Baltimore, in which distressed parents asked him to intercept their 
sons (minors) who had left home to join the Southern Army. The 
boys, however, had left here on the early Seaboard and Roanoke 
train before the telegrams reached the Mayor, and he was utterly 
powerless to stop them. 

March 4th, news was received in the city of Lincoln's inaugura- 
tion as President, and a synopsis of his address was published in the 
papers next day. One of our daily papers, the Day Booh, thus 
spoke of it : " Lincoln, the wild, political despot of the West, whose 
head has been crazed by the doctrines and isms of Horace Greeley, 
has proclaimed to those who had patience to hope better things of him 
that they must hope no longer. Mis inaugural has gone forth to the 
world — carrying with it the declaration of coercion, fully and expli- 



44 

utly announced. It has told the millions of inhabitants of this country, 
who hoped for peace from his lips, that they shall have no peace. He pro- 
claims to the South war ! war ! ! icar ! ! ! He has exposed his cloven 
foot plainly and openly to the gaze of ail, that they may be no longer 
deceived ; and ice must say that henceforth we can have but. little patience 
with any Southern, man who toould pretend that there is yet hope." 
[Up to the time that the inaugural address was delivered, the Day 
Book had been an able and persistent advocate of the Union and of 
peace measures]. 

April 2d, a Confederate flag was fiung to the breeze from the 
house-top of a citizen residing on Wolfe (now Washington) street. 
It was adorned with seven stars arranged in a circle, with " Va." 
in the centre. [This was the beginning of a new sensation], 

April 3d, George W. Steed departed this lii'e. He was tor sev- 
eral years the faithful and efficient Commissioner of the Revenue 
for this city. 

April 4th, a large assemblage of citizens was addressed by Hon. 
Roger A. Pry or at Mechanics' Hall. After the speaking was over 
the meeting adopted a resolution instructing General Blow (delegate 
to the Convention) to vote for Secession. 

April 8th, the Woodis Riflemen, Captain William Lamb, paraded 
in a drenching rain to pay the last tribute of respect to their deceased 
comrade, Henry Holland, who died April 7th, of consumption. 

April 10th, the U. S. steamers Pocahontas and Pawnee sailed 
from the Navy- Yard with sealed orders. 

April 11th, a night dispatch was received here stating that the 
bombardment of Fort Sumter had been commenced, and that Gen. 
Beauregard had demanded its surrender. This news caused great 
excitement in the city, and increased the war feeling to " lever 
heat." 

April 12th, some young men from this city sailed down to 
Craney Island and raised a Confederate flag upon the old block 
house. It was pulled down by government employees soon after 
the young men left the Island. 

April 15th, the United Artillery Company, under Captain Thos. 
Kevill, tired liftcen guns from Stone Bridge in honor of the reduc- 
tion of Fort Sumter. [This Artillery Company was composed of 
the members of the "old United Fire Company," and was already 
for duty]. 

Apiil 17th, Lieutenant James F. Milligan, First Lieutenant in 
the U. S. Revenue Service, forwarded his resignation to S. P. 
Chase, Esq., Secretary of the Treasury, at Washington. 

April 17th, the "Independent Greys" held a meeting and re-or- 
ganized their company by electing the following officers: \l. C. 
Taylor, Captain ; W. G. Webb, First Lieutenant, and J.H. Smith, 
Second Lieutenant. 



45 

On the same clay Geo. Loyall, Esq., U. S. Navy Agent of this 
station, sent his resignation to the Naval authorities at Washington. 

April 19th, the "Old Dominion State Guard," under the super- 
vision of Colonel Wm. Mahone, held a meeting and re-organized 
with the following officers: Chas. B. Langley, Captain; W. W. 
Barnes, C. H. Wilson and B, K. Taylor, Lieutenants, and Oscar 
E. Edwards, Orderly Sergeant. [General W. B. Taliaferro, of 
Gloucester county, was stationed here to re-organize the Virginia 
troops in this section. He was ably assisted in that arduous work 
by Col. Mahone.] 

DESTRUCTION OF THE GOSPORT NAVY- YARD. 

On Saturday night, April 20th, 1861, the Gosport Navy-yard 
was evacuated by the U. S. Government troops. General Talia- 
ferro, commandant of the Virginia militia at this place, made a 
demand upon Commodore Macauley for a surrender of the Govern- 
ment property at the yard, which was refused — the Commodore 
assuring General T. that nothing would be removed and no vessel 
should leave the yard without due notice being given him. This 
assurance quieted our people for a while; but in a short time it 
was observed that the hands in the yard were engaged in "cutting 
down the shears, (which fell across the Germantown), scuttling the 
vessels, spiking the guns and destroying everything they coiud lay 
hands upon." 

"At about 8 o'clock p. m. the U. S. gunboat Pawnee, crowded 
with men, passed up to the Navy-yard. The information of her 
coming was given by Capt. P. McCarrick, of the steamer North- 
ampton, to the Virginia troops at Fort Norfolk, and was carried to 
General Taliaferro by M. Glennan, (then a youth) ; the General, 
appreciating young Glennan's promptness in delivering the news, 
at once appointed him as his Orderly. General Taliaferro then 
gave orders to blockade the channel, and a large number of volun- 
teers proceeded to dismast and load with ballast two schooners 
lying at Town Point for that purpose, and they were towed down 
and placed in proper position." At midnight a lurid light shot 
up from the Yard and it was discovered that the buildings had been 
fired — a 1 so the ships Pennsylvania, Merrimac, Raritan, Columbus, 
and the brig Dolphin, which were burned to the water's edge. 

"The machinery and everything in the work-shops that could be 
broken was rendered useless. An attempt was also made to blow 
up the dry dock, but it fortunately failed." It is said that 500 
men from the Pawnee aided in this work of destruction. The guns 
at the yard were spiked with ten-penny nails, but were not much 
injured by that operation. After destroying all they could, the 
troops embarked at daylight next morning (April 21st) on board 
the Cumberland and Pawnee, which steamed down to Fort Monroe. 
In avoiding the obstructions the Cumberland got aground, but was 



46 

soon gotten off with the assistance of the Pawnee and the Boston 
steamer, S. R. Spaulding. The night previous to the burning of the 
Navy-yard our troops took possession of Fort Norfolk, where they 
found an immense quantity of ammunition, but no guns of any im- 
portance. The Fort was soon afterwards fortified and presented a 
bold appearance. [The destruction of the ships at the Yard was a 
useless piece of work; they could have been saved to the Govern- 
ment as easily as the Cumberland and Pawnee were, but perhaps 
Commodore Macauley didn't know it — nevertheless, he should have 
made an effort to save them.] 

April 22d, a schooner laden with a cargo of pork, molasses and 
gunpowder, for the Government vessels on this station, entered the 
harbor and was taken possession of by the State authorities. 

April 23d, General Walter Gwynn took command of the State 
forces here, vice General Taliaferro transferred, and took quarters 
in the Custom House. Mr. J. J. Simpkins, U. S. Internal Reve- 
nue Collector here, this day resigned his position as such. On 
same day, the Davis Guard was organized, by the election of 
the following officers: Edward Dodd, Captain ; J. J. Foster ana 
Robert S. Guyot, Lieutenants, and Nicholas Smith, Orderly Ser- 
geant. 

April 24th, several companies of infantry arrwed here from 
Richmond, Petersburg, North Carolina and Georgia, to be assigned 
to duty in this vicinity. 

During the warlike preparations that were being made in and 
around Norfolk in April and May, 1861, our ladies — God bless 
them — bore themselves like heroes of old. They visited and enter- 
tained the soldiers from our sister States in a manner that was truly 
noble and encouraging. They furnished to the army everything 
they had to spare that would aid our cause, and manifested a spirit 
of patriotism and courage that had a telling effect upon the soldiers. 
On the 25th of April, the Macon Volunteers, from Georgia, held 
a meeting and "unanimously elected Mrs. John Hipkins, a noble 
matron of the Old Dominion, as an honorary member of the com- 
pany, conferring upon her all the rights and privileges of said 
corps." [The action of the company was published in the daily 
papers as a compliment to Mrs. H., who had been very kind to 
this gallant band of Georgians.] 

April 28th, the good people of Petersburg, "the gallant Cockade 
City," presented General Walter Gwynn (our Commanding Gen- 
eral) with a magnificent horse, which was duly received and thank- 
fully acknowledged. 

May 5th, the remains of the ships burned at the Navy -yard were 
inspected, and a large force of workmen were employed to recon- 
struct the same for the use of the Confederates. The sloop-of-war 
German town and the Merrimac were the first repaired. 



47 

Previous to the adjournment of the State Convention the follow- 
ing military appointments by Gov. Letcher for our State were duly 
confirmed, to-wit : Commander-in-Chief of State Forces, Major- 
General Robert E. Lee; Walter Gwynn, Brigadier-General; Jos. 
E. Johnston, Brigadier-General ; J. Bankhead Magruder, Briga- 
dier General ; Phillip St. George Cocke, J. W. Allen, C. Q. Tomp- 
kins, and Kenton Harper, Colonels of Volnnteers; R. S. Garnett, 
Colonel and Assistant Adjutant-General; (the Adjutant-General of 
the State, Brigadier-General W. H. Richardson, needed no confirma- 
tion, as he had held the office for many years, and continued to hold 
it until his death, which occurred in 1876]; Dr. Chas. Bell Gibson, 
Surgeon-General; Michael Harrnan, Quartermaster-General. 
[These were the officers of the Virginia forces who were appointed 
while the State Convention was in session. There were many 
others who held State Commissions — some in Norfolk — whose 
names are not here published, and who tendered their services to 
the Confederate Government before Virginia seceded. The names 
above mentioned were confirmed by the "Secession Convention."] 

The Norfolk soldiers read of the appointment of General R. E. 
Lee as their Commander-in-Chief, and repeatedly asked, "Who is 
he?" "Where did he come from ?" and other such questions — little 
dreaming that future events would prove him to be "a second Na- 
poleon in the science of war." 

During the mouths of April and May, all the old companies of 
the city were re- organized and several new ones formed, and they 
were assigned to our local defences as soon as they reported for 
duty. 

May 11th, Captain Hunter, of the Virginia Navy, General Geo. 
Blow, Col. H. Robertson, and Capt. Wm. N; McKenney, of this 
city, went to Fort Monroe with a flag of truce, in the steamer Em- 
pire, Lieut. James F. Milligan, commanding. The object of the 
visit was to carry down the wives of several Jiaen "who left here on 
the U. S. steamer Cumberland the night the Navy-yard was 
burned — and also to demand the return of several negro slaves who 
had left their owners and were loafing about the Fort. Commodore 
Pendergrast immediately arrested the said slaves and delivered 
them up to the gentlemen above named. 

THE FIEST BATTLE IN VIRGINIA. 

lhe Norfolk Soldiers Engaged at Sewell's Point. 

The "Battle of Sewell's Point" (called a battle at that time) was 

fought on the 19th of May, 1861, and we here give some extracts 

from a letter written about that engagement by a member of the 

Norfolk Light- Artillery Blues : 

"At 11 o'clock A. m., Sunday, the 19th of May, the detachment 
of N. L. A. Blues, stationed at this post, (Boush's Bluff) under 
Lieut. Thomas Nash, Jr., and a detachment of Juniors, under Lieut. 



48 

Holmes, received orders to march immediately to SewelPs Point 
and report there for duty. Upon our arrival we found the Colum- 
bus (Ga.) Light Guard, under Captain Colquit, and the Wood is 
Rifles, just from Ocean View, under Capt. Wm. Lamb. Gen. Gwynn, 
with his Aid, Major Wm. E. Taylor, was on the ground giving 
orders. At 4 o'clock p. m. one gun was mounted on its carriage, 
but not fastened. Two others were at that hour buried in the sand. 
By 5 o'clock they also were mounted, and one of them fastened. 
While the work of arranging the guns for action was hastily but 
steadily progressing, a shot came whizzing from a U. S. Govern- 
ment steamer and struck the battery, throwing the turf some dis- 
tance in the air. 

"All the Battery was now in confusion, but immediate prepara- 
tion was made to return the fire with the two 32-pounders, and two 
rifled cannon brought and manned b} 7 the Woodis Rifles. Captain 
Colquit being in command of the forces at this time, called for a 
Virginian to hoist the Georgian flag (that being on the spot) and 
Major Wm. E. Taylor, of Norfolk, mounted the ramparts and un- 
furled it to the breeze in defiance of the enemy, who had initiated 
the battle. Orders were then given to open fire, and the first gun 
was discharged by the detachment of Juniors, Thad Gray having 
command of the gun. The Georgians who had worked manfully 
in mounting the guns (in conjunction with the Juniors, Blues and 
Rifles) took charge of the other two and fought bravely during the 
whole engagement." 

The Blues were then ordered back to Boush's Bluff, from whence 
they came, to repel any land attack that might be made by troops 
from Old Point. .The letter continues : 

" Every man acted the true soldier, and though our forces only 
numbered 250 men, every one stood at his post, whether in the 
battery or out of it, ready to answer the call of his commanding 
officer. Those present on that occasion will scarcely ever forget 
the sound of a bomb or the whistle of a ball, and though they 
cracked the trees and ploughed the ground around us, ' nobody 
was hurt/ and ' every one remained to tell the tale ' of the first 
battle in this State in defence of our liberties. 

"Never was a battery worse prepared for such an engagement. 
The guns were not in order; not a sight had been placed on them, 
nor was there time even to think of putting them on, had they been 
in place, consequently the fire was at random, and very few shots 
were effective. It is enough for our friends to know that we did all 
we could under such circumstances, and we are sure it will be sat- 
isfactory to them. The soldiers suffered greatly during the night 
on account of the rain and wind, especially those on guard." 

Before day on the morning of May 20th Sewell's Point was again 
reinforced by the Blues and a portion of the Georgia Regiment from 



49 

the Cross-Roads, a Louisiana Regiment, a Petersburg Battalion, 
and the Richmond Grays, which were sent from Norfolk, " but the 
Lincolnites did not renew the attack again until the 21st, when 
they made several ineffectual attempts to silence oi<r batteries." 

A Georgia gentleman, upon returning to this city after the fight 
took place at Sewell's Point, thus wrote to a friend : 

" Norfolk, May 23, 1861. 

" I must, in the beginning of this sketch, tell you that I am 
writing in the room where the British spy was stationed — where 
Lafayette stopped while in Virginia — where Tom Moore's American 
poems were composed, including his ' Maid of the Dismal Swamp ' 
— the chamber where G. P. R. James wrote most of his romances. 
The table on which I write was the property of Lord Dunmore and 
used by him as a private writing desk. So you see I have decidedly 
the advantage of those who do their scribbling on camp stools. I 
am indebted for this special favor to one of Virginia's most noble 
ladies, and here I would take occasion to say that Virginia ladies 
(particularly of Norfolk and Portsmouth) will live long in the 
memory of the Georgia troops." 

"The Monticello, now the Star, lay with her broadside to the 
battery about three-quarters of a mile off. Our two thirty-two 
pounders had been mounted, and two rifled cannon peeped through 
their port-holes ; and while the third gun was being ' fixed up/ 
Whiz-z-z-z came a shell, and bursted on our battery near Private 
Oliver Cleveland, who had gone out in front of one of our guns to 
shovel away sand. Captain Colquit (of Georgia, afterwards Gen. 
Colquit, and was killed at Gettysburg,) in command of the forces 
(consisting of parts of several Virginia companies and the City 
Light Guard, of Georgia), ordered the men to their posts, and in a 
few moments the welkin rang with the booming of our guns. 
The Monticello fired rapidly and bravely, but the most of her shots 
were wild. Some of them, however, were well directed, bursting 
in our embrasures, over our heads, and all around us. We learn 
that she has endeavored to make the impression that she passed the 
ordeal of our iron hail without injury; but she is slightly mistaken. 
Five holes are in her — the very best indication of which is her 
dreadful limping as she turned her stern to our fire, and hitched on 
a tug, which carried her off. We have no disposition to deal in 
falsehoods, and we tell the Monticello that some of her shots were 
well aimed, and furthermore, that she required heavy corking to 
save sinking, and that she must have lost many of her men. We 
hear but six are lost, but when the truth comes, it will be double 
that number. If the Monticello is not crippled, we cordially invite 
her back to her old stand, near the buoy in front of our little sand 
bank. 



50 

"I wish to make mention of the brave and gallant bearing of 
Thad. Gray, of one of the Virginia companies (the Norfolk Juniors), 
during the engagement of Sunday, the 19th. In his bare skin to 
the waist, he worked like a Trojan — cool and self-possessed, unmoved 
by the enemy's fire, he worked at his gun like a man and a brave 
soldier. Some of the men acted very conspicuous parts in the 
engagement, and deserve especial notice. Sergeant Larin, Privates 
Mayo and Porter, in the hottest of the fire, took their spades and 
walked out in full view of the enemy, and at the most exposed 
points, and shoveled away sand which lay in front of two of the 
guns, obstructing the effect of their fire, and rendering them useless. 
Mr. J. Berrian Oliver, one of the most esteemed citizens of Geor- 
gia, was once buried in sand by the bursting of a shell in the em- 
brasure of the gun at which he was working. Before the smoke 
and dust had cleared away, he was at his post unmoved and un- 
daunted. Inexperienced in military life, he has won rich laurels 
in this, the first battle on Virginia soil. A braver and purer spirit 
never marched to meet an enemy. Lieutenant Maffit, who com- 
manded one of the guns, acted with a degree of bravery and cool- 
ness that would have done credit to an older and more experienced 
soldier. 

" Captain Lamb well sustained the reputation of Virginia's blood 
and bravery. Captain Colquit, of the City Light Guards, com- 
manding, acted with the most remarkable degree of self-possession, 
wisdom and bravery, assisting under the thick hail of shell and 
shot in planting the flag of Georgia upon the ramparts — the beau- 
tiful flag presented to the City Light Guards by Miss Ellen Ingra- 
ham, of Columbus, one of the most beautiful and lovely daughters 
of Georgia. Well may she feel proud of that beautiful banner, for 
it waved in triumph at the second battle of the Confederate States. 
Major Taylor mounted the ramparts and waved it high in the air 
as the Monticello moved off." 

[We must be pardoned for giving our readers so much about this 
little affair, as it was the first time our Norfolk soldiers were ever 
under fire — and it was really the second engagement that occurred 
in the late unhappy war between the States]. 

The following article, taken from the Norfolk and Portsmouth 
Herald of the 21st May (1861), will inform the reader who were 
the first prisoners of war from this city : 

" Captured.—Drs. T. B. Ward and A. T. Bell and Mr. Robert S. 
Bell, of this city, who were out in a sail-boat on Friday afternoon 
in the lower harbor, thought that as the wind was fair and the sail- 
ing pleasant, they would make for Hampton and take a supper 
before returning home. In this case, however, they reckoned 
without their host ; for they were soon overhauled by a boat from 
the Minnesota, and taken to that steamer, where they were treated 



51 

as prisoners of war, and sent down into the cock-pit, with the con- 
soling reflection, induced by a conversation between two of the crew, 
that they were either to be shot or hung at the yard-arm the next 
morning. Saturday morning came, however, without any such 
unpleasant occurrence, and they were allowed to return to this city, 
in their own boat, arriving here in the afternoon." 

Tuesday, 27th. At 2 o'clock p. m. a transport passed out ; and 
about 3 o'clock the Quaker City came down the Bay and also 
passed outside the Capes. When off Cape Henry she landed a boat 
and sent a marauding party to the shore. They tore down a small 
tenement at the Lighthouse, broke some oars, and robbed a seine 
crew often or twelve dollars' worth of rope, the property of some 
Norfolk fishermen. 

It may be interesting to many persons in Norfolk to know the 
topography of Hampton Roads, which may be briefly stated as 
follows : Hampton Roads is the name given to the broad expanse 
of water between the mouth of James river and and the entrance 
into Chesapeake Bay. Newport News Point, on the north side of 
the river, and Pig Point on the south, at the junction of the Nan- 
semond with the James, may be considered as the mouth of the 
James. Between these two points the distance is about five miles. 
Craney Island lies at the mouth of the Elizabeth river, some six or 
seven miles east of Pig Point. Sewell's Point is about the same 
distance north of Craney Island. These four points, therefore, 
form very nearly a parallelogram. Old Point is five miles north 
of Sewell's Point. 

May 28th, General Walter Gy wnn left Norfolk to take command 
of the State forces in North Carolina, having been appointed to the 
position by Governor Ellis, of the Old North State. General 
Gwynn was accompanied by his Aide, Colonel Robert R. Collier, 
who served with him here. [Colonel Collier was a gallant and 
whole-souled Virginian from Petersburg. He died in that city 
since the war, loved and honored by all who knew him. He was 
the father of Hon. Charles F. Collier, member of the Confederate 
Congress from the Petersburg District]. General Huger succeeded 
General Gywnn in command of Norfolk. 

June 1st (1861), the Confederate States postal laws, stamps and 
regulations went into effect in this city and in Portsmouth. Notices 
of the change were published in the daily papers by Aug. M. 
Vaughan and John K. Cooke, Esqs., postmasters in the respective 
cities. 

Total number of deaths in Norfolk for the month of May, 1861, 
was 21 — whites 11 and blacks 10. 

About the first of June in this year, the Norfolk L. A. Blues 
were regularly mustered into the Army of Virginia, under the fol- 
lowing officers: J. Vickery, Captain; John B. Branham, First 



52 

Lieutenant; W. T. Peet, Second Lieutenant; W.J. Nimmo, Third 
Lieutenant; R. B. Banks, Orderly Sergeant. At the beginning of 
the war (when they first volenteered for duty) the company had 
150 members; but as the State law restricted the number to 104, 
(rank and file), they had to reduce the company to that number ; 
consequently, another Artillery Company was then raised in Nor- 
folk, called the "Norfolk Light Artillery," and was organized with 
the following officers : Frank Huger, (son of General Huger), Cap- 
tain; Thos. Nash, First Lieutenant; J. D. Moore, Second Lieu- 
tenant; W. J. Parrish, Third Lieutenant; Wm. J. Butt, First 
Sergeant. 

June 4th, the following card was published in the city papers, 
which showed what our ladies were willing to do for the Lost 
Cause : 

" The ladies of the Episcopal Churches take this opportunity of 
informing the soldiers who are encamped in and near Norfolk that 
they will be at Christ Church Lecture Room, on Freemason street, 
corner of Avon, every morning from 9 to 12 o'clock, to receive any 
work, either making, washing, or mending clothing." 

On the 5th instant some of the Norfolk and Portsmouth sol- 
diers were under fire at Pig Point (the junction of the James and 
Nansemond rivers). Captain R. B. Pegram (our present esteemed 
townsman) was in command, and sent the following dispatch to the 
Flag Officer in this city : 

Pig Point Battery, 9 a. m., June 5th, 1861. 

To Flag Officer F. Forrest, Norfolk, Va. : Sir — We have just 
had a smart brush with the Harriet Lane, and drove her off. I 
think several shots were put into her hull. The engagement lasted 
about twenty minutes. The Lane commenced the engagement, by 
firing an eleven-inch shell. No casaulties on our side. 
Respectfully submitted, 
R. B. Pegram, Commander, Virginia Navy. 

[The Portsmouth Rifles did most of the work in this fight, and 
were highly complimented by Commander Pegram]. 

The following spicy letter was written by a Norfolk lady to the 
Evening Day Book, and we cannot refrain from publishing it here. 
It fully explains itself: 

"Norfolk, June 9, 1861. 

" Mr. Editor — I see by your paper, constant advertisements, 
' Attention, Home Guard.' Please, if you possibly can, inform us 
who they are. Are they the fine silk-stocking gentry who we see 
on our streets with ratan sticks in their hands and cigars in their 
mouths, puffing their smoke in ladies faces as they go and return 
from the stores to purchase for their friends who are in the defence 
of our beloved city and State a few little necessities ? If these are 
the Home Guard, tell them, Mr. Editor, that their services are 



53 

needed in another and better cause. Yes, Mr. Editor, tell them 
that monkey exhibitions are over, and we require men. If these 
gentlemen are afraid to shoulder the rifle or musket, tell them we 
have gallant and brave soldiers to fight our battles. We want 
them to shoulder the hoe and spade ; we need batteries, and who 
are to build them ? Can we expect our gallant soldies to do all 
the work and fighting, too ? Away with your everlasting'Home 
Guard ! All fudge. We have plenty of our old fathers and 
uncles left yet, who number over fifty years, to protect our homes. 
So, young men, rally to the entrenched camp, and finish what 
brave and gallants hearts have commenced, and you will meet with 
more pleasant smiles and happy hearts to welcome you from your 
work than you will by making yourselves a nuisance in the street. 
When this war is ended can you say, ' I did my duty ? ' When 
time rolls around you can say, ' I assisted to erect that battery ; I 
with many brave hearts routed the enemy here.' Your children 
say ' my father assisted to defend this battery.' Again let me say, 
Mr. Editor, to these gentlemen, away ! your city, your State, your 
country calls. Rally to her rescue. 

" Home Guard no more. I am a daughter of old Virginia, and 
with me many brave daughters will guard your homes. Yes, we 
will die by our husbands, fathers, brothers and devoted sweethearts. 
So away, young men, to the batteries. Withers, Colston, Mahone, 
Corprew, Lyon, Lamb and many brave leaders too numerous to 
mention await you there. Away ! I hope no old friend of the 
ladies will be offended at these lines, for they are not for them, but 
to young men. Mattie." 

Scarcely a day passed during the early part of June without a 
" passage at arms " between the Federal gunboats and the Virginia 
soldiers at Pig Point and Sewell's Point. Yet there were but few 
persons injured on our side. Frequently the city would be alarmed 
and excited by the heavy firing heard down the river, and by the 
arrival of some " very reliable gentleman from the front," with a 
" cock-and-bull story " of a " terrific battle ! " But when the truth 
was known, " nobody hurt" was the verdict nine times out of ten. 

June 12th, General Huger issued an order that all bar-rooms in 
this city and Portsmouth must be closed at 9 o'clock p. m. Au- 
thority for issuing sach an order was given to all military Post 
Commanders in the State, by Governor Letcher ; in fact, a Post 
Commander had authority to forbid the sale of ardent spirits at any 
time and by any person — " licenses or no licenses ". 

June 15th, John Southgate, Esq., an aged and well-beloved 
citizen, departed this life at the ripe age of 88 years. He was a 
kind, generous, plain, useful man, and many persons now living 
will cherish his memory with deep gratitude. 

On same day Charles Harris, Esq., a patriotic citizen of Norfolk, 



54 

contributed fifty dollars to the " fund in aid and support of the 
mother of Henry L. Wyatt," the brave Confederate soldier who 
was killed in the battle of Bethel Church, June I Oth. 1861. 
[Wyatt is said to have been the first Confederate soldier killed in 
battle — he was certainly the first one that was killed in Virginia, 
if the war records are correct. He was a private in the 1st North 
Carolina Regiment of Infantry, Colonel D. H. Hill commanding, 
and was a native of Edgecombe county]. 

Some time during the early part of this month Colonel J. M. 
Withers, of the 3d Alabama Volunteers (then stationed in Nor- 
folk), was presented bv the people of Petersburg with a splendid 
horse — the young, thoroughbred racing stallion, known as "Peg 
Top." This was a valuable gift, and highly prized by the gallant 
Withers. 

June 17th, there were more than one thousand letters advertised 
in the Day Booh as remaining in the Norfolk Postoffice — nine- 
tenths of them were for soldiers stationed in this vicinity. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the State Convention passed the 
Ordinance of Secession on the 17th day of April, it was June 17th 
before the vote was made public — it was not published in Norfolk 
until June 19th. As the matter will probably be of interest to 
many persons who will find time to read this volume, and as it was 
a matter in which the citizens took such a livelv interest while the 
Convention was in session, we will republish the list of the votes 
upon that very important question, to-wit : 

THE VOTE UPON THE VIRGINIA ORDINANCE OF SECESSION. 

The Ordinance of Secession was offered in the Virginia State 
Convention, by William^ Ballard Preston, Esq., April 17th, 1861, 
and was adopted by the following yea and nay vote. Those who 
voted in the affirmative were : 

William M. Ambler, William B. Aston, James Barbour, August R. Blakey, 
George Blow, Jr., James Boisseau, Peter B. Borst, Wood Bouldin, William W. 
Boyd, Thomas Branch, James C. Bruce, Frederick M. Cabell, John A. Campbell, 
Allen T. Caperton, William P. Cecil, John R. Chambliss, Manlius Chapman, 
Samuel A. CofFman, Raphael M. Colin, James H. Cox, Richard H. Cox, John 
Critcher, Harvey Deskins, James B. Dorman, John Echols, Miers W. Fisher, 
Thomas S. Flournoy, William W. Forbes, Napoleon B. French, Samuel M. Gar- 
land, H. L. Gillepsie, Samuel L. Graham, Fendall Gregory, Jr., William L. 
Goggin, John Goode, Jr., Thomas F. Goode, F. L. Hale, Cyprus Hall, L. S. 
Hall, Lewis E. Harvie, James P. Holcombe, John N. Hughes, Eppa Hutton, 
Lewis D. Isbell, Marmaduke Johnson, Peter C. Johnston, Robert C. Kent, John 
J. Kindred, James Lawson, Walter D. Leake, William H. Macfarland, Charles 
K. Mallory, John L. Marye, Sr., Fleming B. Miller, Horatio G. Moffet, Robert 
L. Montague, Edmund T. Morris, Jeremiah Morton, William J. Neblett, Johnson 
Orrick, William G. Parks, William Ballard Preston, George W. Randolph, 
George W. Richardson, Timothy Rives, Robert E. Scott, William C. Scott, John 
T. Sewell, James W. Sheffey, Charles R. Slaughter, Valentine W. Southall, John 
M. Speed, Samuel G. Staples, James M. Strange, William T. Sutherlin, George 
P. Tavloe, John T. Thornton, William M. Tredway, Robert H. Turner, Franklin 
P. Turner, John Tyler, Edward Waller, Robert H. Whitfield, Samuel C. Wil- 
liams, Henry A. Wise, Samuel Woods, Benjamin F. Wysor — 88. 



55 

Those who voted in the Degative were : 

John Janney, President ; Edward M. Armstrong, John B. Baldwin, George 
Baylor, George W. Berlin, Caleb Bogges, George W. Brent, William G. Brown, 
John S. Burdett, James Burley, Benjamin W. Byrne, John S. Carlile, John A. 
Carter, Sherrard Clemens, C. B. Conrad, R. Y. Conrad, James H. Couch, VV. H. 
B. Custis, Marshall M. Dent, William H. Dulaney, Jubal A. Early, Colbert C. 
Fugate, Peyton Gravely, Algernon S. Gray, Ephraim B. Hall, Allen C.LTam- 
mond, Alpheus F. Haymond, James W. Hoge, J. G. Holladay, Chester O. Hub- 
bard, George W. Hull, John J. Jackson, John F. Lewis, William McComas, 
James C. McGraw, James Marshall, Henry A. Masters, Samuel McD. Moore, 
Hugh M. Nelson, Logan Osborn, Spicer Patrick, Edmund Pendleton, George 
McC. Porter, Samuel Price, David Pugh, John D. Sharp, Thomas Sitlington, 
Burwell Spurlock, Alexander H. H. Stuart, Chatman J.Stuart, George W.Sum- 
mers, Campbell Marr, William White, Williams C. Wick ham, W. T. Willey — 55. 

At fifteen minutes past four o'clock the President (Mr. Montague 
in the chair) announced the result of the vote, and declared the 
passage of the ordinance. 

Subsequently, the following members changed their votes from 
the negative to the affirmative : 

Williams C. Wickham, Alpheus F. Haymond, George W. Berlin, Hugh M. 
Nelson, Algernon S. Gray, George Baylor, C. B. Conrad, Allen C. Hammond, Col- 
bert C. Fugate— 9. 

The following members, who were absent when the vote was 
taken, asked and obtained leave to record their votes in the affirma- 
tive : 

JohnE. Kilby, Addison Hall, John Q. Marr, Eobert E. Grant, Alfred M. Bar- 
bour, Paul McNeil. 

Messrs. Thomas Martin and Peter Saunders were absent on account of sickness 
when the vote was taken, and were not, subsequently, present. 

The Norfolk delegate, General George Blow, Jr., voted for the 
Ordinance, and the Portsmouth delegate, Mr. J. G. Holladay, voted 
against it. [The above list is taken from the Richmond Whig of 
June 17th, 1861]. 

June 17th, Hon. Howell Cobb, of Georgia, arrived in this city 
and stopped at the Atlantic Hotel. He came to visit his two sons 
who were on duty here with the Georgia soldiers. 

June 19th, a melancholy accident occurred at the Navy Yard, to 
wit: 

Mr. David Williams descended to the bottom of the river by 
means of a diving apparatus, to stop the holes by which the sloop- 
of- war Plymouth, had been scuttled in April; while thus engaged 
it appears that the cap connected with the diving bell separated, 
and he was drowned before the usual time of making the signal to 
draw him up. It became necessary then to pull him up with 
grappling irons, and when raised to the surface of the water, it was 
found that life was entirely extint. He was a reputable and in- 
dustrious man, and left a wife and three children. 

The following card appeared in the city papers June 22nd : 
" The 'Tuskegee Light Infantry, ' 3rd Regiment Alabama Volun- 
teers, return their most grateful thanks to Mrs. W. H. Broughton, 



56 

Miss E. P. Nash and other Norfolk ladies for the service which 
they have performed in the making up of the company's uni- 
forms. Such acts upon the part of comparative strangers indicate 
the kindness of heart, as well as the spirit of disinterested patrio- 
tism which characterize the fair daughters of Virginia. Although 
in a distant land, and far removed from the overwatching care of 
our own loved mothers and sisters, we are yet made to feel that 
their places have been supplied. 

" We can never forget such kindness, and trust that our conduct 
will ever merit their consideration. " 

June 24th, the following municipal officers were duly elected : 

Mayor, William W. Lamb'; Register, J. Hardy Hendren ; City 
Collector, F. F. Ferguson ; Commissoner of Revenue, John B. 
Branham ; Assessor, T. G. Broughton, Jr. ; City Attorney, W. T, 
Hendren; Street Inspector, R. B. Wright; Gauger of Liquors, 
James M. Steed ; City Surveyor, Edward L. Young; Clerk of 
Market, Eli Guthrie! ; Physician to Almshouse, Dr. Jas. D. Gait ; 
Keeper of Almshouse, Wm, Hawkins; Weigher of Hay, Joseph 
Bunkley ; Sealer of Weights and Measures, Thos. R. Lee; Keeper 
of Magazine, W. H. C. Cheshire; First Wood Measurer, W. B. 
Deggs; Second Wood Measurer, John Banks, Sr. ; Captain of City 
Watch, El ias Guy ; Lieutenant of City Watch, David B. Dyer; 
Constables, George W. Glenn, R. L. Nelson, Calvin Bell, Larkin 
Davis, Miles S. Cox, Peter Moore. 

The following is from the Norfolk Herald, of June 25th, 1861 : 
" The Lee Guerillas have resolved themselves into an Artillery 
Company, called the Lee Artillery, in honor of our esteemed Com- 
mander-in-Chief, Gen. Lee. Only ten more are needed to make up 
the requisite number and they hope to be mustered into service on 
Sunday morning next. The commany is under the command of 
Capt. Jas. Y. Leigh of this city. Their headquarters have been 
established at the Blues' Armory, on Talbot street, which is open 
from 9 A. M. to 6 P. m., daily." 

June 27th, Col. J. B. Magruder received his Commission as 
Brigadier General in the Confederate States Army, from President 
Jefferson Davis. The news was joyfully received by the soldiers 
here. 

June 28th, Captain Wm. Morris Armstrong, of the United 
States Navy, died at his residence on Bute Street, in the 64th year 
of his age. He entered the Naval Service as a Midshioman in 
1814. 

During this month the Federal forces at Old Point and New- 
port's News, were estimated at 25,000, with Major General Benja- 
min F. Butler (more appropriately called, and better known as 
" Beast Butler") in command. The Old Bay Line of Steamers ran 
regularly between Old Point and Baltimore, carrying to and fro 



57 

large cargoes of freight and many passengers, which paid the line 
very handsomely. 

June 29th, the Norfolk Herald contained the following ; " We 
were shown yesterday a twelve pound conical ball which was re- 
cently fired from the United States Steamer Quaker City, at the 
residence of Jas. S. Garrison, Si\, near Lynhaven. It is a singular 
looking projectile — in shape resembles somewhat the dome of the 
City Hall. It has a very dangerous appearance, but nobody as yet 
has been hurt by any of the missiles. ;; Also the following : 
*' Gen. Butler recently sent word to Gen. Magruder that he hoped 
the war would be conducted on principles of civilized warfare, and 
Gen. M. replied, I have burried your dead and taken care of your 
wounded in sight of the houses of widows and orphans whom you 
have driven forth and whose property you have destroyed." 

All persons temporarily residing in Norfolk or its vicinity, who 
were from places inside the Federal lines and wished to return to 
their homes, were promptly sent to Fortress Monroe under flag of 
truce, upon applying to the proper authorities. But the same 
courtesy was not extended to Southern people by some of the 
Federal authorities, as the the following incident will plainly prove : 

A married daughter of our townsman, Capt. Guy, with her 
children, happened to be in a Northern town when the war broke 
out; and it was not until about the middle of June, and after being 
put to great trouble, risk and expense, that she obtained a permit to 
return home, and she took the route via Baltimore and Fort Mon- 
roe, rejoicing in the expectation of soon seeing and embracing once 
more her kindred and friends. But on her arrival at Fort Mon- 
roe her passport was disregarded, and she was ordered to return 
in the boat to Baltimore, being positively forbidden to land on her 
own shores; and she and her little ones were thus left to find their 
way by some other route, as best they might. [The above is a 
well authenticated fact.] 

July 4th, a large crowd of persons, including many Norfolk 
ladies, assembled at Camp Talbot (near the city) to witness the 
presentation of a beautiful flag to the " Lynchburg Beau re- 
gards." The flag was presented by Wm. S. Reid, Esq., (of the 
Beau regards) in behalf of Miss Oriana McDaniel (the fair donor), 
daughter of Col. Jno. Robin McDaniel, of Lynchburg — one of 
Virginia's most honored sons. [Col. McD. was among the first en- 
prising citizens who were instrumental in establishing direct trade 
between Virginia and Europe]. 

On the same day, a beautiful flag was presented Company F., of 
Norfolk, by the lady friends of that Company. The presentation 
took place at Craney Island, where the Company was then stationed. 
Mayor Lamb delivered the flag with appropriate remarks, which 
were happily responded to by "high private" Thomas, of the Co. 



58 

Tuesday, July 9th, the troops in and around Norfolk (particu- 
larly those from the Old North State) were deeply grieved to learn 
of the death of His Excellency, Jno. W. Ellis, Governor of North 
Carolina, which sad event occurred the 7th 'hist., at the Red Sulphur 
Springs in this State. 

During the early part of this month a " harbor police" was or- 
ganized to cruise about the harbor. The Day Book of July 11th, 
contained^the following item : " We understand some of the 'faithful' 
of Old Abe's followers hereabouts, have been puzzling their wits 
how to get information to the enemy, until they have hit upon the 
plan of acting as fishermen, and while down the river for that pur- 
pose, they avail of the opportunity of earning a little of Abe's 
secret service money, by contriving dispatches to. his fleet in the 
Roads, by means of putting such little favors as they may have in 
a bottle, setting it adrift on the proper tide to be floated down. 
They put a little flag or signal in the cork so as to attract the atten- 
tion of the enemy who cruise about the Roads in pursuit of these 
dispatches. Captain John Young, of the Harbor Police, however 
has put a quietus on this amusement, as his operations in the 
river and Roads will intercept all such dispatches." 

A correspondent writing to a Virginia paper during this month, 
under the caption, " Another Norfolk Boy," says : " Captain 
Virginius D. Groner, of Norfolk, now attached to the War De- 
partment, at Richmond, took an early stand for Southern honor and 
independence, and left his Mother State to wield a sword in de- 
fence of her beleagured sisters. His gallant devotion to our cause 
has already found favor among his leaders in a strange land, and 
the confidence thus won will be sure to bring a yet higher reward. 
When loyalty to the South was first proclaimed as 'treason to the 
Union,' he took the name of ' traitor/ and proved his readiness 
to brave the penalty," &c. 

July 11th, minute guns were fired by the North Carolina Navy 
Steamers in our harbor in respect to the memory of the late Gov. 
Jno. W. Ellis. 

July 12th, a difficulty occurred on Main Street between some 
Alabama and Virginia soldiers, during which, Messrs. Charles Rey- 
nolds and Jessee Knight, of the Norfolk Junior's, were shot and 
painfully wounded. The affair was deeply regretted. 

July 15th, Captain James Barron Hope (now the accomplished 
Editor of the Norfolk Landmark) was appointed Secretary to the 
Commandant of the Norfolk Navy Yard. 

During this month a N. C. Battery, posted at Hatteras Inlet was 
attacked by Federal gun-boats, and it is said that the first shot from 
the battery was fired by Lieut. Mathew Fatherly, a native of Nor- 
folk, then a member of an Elizabeth City, (N. C.) Company. [This 
was the first shot fired from North Carolina soil by Confederates]. 



59 

Even the little girls of Norfolk were active in their efforts to aid 
ihe Southern cause, as the following extract from one of the city 
papers will show ; 

" Three patriotic misses of our city, neither of them over twelve 
years of age, held, recently, a fair for the benefit of the sick soldiers 
in our midst, the result of which, taking all things into considera- 
tion, was very good. 

"The amount netted was $17, and has been paid over to the 
proper person, as the following receipt will show ; 

" Received from Miss Lelia Cuthrell, Mary Hall and Indy 
Ashby, $17, for the benefit of the sick, the proceeds of a Fair for 
the purpose of raising money for the above purpose. 

" Robert Southgate, Surgeon in Charge of Hospital. 

" Norfolk, July 15th, 1861." 

Monday, July 15th, a little boy' about 8 years old, son of Mrs. 
Hickey, residing on Bermuda street, fell from a boat in Newton's 
creek and was drowned. 

July 16th, George D. Parker, Esq., was elected Second Lieuten- 
ant of the Harris Guards, 6th Virginia Regiment, Virginia Volun- 
teers. Mr. Parker had been a member of the Woodis Riflemen 
ever since the war commenced, and had proven his claim to pro- 
motion. 

July 17th, Captain Robert B. Pegram was transferred from the 
Pig Point Battery to the Ordnance Department at Gosport Navy- 
yard. 

July 19th, news of the battle of Bull Run (July 18th) was 
received, and the troops around Norfolk were greatly elated over 
General Beauregard's success in repelling the attack of the Lin- 
coln ites. 

July 21st, at night, the following dispatch was received in Nor- 
folk, and caused the greatest excitement and enthusiasm : 

" Manassas, July 21st, 1861. 

" We have won a glorious but dear-bought victory. The night 
closed with the enemy in full flight, pursued by our troops. 

" (Signed) Jefferson Davis." 

This news awakened new courage in our midst, and even the 
" petticoat dodgers " (the stay-at-home young men) assumed an air 
of patriotism that made them bold and war-like. 

July 23d, a difficulty occurred here between Lieutenant J. K. 
Adams, of the Mobile (Ala.) Rifles, and Claiborne Hughes, of Nor- 
folk, in which the Lieutenant was killed. The sad affair occurred 
at the corner of Market square and Union street. Hughes was 
arrested and lodged in jail to be tried for murder, and was refused 
bail. 

July 29th, the ladies of Norfolk presented a beautiful flag to the 
Second Regiment North Carolina Volunteers, Colonel Williams 



60 

commanding. The presentation address was delivered by General 
Huger, at the Academy Lot, in presence of a large concourse of 
citizens. 

August 2d, the Southern Argus announced its discontinuance as 
a daily paper in consequence of a deficiency of force, most of its 
employees having gone into the army. 

August 18th, Captain William Lamb having been promoted to 
the rank of Major, Lieutenant Robert B. Taylor was elected to 
succeed him as the Captain of the Woodis Riflemen. 

During this month the weather was unusually pleasant, and the 
soldiers around Norfolk were blessed with good health. Of course 
there were many fights between the land forces in this vicinity and 
the Federal war vessels, but none of the Confederates suffered much 
from the shots of their enemies. When the Federals evacuated 
the Navy-yard, the Southern authorities took possession of the place 
and vigorously pushed forward the work of" increasing the navy " — 
there were no idlers at the Yard at that time. 

September 5th, the lady friends of the Norfolk Light Infantry 
Volunteers, Captain John R. Ludlow, presented that corps with a 
handsome Confederate flag at the Courthouse. Mayor Lamb pre- 
sented it, and J. E. Ford, Esq., received it in behalf of the 
command. 

Among the many Norfolk ladies who exerted themselves to aid the 
Southern soldiers were Mrs. Baker P. Lee", Jr., and Mrs. Anna 
Goffigan, who deserve special mention. These ladies, forwarded to 
the Hampton Grays, stationed at Yorktown, and to the Wythe 
Rifles, at Williamsburg, a large supply of clothing and other accept- 
able articles during the month of September, 1861. Mrs. G. D. 
Armstrong, Mrs. S. M. Sheppard, Miss M. L. Pannell, Mrs. Kader 
Biggs, Mrs. Samuel Borum and Mrs. R. Capps, were also constant 
and kind in their attentions to the sick soldiers, and their names 
were frequently published in the papers in connection with some 
generous and praiseworthy act. 

September 25th, First Lieutenant William T. Nimmo, of the 
Norfolk Light Artillery Blues, died at Sewell's Point. His remains 
were brought home for interment. 

During this month some of the soldiers in and directly about the 
city gave a series of concerts for the benefit of their sick and needy 
comrades, and handsome sums of money were realized for the cause. 
These very pleasant entertainments were given in the Opera House 
under the direction of the Ladies' Aid Society, and drew large and 
fashionable audiences. 

The Lynchburg, Petersburg and Richmond companies contained 
some very fine musical talent — also the Louisiana Regiment, then 
stationed here; and these, with our Norfolk boys, gave concerts 
that were very profitable to our hospital cause. 



61 

October 1st, a ^arge number of citizens flocked to the landing of 
the "flag of truce boat" to greet the return of some exchanged Con- 
federate prisoners, who were captured in the baftle of Rich Moun- 
tain. Most of them were natives of Southwest, Va., and some 
were very badly wounded. They were quartered at the Atlantic 
Hotel, and received kind attention while there. 

Died Tuesday, October 15th, Mrs. Rebecca Newton Boush, in the 
80th year of her age. This estimable lady was well known and 
dearly loved. 

October 28th, the Brig Dolphin, which was sunk by the Federals 
when the Navy-yard was abandoned, was raised. On the same day, 
divers examined the guns of the Pennsylvania, and found her sixty- 
eight pounders in good order ; her 32-pounders were all burst. We 
have no record of any very important events that occured this 
month. The military and naval forces about Norfolk were greatly 
increased and the soldiers were "spoiling for a fight." The large force 
of workmen at the Navy-yard made wonderful progress in manu- 
facturing war implements and in repairing the ships which the 
Federals had rendered useless. News of several battles was received, 
but as this work is not intended as a history of the war, we omit 
the particulars. 

During the early part of November 1861, a man named Henry 
Davis left Norfolk for his Northern home. He had been a citizen 
here about ten months, and was a shoemaker. Upon his arrival in 
New York he furnished the Tribune with the following account of 
affairs in this section, which we believe is mainly correct. The ac- 
count was written under date of November 2d, and says : 

" A few days ago flour rose in Norfolk from 6 to $8 50 a barrel 
on account of the outbreak among the Union men of Tennessee. 
Coffee is 50 cents a pound, and very scarce. Sugar of the com- 
monest kind is 15 cents a pound. Fish is plentiful, and most people 
live on that diet, with corn bread ; salt pork, 30 cents ; lard 25 cents 
a pound; potatoes, $1 a bushel; candles, common tallow, 25 to 30 
cents a pound, and sperm, 10 cents each. 

"Clothing of every kind is very high. Common black panta- 
loons, 12 to $18 ; vests, from 12 to $20; black frock coats, $50. 
Dry-goods of all kinds have advanced from 500 to 1,000 per cent. 
Most of the goods are brought from New Orleans at present. 

" Of materials for boots and shoes, sole leather sold at $1 a pound 
with not a pound left in Norfolk, except what little the shoemakers 
held ; upper leather, calf, $100 for a dozen skins. No materials 
for ladies' shoes to be had. Ladies' shoes sold at 5 to $6 a pair ; 
very common, $3.50. Men's laced boots, $8 ; long 12 to $20. All 
kinds of business was very good, many people having started small 
manufactories for various necessities, giving poor people employ- 
ment. 



62 

"It is difficult to tell how many soldiers are at Norfolk, so many 
are encamped about the town. The estimated number varied from 
10,000 to 20,000. Most of the troops have gone into winter quar- 
ters, having built themselves huts for that purpose. 

"Norfolk is well defended. On the Portsmouth side are miles of 
embankment, with heavy guns from the Navy-yard, at intervals of 
100 yards. The camps are about a half mile distant from each 
other. On the Norfolk side, for five or six miles, batteries run along 
Princess Anne road, with similar armament. The troops in and 
about Norfolk are from North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, 
Georgia, and three regiments from Petersburg, Va. The soldiers are 
well clothed in gray cloth suits. The Confederate Government 
could not supply the men with shoes, and they were constantly 
writing home for money, shoes and other comforts, their \)&y being 
too small to allow them to pay $10 a pair for feet coverings. The 
newspapers are arguing that the pay of officers should be curtailed, 
and that of the privates advanced. The ladies had been getting up 
concerts and exhibitions to raise money for the relief of their 
soldiers, but their efforts did not avail much. 

" The Merrimac has been transformed into a great battering 
ram, with a steel nose, for running down vessels. All her internal 
works are completed, but her plating is only partially effected as 
yet. She is to be sheathed from the water line upward with iron 
plates one foot wide and two inches thick, the same way as her 
planks, and then again sheathed with simple plates over that, run- 
ning up the same way as her ribs, the whole to be bolted through 
and through. They expect to get her finished by the 1st of January, 
but, from the scarcity of the plates and the slowness of the work, it 
will probably be nearer the 1st of June before she is ready for sea. 
When completed, she is to run down some dark rainy night to the 
Roads, and smash up and sink the fleet. Her engines are four feet 
below the water line, and her sides slope inward. She is to be 
covered overhead with a bomb-proof network of railroad iron. She 
is not to have any decks, except forward and aft for the big pivot 
guns, with galleries for her broadside armament. Its is thought 
that she will be so hot inside, from want of ventilation, that very 
few persons are willing to ship in her. Her armament is to be 
of the heaviest and best rifled cannon known, and there is no 
doubt, if she has a chance, she will do an immense amount of 
damage to our fleet." 

We have nothing else of interest to record in this month (No- 
vember). The papers were filled with war news from various parts 
of the country, and contained but very little local matter of im- 
portance. 

December 1st, Capt. Vickery resigned the Captaincy of the Nor- 
folk Light Artillery Blues, owing to the bad condition of his 



63 

health. The Company was stationed at Sewell's Point, at the time, 
and at a meeting held for the purpose suitable resolutions were 
adopted expressing affection and esteem for Capt. V., and deep 
regret on account of his resignation. 

The following card, published in the Day Booh of December 
5th, fully explains itself, and is but another evidence of the devo- 
tion of our ladies to the Southern cause : 

Entrenched Camp, near Norfolk, "I 
November 18, 1861. / 

" The ladies of the Granby Street Methodist E. Church, will 
please accept my grateful acknowledgments for their very liberal 
and opportune donation of sixteen blankets and fifteen comforts, 
which have been distributed among the most needy in the Com- 
pany under my command. 'Tis true that none of my men are 
prepared to encounter the cold blasts of the approaching winter, 
yet the knowledge that there are in Norfolk those who feel for them, 
and are disposed to contribute to their wants, will enable them the 
more cheerfully to bear the hardships incident to a soldier's life. 

I indulge the hope that each of you may fully realize the bless- 
ing pronounced upon the merciful. 

I am very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

William N. McKenney, 
Capt. Company A, 6th Reg't Va. Vols." 

The fair held by the ladies of St. Mary's Catholic Church, during 
the latter part of November, for the benefit of the indigent fami- 
lies of our city volunteers, netted $1,744.30. 

December 23d, JohnCaffee, keeper of an eating saloon on Water 
street, was killed in an affray with some soldiers on Church street. 
He was shot in the breast and died instantly. 

During the early part of this month Norfolk made handsome 
contributions (money) to the people who were made destitute by 
the great fire in Charleston, S. C. Soliciting committees were ap- 
pointed by Mayor Lamb to wait upon the citizens and the response 
was prompt and liberal. 

eighteen hundred and sixty-two. 

We have but to give the following extract from a Norfolk paper 
of January 4, 1862, to show how mild the winter was at that time : 
"We were presented yesterday by Alexander Bell, Esq., of this 
city, with a couple of pears taken from a tree on his premises on 
Thursday last. They are small, it is true, but in other respects the 
fruit is perfect. The tree which bore them blossomed in Novem- 
ber. Only think of pears in January." 

A soldier from Louisiana, who died near Norfolk, about the 10th 
of January, and whose name was not given by the papers at the 
time, was said to be the author of the following verses, which were 
found upon his person written with a pencil : 



64 

i 

Brother Soldier come up nearer, 

For my limbs are growing cold ; 
And thy presence seemeth dearer 

When thy arms around me fold. 
I am dying, Soldiers, dying, 

.Soon you will miss me from your camp, 
For my form will soon be lying 

'Neath the earth so cold and damp. 
II 
Listen, brother Soldiers, listen, 

I have something I would say 
Ere my eyes are closed forever 

From the lovely light of day. 
I am going, surely going, 

But my faith in God is strong 
I die happy, willing, knowing 

That He doeth nothing wrong, 
ill 
Tell my Father when you greet him 

That in Death I prayed for him, 
And I hope that I shall meet him 

In the world that's free from sin. 
Dearest mother, God assist her, 

Now that she is growing old ; 
Say her boy would glad have kissed her 

When his lips grew pale and cold. 
IV 
Brother Soldiers catch each whisper, 

'Tis my wife I speak of now, 
Tell, Oh tell her how I missed her, 

When the fever burned my brow ; 
Tell her she must kiss my baby, 

Like the kiss I last impressed ; 
Hold her as when last I -held her, 

Closely folded to my breast. 
v 
Tell my dear wife may God bless her, 

She was very dear to me ; 
Would ] could once more caress her 

And her lovely face could see. 
Tell my dear ones I remember 

Every kindly parting word 
And my heart has been kept tender, 

By the thoughts their memory stirred. 

January 13th, a soldier named Royal, of the 1st Louisiana 
Regiment, fell from a fourth story window of the Atlantic Hotel 
and was killed. 

January 14th, Mrs. N. Taylor, relict of (the late) Judge Robert 
B. Taylor, departed this life in the 87th year of her age. On the 
15th of January Mrs. Harriet Martin, consort of Dr. C. F. Martin, 
departed this life. These were estimable and well known ladies. 

Died in Richmond, Wednesday the 15th of January, Lieutenant 
Henry Woodis Hunter, in the 20th year of his age. His funeral 
took place in this city Friday January 17th, from the residence of 
his uncle, Wm. H. Hunter, Esq., No. 108 Main street. 



65 

The Norfolk Day Book, of January 20th, contained the follow- 
ing item : " Lieut. Chas. R. Grandy, of " Co. B," 6th Regi- 
ment, Va., Volunteers, has been elected Captain of the Norfolk 
Light Artillery Blues, stationed at Sewell's Point." 

On the 20th of January, Dr. Geo. Blacknall, Surgeon of the 
Naval Hospital of Norfolk, departed this life in the 58th year of 
iiis age. He was one of the most esteemed and useful of our medical 
officers, and after a service of more than thirty years in the Navy of 
the United States, resigned his office upon the secession of Virginia, 
and was soon after appointed Surgeon in the Confederate service, 
to the duties of which he devoted himself with all the skill of a 
physician, the zeal of a patriot and the gentleness of the Christian. 

The kind sympathy of the people of South Carolina for Nor- 
folk, during the terrible Yellow Fever epidemic in 1855, was not 
forgotton when the occasion for reciprocation was presented, as the 
following note to our Mayor will show : 

"State of South Carolina, I 

Mayoralty of Charleston, City Hall, Jan. 20, 1862. j 

Sir: The very generous contribution of seventeen hundred and 
ninety-five dollars from the citizens of Norfolk, came through your 
hands, at proper time, but my duties prevented a response, until 
now. 

You will please extend to the people of your worthy city the 
grateful sense of the sufferers by fire, and accept for yourself the 
high regards of 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Charles Macbeth, Mayor. 
To Hon. W. W. Lamb, Mayor of Norfolk, Va." 

A soldier from the far South presented a friend in Norfolk with 
the following poem which had been sent him by an affectionate 
sister. It was written in December 1861, and was headed 

A SOUTHERN SCENE. 

"Oh ! mammy, have you heard the news ? 

Thus spoke a Southern child, 
As in the nurse's aged face 

She upward looked and smiled. 

"What news you mean, my little one? 

It must be mighty fine 
To make my darling's face so red, 

Her sunny blue eyes shine. 

"Why, Abram Lincoln, don't you know, 

The Yankee President, 
Whose ugly picture once we saw 

When up to town we went ? 



*WeIl, he is going to free you all, 
And make you rich and grand, 

And you'll be dressed in silk andj^ohL, 
Like the proudest in the land. 

"A gilded coach shall carry you 

Where'er you wish to ride ; 
And mammy, all your work shall be 

Forever laid aside." 

The eager speaker paused for breath, 

And then the old nurse said, 
While closer to her swarthy cheek 

She pressed the golden head : 

" My little missus, stop and rest — \ 

You'stalkin' mity fas; 
Jes look up dere, and tell me what 

You see in yonder glass? 

"You see old mammy's wrinkly face, 
■As black as any coal ; X 

And underneath her handkerchief 
Whole heaps of knotty wool. 

" My darling's face is red and white, 

Her skin is soft and fine, 
And on her pretty little head, 

De yaller ringlets shine. 

"My chile, who made this difference 
Twixt mammy and twixt you ? 

You reads de dear Lord's blessed book, 
And you kin tell me true. 

"De dear Lord said it must be so ; 
And honey, I for one 
With thankful heart will always say 
His holy will be done. 

" And as for gilded carriages, 

Dey's nothin 'tall to see ; 
My massa's coach what carries him 

Is good enough for me. 

"And honey, when your mammy wants- 
To change her homespun dress, 

She'll pray like dear old missus 
To be clothed with righteousness. 

" My work's been done dis many a day, 

And now I takes my ease, 
A waitin' for de Master's call 

Jes when de Master please. 

" And when at las de time does come, 

And poor old mammy dies, 
Your own dear mother's soft white hand 

Shall close dese tired eyes. 



67 

" De dear Lord Jesus soon will call 

Ole mammy home to him, 
And he can wash my guilty soul 

From ebry spot of sin. 

"And at his feet I shall lie down, 

Who died and rose for me, 
And den, and not till den, my chile, 

Your mammy will be free. 

"Come, little missus, say your prayers, 

Let old mas Linkum 'ione, 
De debil knows who b'longs to him, 

And he'll take care of his own. " 

February 10th, our people were depressed by the news that 
Roanoke Island had fallen, and that the gallant, peerless Captain O. 
Jennings Wise, son of our beloved Ex-Governor Wise, had met a 
brave soldiers' death. Norfolk was also represented in that fight. 
Captain Win. Selden, of this city, attached to the Engineer Depart- 
ment, was also among the killed. His conduct on the field is spoken 
of by those who witnessed it in the most exalted terms. Daring 
and bold, he feared not the overpowering forces of the enemy, but 
fought them bravely, disputing their right to every inch of ground. 

A writer for the Norfolk Day Book under date of February 1 1th, 
says : " In the midst of the distress and gloom cast over us by the 
taking of Roanoke Island, we cannot help feeling a pride in the cool 
and gallant endurance of our townsmen who were on the Island. 

"Every returned person whom we have seen, bears sincere testi- 
mony to the untiring efforts of these officers at their batteries. Capt. 
Jno. Saunders Taylor has already been deservedly noticed in your 
paper,and we feel that something is due to Lieut. B. P. Loyall. But 
a few weeks since returned from the prison walls of Fort Warren, 
he responded to the first call for help at Roanoke and labored un- 
tiringly to make an effective battery, which he himself served most 
splendidly to the very last, sinking three of the enemy's gunboats 
and never surrendering till surrounded by an overpowering force." 

February 21st, the bakery of Mr. James Reid, in rear of his 
store on Main street, was burned. Through the strenuous efforts of 
our firemen several other buildings which caught fire were saved. 

February 24th, all the bar-rooms and retail liquor stores in the 
city were closed by order of Major General Huger, Commanding 
the Department of Norfolk. This caused quite a commotion among 
the whisky sellers and drinkers, and they at once set their wits to 
work to adopt plans by which the " martial law" could be evaded. 

Friday, February 28th, was set apart by President Jefferson 
Davis as a day of fasting and prayer, and all the churches in the 
city were opened for divine services. Business was suspended and 
the people seemed earnest and sincere in their religious devotions. 



68 
OUR GREAT NAVAL BATTLE. 

THE OLD "MERRIMAC" UNDER A NEW NAME. 

Accounts of the Hampton Roads' Fight from those who witnessed it. 

In preceding pages of "this volume we have mentioned the fact 
that the old war vessel Merrirnac, which was burned and scuttled 
by the Federals when they destroyed the Norfolk Navy Yard in 
1861, was being repaired and fitted up for Confederate service. She 
was converted into an iron-clad Monitor, of a rough but substantial 
style, and was provided with a " battering ram," which boldly 
ornamented her prow. Many persons predicted that the Merrimac, 
or rather the Virginia, as she was christened when repaired, would 
prove a failure on account of her heavy draught of water — which 
prediction proved to be correct in the end, but not before the gallant 
craft had played havoc with her ememy's fleet. 

Many descriptions have been published concerning this naval en- 
gagement, none of which seem to give much satisfaction to the 
people who witnessed the affair; but it is natural to suppose that 
the main facts, rather than minute particulars, have all been given 
to the public, and in this work we shall produce several brief ac- 
counts which, when consolidated, will give the reader very correct 
ideas of the " Virginia's" great victory over the United States fleet 
in Hampton Roads, Va., March 8th and 9th, 1862. 

One account of the fight, says in substance as follows : " About 
11 o'clock on Saturday morning, March 8th 1862, the Old Merri- 
mac — then the Confederate States steam Monitor, Virginia, left the 
Gosport Navy-yard and sailed down to Hampton Roads to interview 
the United States blockading fleet then lying off Newport's News. 
Upon arriving in the Roads she found the frigates Cumberland and 
Congress. She then made for the Cumberland, as that frigate carried 
the heaviest armament of any vessel in the United States Navy ; 
and as she (the Virginia) passed the Congress she gave her (the Con- 
gress) a broadside, by way of a salute and then begun to fire on 
the other frigate, which gallantly resisted the attack for a while, 
but in the short space of fifteen minutes she went down. The Vir- 
ginia pressed upon the Cumberland as soon as the firing begun, and 
when she got within point-blank range she fired several shots from 
her bow gun and then ran into her — striking her squarely with her 
ram, which made her reel to and fro and sent her speedily to the 
bottom. But her gallant Commander was brave to the last : with 
colors flying and his ship sinking he fired his " aft gun" several 
times at the Virginia. 

" The Virginia then turned her attention to the Congress, which 
had been somewhat crippled by the broadside previously given 
her. After fighting her formidable enemy for nearly an hour, the 
Congress hauled down her flag and made for the beach where they 



69 

run her 'high aground.' Our gunboats followed her and captured 
her officers and crew. While she had her flag of truce flying, and 
was delivering her prisoners to the Confederates, the Federals at 
at Newport's News fired a volley into the vessels, which killed sev- 
eral of their own men, and wounded Mr. Jno. Hopkins, one of our 
pilots attached to the Beaufort. 

"While the Virginia engaged the Congress with herbowgun,she 
poured frequent broadsides into the Federal shore batteries at New- 
port's News. A prisoner stated that one of the Virginia's shots at 
the Congress dismounted two guns and killed sixteen of the crew — 
taking off the head of Lieut. Smith, and literally tearing the ship 
to pieces. . 

" The enemy did not expect the attack that was made by the 
Virginia, and it was not until the firing had continued some time, 
that any effort was made to assist the Cumberland and Congress. 
The first assistance sent them was the United States steam frigate 
Minnesota, from Old Point. She bore well over toward Newport's 
News, but not entirely beyond the range of our guns at Sewell's 
Point, which opened upon her with unusual vim. The Minnesota 
got aground, however, before accomplishing her object, and was 
seriously peppered by shots from the Confederate steamers Patrick 
Henry and Jamestown. The frigate St. Lawrence then came up to 
assist her grounded companion, and she also got aground; the steam 
frigate Roanoke then started from Old Point to assist her comrades, 
but when she saw the havoc that the Virginia was playing, she 
prudently put back, in order to save one more boat for Uncle Sam. 

" The Congress was burned by the Confederates on (Saturday) the 
night of her capture. She made a beautiful light-^-illuminating the 
heavens and the country for miles around. About midnight her 
magazine exploded with a tremendous noise. Her burning was 
witnessed by thousands of spectators from our harbor and shores, 
who never before saw a ship on fire. 

"It is said that the first gun fired in this naval engagement, was 
from the Confederate steamer Beaufort, and directed at the United 
States frigate Congress — all of our gunboats were engaged when the 
battle became hot, and their officers were highly complimented for 
skill and courage. The enemy's loss cannot be correctly estimated 
at this writing, but it was supposed to be heavy. The Confede- 
rate loss was nine persons killed and twelve slightly wounded. The 
gunboat Beaufort brought to this city twenty-three prisoners from 
the Congress — one man died while coming up; he was shot by the 
Federals when they fired on the Congress from Newport's News. 

[The Virginia had two men killed (neither from Norfolk) and five 
or six wounded. Commodore Buchanan, commanding the Virginia, 
was slightly wounded, and Lieut. Robt. D. Minor, severely. The 
vessel's armament consisted of 10 guns, to-wit: Six 9 inch Dahl- 



70 

gren's; two 32- pounder rifles (broadside), aod two 7-inch rifled- 
pivot guns — fore and aft. When she was ready to sail, General 
Huger asked for volunteer artillerymen to man her guns, as she 
lacked about thirty men to make up her required number, which 
was about three hundred, all told. Capt. Thos. Kevill, and thirty 
members of his company [the United Artillery from Norfolk,] vol- 
unteered for the dangerous work, and during the fight two of the 
guns had large pieces knocked off their muzzles. Capt. Kevill had 
two men wounded, viz : Messrs. Andrew J. Dal ton and Juo. Capps. 
The injured guns were not "immediately replaced by others," as 
stated by one writer, but were used in the fight next day, in their 
same damaged condition. [Capt. Kevill's company was in charge 
of guns at Fort Norfolk when thirty-one of their number volun- 
teered for duty on the Virginia]. 

"The steamer Patrick Henry was also disabled in the action of 
Saturday the 8th, and was compelled to haul off for repairs — she 
had several men killed and wounded. The Confederate gun- 
boat Raleigh was also in the fight and had one man killed — said to 
have been Midshipman Hutter, but we cannot vouch for that fact 
just now. During this naval engagement, several small prizes were 
captured by our gunboats — one of which, the Reindeer, was brought 
to the Navy-yard that night — two others were said to have been 
carried to Pig Point. 

The fight was begun again on Sundav, the 9th instant — the Mill- 
nesota being still aground at the time. We here give another 
extract from an account that was written about the engagements — 
more particularly about the 

BATTLE OP THE NINTH OP MARCH, 1862. 

" On Sunday March 9th, 1862, faint cannonading was heard 
down the river from Norfolk, and it was ascertained that Lieut. 
Catesby Jones, in command of the Virginia, had begun another at- 
tack upon the enemy. At JO o'clock A. m., the steamer Harmony 
started from the dock-yard for the scene of the battle, and upon ar- 
riving in the Roads, we saw a strange picture, at once novel and 
beautiful. Our gunboats were lying in line of battle under Sewell's 
Point, with thick masses of smoke floating lazily above them, and 
occasionally firing shots at the enemy in the distance. The Virginia, 
looking grim and mysterious as before, steamed off in pursuit of a 
wonderful looking thing that looked like a prodigious " cheese box " 
on a plank of Plutonian darkness. At first we could see the great 
puffs of smoke jetting out from the Minnesota, the Virginia, and at 
long intervals from the mysterious, black ' cheese box' ; but no 
sound reached us, for the wind had risen and the warm calm of 
morning was succeeded by a piercing North Easter. Onward we 
sped in our boat of observation — across the Craney Island flats and 
presently we could hear the guns as their booming grew louder and 



71 

louder. But the strange loooking battery, with its black revolving 
cupola, fled before the Virginia. It was, as somebody said, ' like 
fighting a ghost.' Now she ran down towards Old Point, now 
back towards Newport's News, now approached to fire and then ran 
away to load, but evidently fighting shy, and afraid of being put 
< in chancery,' as the pugilists call it, by her powerful pursuer. The 
projectiles from her great piece of ordnance, a ten-inch solid shot gun, 
came dancing across the water with a series of short, sharp pops, 
which made a music more exciting than melodious. 

"Now she overshot the Virginia, and the spray flew more than 
thirty feet high. Now she shot to this side, now to that. Now she 
steamed close up and hit her fairly. In one of these encounters we 
thought her iron castle had been shot away, but, when the smoke 
cleared away, there it was, and the long plauk-like hull in shore 
again, driving along like the l Flying Dutchman.' Meanwhile 
the Virginia crept up towards the Minnesota, crept up and paused 
in that mysterious silence which fell upon her at all times — a silence 
awfully impressive to us aboard the tug. Was she aground? One 
thought yes. Another could make out that she was moving. 
Another discovered that it was our forging a head which imparted 
to her the apparent motion we had a moment before congratulated 
ourselves upon. The minutes seemed like hours, as we stood watch- 
ing the noble ship against which the combined batteries of the 
Minnesota and Ericsson were now directed. The shot fell like hail ; 
the shells flew like rain-drops, and slowly, steadily she returned the 
fire. There lay the Minnesota with two tugs alongside. Here, 
there and everywhere, was the black " cheese-box." There lay the 
Virginia, evidently aground, but still firing with the same deliberate 
regularity as before. Presently a great white column of smoke shot 
up above the Minnesota, higher and higher, fuller and fuller in its 
volume, and beyond doubt, carried death all along her decks; for 
the red tug's boiler had been exploded by a shot, and that great 
white cloud canopy was the steam thus liberated — more terrible than 
the giant who grew out of the vapor unsealed by the fisherman in 
in the fable. And now the Virginia moves again. There can be 
no error this time, for we see her actually moving through the water 
and can mark the foam at her prow — -and, strange to say, these long 
.painful hours, measuring time by our emotions, are condensed by 
the unsympathetic hands of our watches into fifteen minutes! At 
12 m, she was steaming down for Sewell's Point, while the strange 
looking battery bore away for the frigate ashore. 

"We steamed down to meet her, mustered all hands, gave her three 
cheers, which came from the bottom of our hearts, which were expres- 
sions of our profound thankfulness, of benediction and delight. Her 
company was mustered on the grating and returned our cheers. We 
ran in closer, and there was her commander, Lieut. Jones, looking 



72 

as calm and modest as any gentleman within the jurisdiction of 
Virginia. The Commodore hailed the ship, heard the reply, com- 
limented the quiet, thoughtful looking man, who had managed and 
fought her from the time Flag Officer Buchanan was wounded up 
to that moment, and then, with cordially spoken eulogies upon the 
gallant men on board, we shot ahead. Here let us pause one moment. 
Our task has been to speak of events rather than individual actors ; 
but we should do violence to our own feelings and to the public 
sentiment, did we fail to allude to the conspicuous services of the 
gentleman who succeeded Flag Officer Buchanan, who was shot on 
the grating of the ship on Saturday the 8th. He was known to all 
members of his profession as a thorough and accomplished seaman. 
As an ordnance officer he was of approved skill, and after the 8th 
and 9th of March, this scholar-like, placid gentleman steps upon 
the historic canvas of this great Revolution as one of its true 
heroes. We leave him and his gallant shipmates to the generous 
appreciation of their countrymen, and, asking pardon of his sensitive 
modesty for what we have written, pass on with our narative. 

" The same scene was enacted and re-enacted as she passed each 
vessel, and, with Flag Officer Forrest in the van, the squadron 
steamed cautiously along towards the barricades. 

" As the ships, grouped against the soft hazy sky, followed by the 
Virginia, the picture was one never to be forgotten ; the emotions 
excited such as can never be described. As we looked up towards 
Newport's News we saw the spars of the Cumberland above the 
river she had so long insolently barred ; but of her consort there 
was not even a timber head visible to tell her story. But this was 
not all that the Virginia had done. The Minnesota lay there rid- 
dled like a seive. What damage she sustained will never be known, 
but it must have been frightful. And within eight and forty hours the 
Virginia had successfully encountered, defied and beaten, a force 
equal to 2,890 men and 230 guns, as will be seen by the following 

table : Congress (burnt) 240 men 50 guns. 

Cumberland (sunk) 360 " 23 " 

Minnesota (riddled) 550 " 40 " 

Koanoke (scared off) 550 " 40 " 

St. Lawrence (peppered) 480 " 50 " 

Gunboats (2 or 3 disabled) 120 " 6" 

Floats (silenced) 200 " 20 " 

Ericsson, Monitor 150 " 2" 

Here, perhaps, in this short table is a better picture of what the 
Virginia did and what she dared, than any painter could ever 
give. That some of the makers of this, great piece of history may 
be known to the public we append a list of the officers of the 
Virginia : 

Action of Saturday, 8th. Staff: Flag Officer, Captain Buch- 
anan and Lieutneant R. D. Minor — both wounded. First Lieu- 



73 

tenant Catesby Ap. R. Jones; Secretary and Aide to Flag 
Officer, Lieutenant D. F. Forrest (Army) ; Lieutenant C. C. Simms, 
1st Division ; Lieutenant H. Davidson, 2d Division ; Lieu- 
tenant J. T. Wood, 3d Division ; Lieutenant J. R. Eggleston, 4th 
Division ; Lieutenant W. R. Butt, 5th Division ; Captain R. T. 
Thorn (C. S. Marine Corps), 6th Division ; Paymaster Semple, 
Shot and Shell Division ; Fleet Surgeon, D. B. Phillips ; Assistant 
Surgeon, A. S. Garnett; Chief Engineer, W. A. Ramsay; Master, 
William Parrish ; Midshipmen, Foote, Marmaduke (wounded), 
Littlepage, Long, Craig and Rootes ; Clerk to Flag Officer, A. 
Sinclair ; Assistant Engineers, Tyrnans, Campbell and Herring ; 
Paymaster's Clerk, A. Wright; Boatswain, C. Hasker ; Chief 
Gunner, C. B. Oliver; Ship Carpenter, Lindsay; Pilots, George 
Wright, H. Williams, T. Cunningham and W. Clarke. 

Action of Sunday, the 9th — Lieutenant Commanding, Catesby 
Jones; First Lieutenant C. C. Simms, and Lieutenant H. David- 
son, commanding 1st and 2d Divisions. The other officers were 
the same as those given in the first day's fight. [It has been pre- 
viously stated that Captain Thomas Kevill, of this city, commanded 
a gun (No. 7) in the fight ; he was on duty in that position both 
days]. 

SPECIAL INCIDENTS OF THE FIGHT. 

Most of the Cumberland's crew, which numbered about 500 
men, went down with her or were killed — not more than one hun- 
dred being saved. 

The scene on board the Congress, when the men boarded her, is 
said to have been really sickening ; the deck was literally covered 
with dead and dying seamen and marines. Blood was running in 
streams, human limbs and brains were scattered about, and the 
groans of the dying would have touched with sympathy the hardest 
of hearts. Persons who witnessed the horrible sight were com- 
pletely astounded at the damage the Virginia's guns had done, 
both to the men and the ship. 

On board the Confederate steamer Raleigh, Midshipman Hutter 
was killed, and Captains Alexander and Tayloe wounded, the latter 
very severely. 

On board the Beaufort, Gunner W. Robinson and two seamen 
were wounded — two Federal prisoners on board of her were also 
struck by the shots of their friends at Newport's News ; one was 
instantly killed by a minnie ball which penetrated his brain. On 
bbard the Teaser only one man was wounded, and he very slightly. 

On the Patrick Henry four men were killed and several others 
wounded — all shot by the Federal infantry on the shore near New- 
port's News. 

During the two days fight the mainmast of the Raleigh and two 
flag-staffs of the Virginia were cut down by the enemy's guns. 



74 

Among the prisoners taken from the Congress was a negro man 
named Sam, the property of the Drummond family in this city, who 
had escaped from his owners several months previous to his capture. 

The report that the Congress was " burned by the Federals to 
prevent her falling into the hands of the Confederates," was purely 
a fabrication, as the foregoing account plainly states that after she 
was "run ashore," she raised the white flag and was boarded by 
Confederates from the steamer Beaufort, <&c. She was certainly 
burned by the Confederates. 

When the Virginia arrived at the Navy-yard, after the fighting 
was over, her men were mustered and addressed by the Command- 
ing Officer in high terms of praise for their coolness and great 
courage while under fire. 

EXCITEMENT IN WASHINGTON. 

The excitement caused in Washington by the news of the Vir- 
ginia's victory may be imagined from the following extract from 
an account written by Hon. Gideon Wells, Secretary of the U. S. 
Navy in 1862. That gentleman says : 

" On Sunday morning, the 9th of March, while at the Navy 
Department examining the dispatches received, Mr. Watson, Assist- 
ant Secretary of War, hastily entered with a telegram from Gen. 
Wool, at Fortress Monroe, stating that the Merrimac had come 
down from Norfolk the preceding day, attacked the fleet in Hamp- 
ton Roads, and destroyed the Cumberland and Congress. Appre- 
hensions were expressed by General Wool that the remaining vessels 
would be made victims the following day, and that the Fortress 
itself was in danger, for the Merrimac was impenetrable, and could 
take what position she pleased for assault. I had scarcely read the 
telegram when a message from the President requested my 
immediate attendance at the Executive Mansion. The Secretary of 
War (Mr. Stanton) on receiving General Wool's telegram had gone 
instantly to the President, and at the same time sent messages to 
the other Cabinet Officers, while the Assistant Secretary came to 
me. I went at once to the White House. Mr. Seward and Mr. 
Chase, with Mr. Stanton, were already there, had read the telegram, 
and were discussing the intelligence in much alarm. Each inquired 
what had been and what could be done to meet and check this 
formidable monster, which in a single brief visit had made much 
devastation, and would, herself uninjured, repeat her destructive 
visit with still greater havoc, probably, while we were in council. 

" Mr. Stanton, impulsive, and always a sensationalist, was terri- 
bly excited, walked the room in great agitation, and gave brusque 
utterances, and deprecatory answers to all that was said, and cen- 
sured everything that had been done or was omitted to be done. 
Mr. Seward, usually buoyant and self reliant, overwhelmed with 
the intelligence, listened in responsive sympathy to Stanton, and 



75 

was greatly depressed, as indeed, were all the members, who, in the 
meantime, had arrived, with the exception of Mr. Blair, as well as 
one or two others — naval and military officers — among them, Com- 
mander Dahlgren and Col. Meigs. 

" The Merrimac," said Stanton, who was vehement, aud did most 
of the talking, " will change the whole character of the war ;" she 
will destroy, seriatim, every naval vessel ; she will lay all the cities 
on the seaboard under contribution. I shall immediately recall 
Burnside, Port Royal must be abandoned. I will notify the 
Governors aud the municipal authorities in the North to take instant 
measures to protect their harbors." It is difficult to repeat his 
language, which was broken and denunciatory, or to characterize 
his manner, or the panic under which he labored, and which added 
to the apprehension of others. He had no doubt, he said, that the 
monster was at this moment on her way to Washington, and, looking 
outof the window, which commandeda view of the Potomacfor many 
miles, he said, " not unlikely we shall have a shell or cannon-ball 
from one of her guns, in the White House before we leave this 
room." Most of Stanton's complaints were directed to me, and to 
me others turned, not complainingly, but naturally, for information 
or suggestion that might give relief. I had little to impart except 
my faith in the untried Monitor experiment, which we had prepared 
for the emergency ; an assurance that the Merrimac, with her draft, 
and loaded with iron, could not pass Kettle Bottom Shoals, in the 
Potomac, and ascend the river and surprise us with a cannon ball, 
and advised that, instead of adding to the general panic, it would 
better become us to calmly consider the situation and inspire confi- 
dence by acting, so far as we could, intelligently, and with discretion 
and judgment. 

"Mr. Chase approved the suggestion, but thought it might be 
well to telegraph Governor Morgan and Mayor Opdyke, at New 
York, that they might be on their guard. Stanton said he should 
warn the authorities in all the chief cities. I questioned the prop- 
riety of sending abroad panic missives, or adding to the alarm that 
would naturally be felt, and said it was doubtful whether the vessel 
so cut down and loaded with armor, would venture outside of the 
Capes ; certainly, she could not, with her draft of water, get into the 
sounds of North Carolina to disturb Burnside and our forces there ; 
nor was she omnipresent to make general destruction at New York, 
Boston, Port Royal, &c, at the same time; that there would be 
general alarm created ; and repeated that my dependence was on the 
Monitor, and my confidence in her, great. '■' What," asked Stanton, 
"is the size and strength of this Monitor? How many guns does 
she carry?" When I replied two, but of large calibre, he turned 
away with a look of mingled amazement, contempt, and distress, 
that was painfully ludicrous. Mr. Seward said that my remark 



76 

concerning the draft of water which the Merrimac drew, and the 
assurance that it was impossible for her to get at our forces under 
Burnside, afforded him the first moment of relief and real comfort 
he had received. 

" Stanton left abruptly after Seward's remark. The President 
ordered his carriage and went to the Navy-yard to see what might 
be the views of the Naval officers. Returning to my house a little 
before 12 o'clock, I stopped at St. John's Church, and called out 
Commodore Smith, to whom I communicated the tidings we had 
received, and that the Congress, commanded by his son, Commander 
Joseph Smith, bad been sunk. "The Congress sunk !" he exclaimed, 
at the same time buttoning up his coat, and looking me calmly and 
steadily in the face — "then Joe is dead !" I told him this did not 
follow, the officers and crew doubtless escaped, for the shore was not 
distant. " You don't know Joe," said the veteran father, " as 
well as I do; he would not survive his ship." (As he did not, 
but mortally wounded, perished with her). 

" At a late hour I received a telegram from Mr. Fox, stating that 
the Monitor had reached Hampton Roads a little before midnight 
of the 8th, and had encountered and driven off the Merrimac. The 
submerged telegraph cable, which had been completed from Fortress 
Monroe to Cherrystone the preceding evening, parted on Sunday 
evening, and further communication ceased at this highly interest- 
ing crisis until the arrival of the mail, via Baltimore, on Monday. 

"It is not my purpose to narrate the particulars of the conflict, 
which have been so well and accurately detailed in the official reports 
of the officers, and are matters of record, and were published in the 
day and time of that remarkable encounter. 

" The Merrimac was a few days thereafter — on the 10th of May, 
Avhile the President and party were at Fortress Monroe — aban- 
doned and destroyed by the rebels themselves. The large steamers 
that had awaited her advent, at an expense of several hundred 
thousand dollars, were discharged, with the exception of the Van- 
derbilt, which reinained a white elephant in the hands of the War 
Department. Eventually she was turned over to the Navy, that 
had declined to purchase and did not want her. She was too large 
for blockade service, but as she was to be employed, the Navy 
Department sent her off on an unsuccessful cruise for the Alabama, 
under a very capable Commander, at a cost to the Government of 
more than one thousand dollars per day without result. The War 
Department had. paid two thousand dollars per day to her owner 
for her use. 

" The Monitor, which rendered such gallant service to the coun- 
try and was the progenitor of a class of vessels that is to be found 
in the navy of almost every maritime nation, was foundered on the 
30th of December, 1862, in a storm off Cape Hatteras." 



77 

j\Tust two months after the brilliant achievements of the Virginia 
In Hampton Roads, the gallant craft was destroyed by the Confed- 
erates — an account of which will be given in succeeding pages. 
After the destruction of the Virginia the following poem was 
written, and its author has kindly contributed it to this volume :] 

THE MERRIMAC AND THE BLOCRADEES. — BY W, S. FORREST, 

The sun looked forth in glory, 

A day of joy it seemed ; 
Of war-ships' decks all gory, 

The fee but little dreamed. 

Yet onward dashed a monster 

That Nelson might have feared ; 
The rattling drums announced her, 

And the signal guns were heard. 

And soon the flash and thunder 

Bespeak her peerless sway ; 
Huge timbers crash asunder, 

And Ironsides rules the day. 

The ambient air is trembling 5 

Columbiads' echoing tones 
Soil on — the while resembling 

The earthquake's sullen groans. 

The red-hot balls are flying 

Like demons through the air. 
And mangled men are dying 

And screaming in despair I 

Buchanan's voice is ringing 

Like a trumpet-call to war, 
While bleeding men are clinging 

To broken mast and -spar. 

The briny tide is flowing 

O'er a proud old frigate's deck, 
And still the shots are mowing 

The ranks on a burning wreck. 

And soon the red flames flashing, 

The shores illuminate ; 
And blazing timbers crashing, 
Complete her awful fate. 

Two others still are battered, 

Though standing far away ; 
Their hulls and bulwarks shattered,, 

While others fear the fray. 

Blockaders, where's your powet 

To harm those iron walls 
With hot metallic shower 

Of shell and solid balls ? 



78 

The furious fray has ended. 

The echoes died away, 
The work of death suspended 

Until another day. 

The moon lights up ?he scenery 
Of blood and death and woe r 

The work of man's machinery 
To crush a mighty foe. 

The sun-lit wavelets play there, 
The sea-bird's scream is heard ; 

The free winds hold their sway where 
Those sentry ships appeared. 



Again those shores are lighted — 

Another deafening roar ; 
Again fond hopes are blighted ; 

The Merrimae is no more I 

[Mr. Forrest, as well as the Northern people, called her the 
" Merrimac,"'because she was better known by that title. Very 
few persons called her the Virginia, although that was her Confed- 
erate name]. 

May 1st (1862) the Norfolk Independent Greys, stationed at 
Craney Island, elected the following officers : 

Captain, David Wright; 1st Lieutenant, J. H. Smith; 2d 
Lieutenant, W. G. Wilbern ; Jr. 2d Lieutenant, Henry S. Rey- 
nolds. 

On the same day the Norfolk Juniors, at the "Entrenched Camp," 
elected the following officers : 

Captain, Thos. F. Owens ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Woodhouse ; 
2d Lieutenant, C. DeShields ; Jr., 2d Lieutenant, Charles Beall. 

Amongthe gallant soldiers killed at the battle of Shiloh, in April 
1862, was Mr. Robert J. Camm, of Norfolk. He was a member of 
Company B, in the "Crescent Battalion" from New Orleans. News 
of his death was not received here until May 2d. 

May 3rd, a handsome sword was presented to Lieut. Woodhouse 
of the Norfolk Juniors, by private E. Tompkins, in behalf of the 
Company. 

During the elections which were held by the various commands 
during the first part of this month, we note the following officers of 
the 6th Virginia Regiment : 

Colonel, George Rogers; Lieutenant-Colonel, H. Williamson; 
Major, R. B. Taylor. 

The three Norfolk Companies attached to this Regiment elected 
officers as follows : 

Company A. — Captain, C. W. Perkinson ; 1st Lieutenant, C. W. 



79 

Wilson ) 2d Lieutenant, Geo. Stewart ; Jr. 2d Lieutenant, J. Lee 
Happer. 

Company C. — Captain, John C. Hayman ; 1st Lieutenant, D. C> 
Walters ; 2d Lieutenant, A. J, Denson ; Jr. 2d Lieutenant, James 
Dashiel. 

Company D. — Captain, Jno. R. Ludlow ; 1st Lieutenant, M. N. 
Stokes ; 2d Lieutenant, Geo. F. Crawley ; Jr. 2d Lieutenant, Jas, 
M. F. Wyatt. 

May the 7th, the death of James W. Ghiselin was first pub- 
lished. He was killed at the battle of Shiloh while gallantly 
leading a charge. He was a promising young man, only 26 years 
of age, and son of Mr. Jno. D. Ghiselin, Sr., of this city. 

May 8th, heavy cannonading was heard down the river and great 
excitement was caused by it in Norfolk. It was generally conceded, 
from the fact of three Federal gunboats having passed up James 
River in the morning, that they were shelling one of our batteries, 
most likely the one at Dey's Point. 

At a later hour in the day, about 12 o'clock, the bombardment 
of Sewell's Point commenced. The enemy had two frigates, three 
gunboats and two iron-clad batteries engaged in this work, and 
they continued with great energy for several hours, until the Vir- 
ginia, which was at the Navy Yard, got up steam and went down. 
We learn that as soon as she turned the point at Craney Island, 
the whole Federal fleet beat a hasty retreat back to Old Point, not 
caring to encounter this object of their greatest terror. 

THE EVACUATION OP NORFOLK BY THE CONFEDERATES. 

The Confederate Commander of this department (Gen. Huger) 
heard of the evacuation of Yorktown, by our troops, and at the 
same time learned that the Federals had planned an attack upon 
Norfolk, both by land and water, which, the insufficiency of our 
defences and want of troops, could not successfully, repel without 
great sacrifices. And also knowing that the enemy having posses- 
sion of Roanoke Island, Hatteras, and Fortress Monroe, Norfolk 
was not valuable to the Confederacy as a strategic point, and could 
not be held except at very great loss of life and expense to the 
Government, it was determined, after proper consultation with the 
War Department at Richmond, to evacuate the place. Accord- 
ingly, preparations were at once made to that effect, and the work 
of destroying the public property that could not be carried way 
was begun. 

On the morning of the 10th of May, Gen. Jno. E. Wool, Com- 
manding United States forces at Fortress Monroe, landed troops at 
Ocean View, and commenced his march upon Norfolk. The troops 
were organized during the night previous at Old Point, and were 
conveyed to the point of landing in the Steamer Adelaide, of the 
Old Bay Line, and several barges, which had been engaged for that 



80 

purpose. As soon as this was known to the Confederates, the) 7 aban- 
doned their guns at Sewell's Point and came to Norfolk to prevent 
being captured by the forces in their rear. The Federal troops 
approached very cautiously and slowly, and during the day 
(the 10th) our forces destroyed the public buildings and vessels at 
the Navy Yard, spiked all the guns, and quietly abandoned the 
" Twin Cities by the Sea." The Craney Island and Pig Point 
batteries were also abandoned (under protection of the Virginia) 
and the guns at those places, as well as at Sewell's Point, were 
spiked. 

A correspondent of the Baltimore American thus wrote ta that 
paper under date of Sunday, May the 11th. After giving a list of 
the troops that were landed at Ocean View, he said : " Nothing of 
interest occurred on the march until the troops got within three 
miles of the city, when all the approaches were observed to be 
extensively fortified by lines of earthworks full three miles in 
length, mounted with heavy guns — all of which had been spiked, 
and the amunition removed to Norfolk. Gen. Viele was the first 
to enter the works, followed by the skirmishers, body-guard and 
staff of Gen. Wool. Shortly after passing these harmless obstruc- 
tions the line of march was again taken up for the city, the church 
spires and prominent points of which could be occasionally seen 
through the thick foliage of the trees. 

" When about a mile from the suburbs, Mayor W. W. Lamb, of 
Norfolk, accompanied by a committee from the City Councils, ap- 
proached the advancing column under a flag of truce, and informed 
Gen. Wool that Gen. Huger had evacuated the city, and that civil 
authority had been restored ; that at that time there were no Con- 
federate troops within several miles of Norfolk or Portsmouth ; and 
that, under the circumstances, he was prepared to give the Federals 
quiet and peaceful possession of the city, and all he asked in return 
was that private property should be respected, and peacviable citi- 
zens allowed to pursue their usual business avocations. 

" A halt was then ordered and the men bivouacked on the field 
for the night, outside the city limits. Gen. Wool begged Mayor 
Lamb to rest assured that all he had asked should be granted. The 
party then started for the City Hall to inaugurate the new military 
authorities in control of Norfolk. The Mayor invited Gen. Wool 
and Secretary Chase (who was with him) to seats in his carriage, 
and they proceeded together, followed by the General's body-guard 
and staff." After arriving at and entering the City Hall, General 
Wool issued an order which appointed Brigadier-General Veile, 
Military Governor of the city, and which concluded with the follow- 
ing language : " General Viele will see that all citizens are care- 
fully protected in all their rights and civil privileges, taking the 
utmost care to preserve order, and to see that no soldiers be per- 



81 

raitted to enter the city except by his order, or by the written 
permission of the commanding officer of his brigade or regiment, 
and he will punish any American soldier who shall trespass upon 
the rights or property of any of the innabitants." [Every citizen 
who remained in Norfolk after that knows how faithfully (f) Gen. 
Viele executed this part of Gen. Wool's order ; but probably Gen. 
Wool was not so wise]. 

After issuing his order, General Wool at once departed for Fort 
Monroe, and a large concourse of citizens assembled around the 
City Hall and called upon Mayor Lamb for a speech. He ad- 
dressed the crowd briefly, stating what he had done, and repeating 
what General Wool had said in his order. The Mayor's remarks 
were received with expressions of approval— some persons cheered 
him when he concluded. 

Some days after this General Wool, in a private letter to a friend 
in New York, said ; " I found out, on Friday, the 9th, that I 
could land troops without much trouble at Ocean View, six miles 
from Fort Monroe. The Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Chase, 
and my Aide-de-camp, Colonel Cram, were with me. I immedi- 
ately organized a force of less than six thousand men, and embarked 
them that night, under the direction of Colonel Cram. The Col- 
onel constructed a bridge of boats from the steamer across the 
shallow water, and we landed the troops at the point named early 
Saturday morning, the 10th instant. As fast as they could form, 
I put them in motion for Norfolk. Our route was by the New 
Bridge over Tanner's Creek. On approaching the bridge, our 
troops were fired upon from a battery of three six-pounders, when 
our necessary halt enabled the enemy to burn the bridge. I then 
ordered a countermarch, and proceeded to Norfolk by the old road, 
where I arrived safe at 5 o'clock p. M., when the Mayor met me 
and surrendered the city. 

"The enemy, three thousand strong under General Huger, had 
fled a short time before my arrival. The entrenchments through 
which I passed had twenty-one guns mounted, which, properly 
manned, might have made an effective defence. I turned over the 
command to General Viele, appointed him Military Governor of 
the city, and then returned to the Fort and reported to the Presi- 
dent and Secretary of War, who awaited me, I think it a fair 
inference that the occupation of Norfolk caused the blowing up of 
the dreaded Merrimac, and secured to us the free use of James 
river. The army may, therefore, claim at least some share of this 
much desired naval success. 

" In great haste, most truly yours, 

"JOHN E. WOOL." 



82 
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE VIRGINIA. 

Official Report of Commodore Tatna.ll, C. S. N. 

"Richmond, Va., May 14th, 1862. 

" Hon. S. R. Mallory, Secretary Confederate States Navy : Sir — 
In detailing to you the circumstances which caused the destruction 
of the Confederate States steamer Virginia, and her movements a 
few days previous 1o that event, I begin with your telegraphic 
dispatches to me of the 4th and 5th instants, directing me to take 
such a position in the James river as would entirely prevent the 
enemy ascending it. 

"General Huger, commanding at Norfolk, on learning that I 
had received this order, called on me and declared that its execution 
would oblige him to abandon immediately his forts on Craney 
Island and Sewell's Point. I informed him that as the order was 
imperative, I must execute it ; but stated that he should telegraph 
you and state the consequences. He did so, and on the 6th instant 
you telegraphed me to endeavor to afford protection to Norfolk as 
well as the James river, which replaced me in my original position. 
I then arranged with the General that he should notify me when 
his preparations for the evacuation of Norfolk were sufficiently 
advanced to enable me to act independently. 

" On the 7th instant Commodore Hollins reached Norfolk with 
orders from you to communicate with me and such officers as I 
might select in regard to the best disposition to be made of the 
Virginia under the present aspect of things. We had arranged 
the conference for the next day, the 8th ; but on that day before 
the hour appointed, the enemy attacked the Sewell's Point battery, 
and I immediately left with the Virginia to defend it. There I found 
six of the enemy's vessels, including the iron-clad steamers Monitor 
and Naugatuck, shelling the battery. We passed by and headed 
directly for the enemy for the purpose of engaging him, and I 
thought an action certain. But before we got within gunshot, he 
ceased firing and retired with all speed to the protecting guns of 
Fort Monroe, followed by the Virginia, until the shells from the 
Rip Raps passed over her. 

" The Virginia was then placed at her moorings near Sewell's 
Point, and I returned to Norfolk to hold the conference referred 
to. It was held on the 9th instant, and the officers present were, 

Col. Anderson and Captain , of the army, selected by Gen. 

Huger, who was too.unwell to attend himself; and of the navy, 
myself, Commodore Hollins, Capts. Sterrett and Lee, Commander 
Richard L. Jones, and Lieuts. Catesby Ap. R. Jones and J. Pem- 
broke Jones. The opinion was unanimous that the Virginia was 
then employed to the best advantage, and that she should continue 



83 

for the present, to protect Norfolk, and thus afford time to remove 
the public property. 

" On the next da} 7 (10th), at 10 o'clock A. M., we observed from 
the Virginia that the flag was not flying on the Sewell's Point bat- 
tery, and that the place appeared to have been abandoned. I 
despatched Lieut. J. P. Jones to Craney Island, where our flag was 
still flying, and he there learned that a large force of the enemy had 
landed on Bay Shore, and were marching on Norfolk ; that Sewell's 
Point was abandoned, and that our troops were retreating. I then 
despatched the same officer to Norfolk, to confer with Gen. Huger 
and Capt. Lee. He found the Navy Yard in flames, and that all 
its officers had left by ihe railroad — Gen. Huger and the other army 
officers had also left, and the enemy was within a short distance 
from the city, treating with the Mayor for its surrender. On return- 
ing to me he found that Craney Island and all the other batteries on 
the river had been abandoned. It was then seven o'clock p. m., and 
prompt measures were necessary for the safety of the Virginia. 

" The pilots had assured me that they could take the ship, with a 
draft of eighteen feet, to within forty miles of Richmond. This the 
chief pilot, Mr. Parrish, and his chief assistant, Mr. Wright, had 
asserted again and again ; and on the afternoon of the 7th, in my 
cabin, in the presence of Commodore Hollins and Capt. Sterrett, in 
reply to a question of mine, they both emphatically declared their 
ability to do so. Confiding in these assurances, and after consulting 
with the First and Flag-Lieutenants, and learning that the officers 
generally thought it the most judicious course, I determined to 
lighten the ship at once and run up the river for the protection of 
Richmond. AH hands having been called on deck, I stated to them 
the condition of things, and my hope that, by getting up the river, 
before the enemy could be made aware of our designs, we might cap- 
capture his vessels which had ascended it, and render efficient aid 
in the defence of Richmond ; but that to effect this would require 
all their energy in lightening the ship. They replied with three 
cheers and went to work at once. The pilots were on deck and 
heard this address to the crew. 

" Being quite unwell, I retired to bed. Between one and two 
o'clock in the morning, the First Lieutenant reported to me that, 
after the crew had worked for five or six hours, and lifted the 
ship so as to render her unfit for action, the pilots had declared 
their inability to carry eighteen feet above Jamestown Flats, up to 
which point the shore on each side was occupied by the enemy. On 
demanding from the chief pilot, Mr. Parrish, an explanation of this 
palpable deception, he replied that eighteen feet could be carried 
after the prevalence of easterly winds, but that the wind for the 
last two days had been westerly. I had no time to lose. The ship 
was not in condition for battle, even with an enemy of equal force, 



84 

and their force was overwhelming. I therefore determined, with the 
concurrence of the First and Flag Lieutenants, to save the crew for 
future service by landing them at Craney Island, the only road for 
retreat open to us, and to destroy the ship to prevent her falling in 
the hands of the enemy. I may add that, although not formally 
consulted, the course was approved by every Commissioned Officer- 
in the ship. There was no dissenting opinion. The ship was 
accordingly run ashore as near the main land as possible, and the 
crew landed. She was then fired, and after burning fiercely fore 
and aft for upward of an hour, blew up a little before five o'clock 
on the morning of the eleventh. 

" We then marched to Suffolk, a distance of twenty-two miles, 
reached there in the evening and came by rail to Richmond. It will 
be asked what motives the pilots could have had in deceiving me. 
The <»nly imaginable one is that they wished to avoid going into 
battle. Had the ship not have been lifted so as to render her unfit 
for action, a desperate contest must have ensued with a force against 
us too great to justify much hope of success ; and as fighting was 
not their occupation, they adopted this deceitful course to avoid it. 
I cannot imagine another motive, for I had seen no reason to dis- 
trust their good faith to the Confederacy. 

" My acknowledgements are due to First Lieutenant Catesby 
Ap. II. Jones, for his untiring exertions, and for the aid he rendered 
me in all tilings. The details for firing the ship and landing the 
crew were left to him, and everything was conducted with the most 
perfect order. 

" To the other officers of the ship, generally, I am also thankful 
for the great zeal they displayed throughout. The Virginia no 
longer exists, but three hundred braveand skilful officers and seamen 
are saved to theConfederaey. 

" I presume that a Court of Inquiry will be ordered to examine 
into all the circumstances I have narrated, and I earnestly solicit 
it. Public opinion will never be put right without it. 

" I am sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, 
" (Signed) JOSIAH TATNALL, 

Flag Officer, Commanding." 

The above report gives " the particulars " concerning the destruc- 
tion of the most formidable and gallant ship that ever sailed upon 
our waters. 

FINDINGS OF THE COURT OF INQUIRY. 

The Court of Inquiry asked for by Commodore Tatnall, and 
convoked by order of the Secretary of the Navy, on the 20th of May 
(18G2), in Richmond, and of which Captain French Forrest, of the 
Navy, was President, adopted the following report: 

1st. " The destruction of the Virginia was, in the opinion of this 
Court, unnecessary at time and place it was effected. 



'2d. " It being clearly in evidence that Norfolk being evacuated, 
and Flag-Officer Tat nail having beeen instructed to prevent 'tile 
<enemy from ascending James River, the Virginia, with very little 
more, if any lessening of draft, after lightening her to twenty feet six 
inches aft, with her iron sheathing still extending three feet under 
water, could have been taken up to Hog Island, in James River, 
(where the channel is narrow) and could then have prevented the 
larger vessels and transports of the enemy from ascending. The 
Court is of the opinion that such a disposition ought to have been 
made of her, and if it should be ascertained that her provisions could 
not have been replenished when those on hand were exhausted, 
then the proper time would have arrived for considering the exped- 
iency or practicability of striking a last blow at the enemy, or of 
•destroying her. 

3d. "In conclusion, the Court is of opinion that the evacuation 
of Norfolk, the destruction of the Navy Yard and other public 
property, added to the hasty retreat of the military under General 
Huger, leaving the batteries unmanned and unprotected, no doubt 
conspired to produce in the minds of the officers of the Virginia 
the necessity of her destruction at the time, as, in their opinion the 
only means left of preventing her from falling into the hands of 
the enemy ; and seems to have precluded the consideration of the 
possibility of getting her up James River to the point or points 
indicated." 

It is a fact well known in Norfolk, and can be substantiated by 
gentlemen now living here who were on board the Virginia) that 
her crew wanted to attack the Monitor and were willing to fight 
her even under the guns of Fort Monroe, if they had been allowed 
to do so. We do not pretend to say that this would have been 
proper, or prudent, but we mention it as a fact not mentioned in 
Commodore Tatnall's report of the partieulars y &c. 

UNDER FEDERAL MILITARY RULE. 

We do not propose in this volume to give much of Norfolk's 
history during the time she Was under- the rule of Ben Butler, 
Viele, Bovey & Co. (names that were not born to die as long as 
infamy lives), but will make brief mention of a few facts, and then 
pass on to the " weak, piping times peace." In a future (enlarged) 
edition of this work, the author proposes to call particular attention 
to the events that transpired in this city while " Beast Butler " had 
command and persecuted our people. 

The evacuation of Norfolk by the Confederates caused a great 
deal of anxiety, fear and heart-suffering among the citizens. Aged 
fathers and mothers, affectionate sisters and daughters, weeping 
wives and little children, saw their loved ones depart for scenes and 
dangers unknown, probably never to return again ! It was indeed 



86 

a trying hour; but the brave hearts who had undertaken the 
defence of their native State recognized fidelity to no other cause, 
and with tearful eyes an 1 farewell embraces they left their hearts 7 
treasures in sorrow, and boldly marched forth to battle for the 
homes the v loved so well. Oh! glorious hero is he who freely 
offers his blood and his life for the sake of liberty and the land 
which gave him birth. Vile traitor is he who turns his back upon 
his native or adopted State to battle against the rights and princi- 
ples which she calls npon him to defend. And yet more infamous,, 
vile and cowardly is the man who has no principles dear to his 
heart, no pride to make him brave, no holy cause to defend. There 
are such men as these in the world — some in the North and some 
in the South, and some in Norfolk as well as other places. 

It was not until after the Federals took possession of Norfolk 
that the honest Southern men and the sneaking hypocrites in the 
city, were truly known. It was not until then that Ben Butler's 
thieving propensities, and his impious and merciless acts as a mili- 
tary commander, brought him to the scornful notice of the honest 
and Christian people of the country. It was not until then that a "scal- 
lawag " was known in Virginia — known by the untiring energy 
he displayed in his efforts to humiliate, degrade and destroy the 
very people with whom he had lived for life, and among whom he 
had prospered — known by the bull dog tenacity with which he 
clung to the skirts and licked the boots of the Federal officers, ever 
whispering in their ears tales about honest men's loyalty to the 
South, and ever trying to sow the seeds of discord and trouble. 

Our people will remember that " Beast Butler " ruled them with 
an iron will, and ordered the execution of Dr. Wright, one of our 
noblest and best citizens, simply because he dared to shoot down 
an insolent officer of a negro company, who had grossly insulted 
him, and would probably have killed him if he had gotten the first 
chance. This and other great outrages are fresh in the minds of 
the citizens of our community, and they will be given in detail in a 
forthcoming edition of this history. 

Butler of course removed all good citizens of Norfolk and Ports- 
mouth from office, and filled their places with " scallawags" and 
"army bummers-" He took charge of our city gas works and ran 
the same " on Government account" — which meant in plain Eng- 
lish, for " Butler & Co." 

As a sample of the Councilmen appointed by the " the Beast" we 
have only to present our readers with the following preamble and 
resolutions which were unanimously adopted by the Council of 
Portsmouth, July 13th, 1863, and duly recorded. The said resolu- 
tions were offered by R. G. Staples, who was then a conspicuous 
member of the " Butlerized Council" in the " game cock" city by 
the sea. Here is the document — it refers particular to the killing 



87 

of the soldier by the brave and chivalrous Dr. Wright, in July 
1863: 

" Wherms, By the brutal murder of an officer of the United 
States forces, by a rabid secessionist of the city of Norfolk ; and 
whereas, we have convincing proof of the dispositions of men in 
our midst of similar proclivities; be it therefore, 

"Resolved 1st, That the Common Council of the city of Ports- 
mouth has heard with regret of the death of Lieut. A. L. Sanborn, 
while in the discharge of his officialduties, by the hands of a dis- 
loyal man. 

" Resolved 2nd, That the sympathies of this Board be extended to 
the friends and connections of the deceased, and that the members 
of this Council will attend in a body upon the funeral ceremonies 
of the deceased. 

" Resolved 3rd, That the Mayor be called upon to request a 
general suspension of business from one to three P. M., and that the 
bells of the city be tolled during that time. 

" Resolved 4th, That we call upon the military authorities to bring 
to speedy and condign punishment the author of this foul crime 
and treasonable act to his country and his God. 

" Resolved 5th, That this Council deem it the duty of the United 
States forces to remove from our midst the foul mouthed traitors who 
infest the street corners and market places of our city, plotting 
treason and even contemplating such deeds of bloodshed as we are 
now called to reflect upon. 

" Resolved 6th, That the clerk be ordered to furnish copies of 
these resolutions to the friends of the deceased, and the military 
authorities of this Department." 

[R. G. Staples, at this writing — February 1877 — is the Post- 
master of Portsmouth ; and as it is naturally supposed that the new 
President of the United States, R. B. Hayes Esq., will make many 
changes in Federal offices in the South, and as he has evinced some 
disposition to be governed by the wishes of the respectable citizens 
of the various communities, the aforesaid Staples — ex-Councilman, 
Postmaster, &c-, circulated a petition to be retained in office, and 
asked some of the good people of Portsmouth — some of those 
" foul-mouthed traitors" as he once denominated them, to sign his 
petition. Verily, such unblushing impudence beats the devil him- 
self. These facts are simply mentioned to show what kind of people 
old Butler put in office — many of whom were retained by U. S. 
Grant to reign over and misgovern the affairs of our dear old Vir- 
ginia. Where such people first came from, no one knows ; where 
they are to go at last, no body cares]. 

THE NORFOLK SOLDIEES. 

Some months previous to the evacuation of Norfolk, " Mahone's 
Brigade" was formed — that gallant old brigade, which, under its 



brave and peerless Commander, Gen. Wm. Mahone, of this city 
(now of Petersburg), won undying fame and imperishable glory I 
It was composed of the 6th ? 12th, 16th, 41st and 61st Virginia Regi- 
ments — each of which has a record in the history of the Army of 
Northern Virginia, unsurpassed for true courage and deeds of 
daring. All of the infantry companies from Norfolk were attached 
to two regiments of this brigade, to wit : 

The Norfolk Junior Volunteers were assigned to the 12th Va., 
Regiment, as Company H. This gallant Company left here under 
command of Capt. Thos. F. Owens. The officers of the regiment 
at that time were, Col. D. A. Weisiger; Lieutenant-Colonel, J. 
Richard Lewellen j Major, John May — all from Petersburg at that 
time. 

The 6th Regiment was under the following officers when it leffe 
Norfolk : Colonel, Geo. T. Rogers ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Harry 
Williamson ; Major, Robert Taylor ; Adjutant, Lieutenant Alex. 
Tunstall — all of Norfolk and its vicinity. The following com- 
panies from the city were assigned to the 6th, and left here under 
the Captains named, to wit : The Independent Grays, (Co. H), 
Capt. David Wright ; Woodis Rifles, (Co. C), Capt. Jno. Hayman ; 
Co. G (old " Co. F"), Capt. Edward Hardy ; Co. D (jocularly called 
" Ludlow's Pills"), Capt. John R. Ludlow ; Co. A, Capt. C. W. 
Perkinson. 

The Norfolk Artillery Companies attached to the Army when 
the city was evacuated, were these : Norfolk Light Artillery Blues 
Capt. C. R. Grandy ; Huger Battery, Capt. Frank Huger ; United 
Artillery, Capt. Thos. Kevill ; Atlantic Artillery, Capt. J. Hardy 
Hendren. The Blues were furnished with a field battery of six 
guns a short time after they arrived in Petersburg. The Huger 
Battery took their guns and horses from here. These two Com- 
panies were assigned to temporary duty around Petersburg. The 
United Artillery Company was assigned to duty at Drury's Bluff. 
The Atlantic Artillery Company was sent to Richmond in the latter 
part of May 1862, to man a battery of heavy guns near Fort Har- 
rison. It was afterwards shifted to various parts of the Army as 
were the Blues' and Huger batteries. 

The companies mentioned in the foregoing list did not contain 
all of the soldiers from Norfolk, for our brave boys were scattered 
about in various other commands. Some were in companies from 
the surrounding counties, and some were in commands from other 
cities and States. We have mentioned in preceding pages of this 
book the names of some of the gallant patriots from our midst who 
entered the army in other States before Virginia seceded. To these 
we would add a few more names which we now recall to memory : 
the gallant Captain John S. Tucker (now the honored Mayor of 
Norfolk) lost an arm in the battle of Corinth, (May, 1862,) under 



89 

the matchless General Beauregard. West wood A. Todd (now 
Deputy Clerk of our Courts) was a brave member of the Peters- 
burg Rifles, 12th Virginia Regiment. John H. Sharp (brother of 
Charles Sharp, Esq.), and Edward Sinclair Beall (son of the 
lamented Rev. Upton Beall) were valuable members of the Otey 
battery, a splendid company from Richmond — first commanded by 
the fearless Captain G. Gaston Otey, of Lynchburg, and afterwards 
by Captain D. N. Walker, an accomplished gentleman from Rich- 
mond. Colonel William Lamb was in North Carolina ; Colonel 
Walter H. Taylor was with the immortal Lee in West Virginia ; 
Colonel V. D. Groner was on duty in Richmond, and Messrs. 
Virginius and Robert Freeman were in South Carolina on duty 
(the former in the navy) when Norfolk was abandoned to the tender 
mercies of Viele, Butler & Co. 

There were other brave soldiers from our town scattered about 
the Confederacy, whose names we cannot now recall — some were 
killed in battle, some died of disease, and others returned home 
to their friends and families, proud with the satisfaction of know- 
ing that they had bravely followed Lee, Jackson and Beauregard, 
and had done their duty to Virginia and to their dear Southern 
land. How was it with those who hearkened not unto Virginia's 
call, but shirked duty by remaining at home, while the best blood 
of our land was being shed in defence of their homes and firesides ? 
How did they meet the brave Norfolk soldiers when they returned 
home from their arduous campaign ? No answer can be given. 

We cannot undertake to give a history of the valor, the hard- 
ships, the sufferings, nor the battles of our brave companies, for it 
would be too great a task. We are permitted, however, to give 
the following account of the battle of the Crater, near Petersburg, 
July 30th, 1864, in which a large majority of the Norfolk soldiers 
were engaged. It was written by Lieutenant Colonel William H. 
Stewart, of the 61st Virginia Regiment, " Mahone's old Brigade" — 
as gallant a soldier as ever braved a bullet — a patriot and a gentle- 
man with but few equals and no superiors : 

BATTLE OF THE CRATER. 

RECOLLECTIONS OF THE RECAPTURE OF THE LINES — SCENES AND 

INCIDENTS. 

As the wild waves of time rush on, our thoughts now and then 
run back over the rough billows to buried hopes and unfulfilled 
anticipations,and oft we linger long and lovingly, as if standing beside 
the tomb of a cherished parent. Thus the faithful follower of the 
Southern Cross recalls the proud hopes that led him over long and 
weary marches and in bloody battles. These foot-sore journeys and 
hard contested fields are now bright jewels in his life around which 
the tenderest cords of his heart are closely entwined. They are 



90 

monuments of duty ! They are sacred resting places for his baffled 
energies ! They are rich mines from which the very humblest actor 
gathers the wealth of an approving conscience ! He hears no peans 
by a grateful country — no bounty rolls bear his name — yet these 
are sweet choristers ever chanting priceless praises to the zeal and 
manhood with which he faced his foe. The veteran of an hundred 
battles always points with greater pride to one as the crowningglorv 
of the many achievements. So the soldiers of Mahone's Old 
Brigade look upon the great battle which I shall here attempt to 
describe. 

My little fly tent, scarcely large enough for two persons to lie 
side by side, was stretched over a platform of rough boards, elevated 
about two feet above ground, in that little grave-yard on the Wil- 
cox farm, near Petersburg. I was quietly sleeping within it, 
dreaming, perhaps, of home and all its dear associations (for only a 
soldier can properly appreciate these), when a deep rumbling sound, 
that seemed to rend the very earth in twain, startled me from my 
slumbers, and in an instant I beheld a mountain of curling smoke 
ascending towards the heavens. The whole camp had been aroused, 
and all were wondering from whence came this mysterious explo- 
sion. It was the morning of Saturday, the 30th day of July, 1864. 
The long-talk- of mine had been sprung, a battery blown up, and 
the enemy were already in possession of eight hundred yards of our 
entrenchments. 

Two hundred cannon roared in one accord, as if every lanyard 
had been pulled by the same hand. The grey fog was floating over 
the fields, and darkness covered the face of the earth, but the first 
bright streak of dawn was gently lifting the curtain of night. 

The fiery crests of the battlements shone out for miles to our left, 
and the nitrous vapors rose in huge billows from each line of battle, 
and sweeping together formed one vast range of gloom. 

The sun rose brilliantly, and the great artillery duel still raged in 
all its grandeur and fury. An occasional shell from aBlakely gun 
would swoop down in our camp and richochet down the line to our 
right, forcing us to hug closely the fortifications. 

Soon after, Captain Tom. Bernard, General Mahone's courier, 
came sweeping up the lines on his white charger to the headquarters 
of Brigadier-General D. A. Weisiger. Then the drums com- 
menced rolling off the the signals, which were followed by "fall in" 
and hurried roll calls. We were required to drive back the Fede- 
rals, who were then holding, and within, the very gates of the city 
of Petersburg. It was startling news ; but our soldiers faltered 
not, and moved off at quick step for the seat of war. 

Wright's Georgia Brigade, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hall, and our Virginia Brigade, the latter numbering scarcely eight 
hundred muskets, constituted the force detailed to dislodge the 



91 

enemy, who held the broken lines with more than fifteen thousand 
men, and these were closely supported by as many more. I 
remember that our regiment, the Sixty-first, did not exceed two 
hundred men, including officers and privates, which I am quite sure 
was the strongest in the two brigades. I suppose we had marched 
the half of a mile when ordered to halt and strip off all baggage 
except ammunition and muskets. We then filed to the left a short 
distance to gain the banks of a small stream in order to be protected 
from the shells of the Federal batteries by placing a range of hill* 
between. These the enemy were already viewing within four hun- 
dred yards with covetous eyes, and making dispositions to attempt 
their capture, for they were the very keys to the invested city. 
When nearly opposite the portion of our works held by the Federal 
troops, we met several soldiers who were in the works at the time 
of the explosion. Our men began ridiculing them for going to the 
rear, when one of them remarked : " Ah, boys, you have hot work 
ahead — they are negroes, and show no quarter." This was the first 
intimation that we had to fight negro troops, and it seemed to infuse 
the little band with impetuous daring, as they pressed onward to the 
fray. I never felt more like fighting in my life. Our comrades 
had been slaughtered in a most inhuman and brutal manner, and 
slaves were trampling over their mangled and bleeding corpses. 
Revenge must have fired every heart and strung every arm with 
nerves of steel for the Herculean task of blood. We filed up a 
ditch, which had been dug for safe ingress and egress to and from 
the earthworks, until we reached the vale between the elevation on 
which the breastworks were located and the one on the banks of the 
little stream just mentioned — within two hundred yards of the 
enemy. The ill-fated battery of six guns which had been demolished 
by the explosion of eight tons of gunpowder, projected from the 
line of earthworks for the infantry at an acute angle. It overlooked 
the enemy's line of works which were on the northeastern slope of 
the same elevation, distant about one hundred yards. 

The " Crater," or excavation, caused by the explosion, was about 
twenty-five feet deep, one hundred and fifty feet long and fifty feet 
wide. About seventy-five feet in rear of the supporting earthworks 
there was a wide ditch with the bank thrown up on the side next 
the fortifications. This was constructed to protect parties carrying 
ammunition and rations to the troops. Between this irregular and 
ungraded embankment and the main line the troops had constructed 
numerous caves, in which they slept at night to be protected from 
the mortar shells. The embankment from the bottom of the ditch 
was about ten feet high and commanded the outer or main line. 
The space from the outside of the fortifications to the inner edge of 
the ditch was more than one hundred feet wide. 

The " Crater," and the space on both sides for some distance, 



92 

were literally crammed with the enemy's troops. They were five 
lines deep, and must have numbered between fifteen and twenty-five 
thousand men. Their historians admit that their charge was made 
by the whole of the Ninth Corps, commanded by General A. E. 
Burnside, and that the Fifth and a part of the Second Corps were 
massed in supporting distance. 

Mahone's old Brigade, after being deployed, covered their front 
from the centre of the " Crater" to the right. Their silken banners 
proudly floating., on the breezes, supported by countless bayonets 
glistening in the sunlight, might on an ordinary occasion have 
daunted our little band and made them forfeit a trial at arms ; but 
they were desperate and determined, and reckoned not the hosts that 
confronted them. I recollect counting seven standards in front of 
our regiment alone. Our column was deployed in the valley before 
mentioned, in full view of these hostile thousands. As the soldiers 
filed into line, General Mahone walked from right to left, com- 
manding the men to reserve their fire until they reached the brink of 
the ditch, and after delivering one volley to use the bayonet. Our 
line was hardly adjusted, and the Georgians had not commenced to 
deploy, when the division of negroes, the advance line of the enemy, 
made an attempt to rise from the ditch and charge. Just at that 
instant General Mahone ordered a counter charge. The men rushed 
forward, officers in front, with uncovered heads and waving hats, 
and grandly and beautifully swept onward over the intervening 
space with muskets at trail. The enemy, sent in the ranks a storm 
of bullets, and here and there a gallant fellow would fall ; but the 
files would close, still pressing onward, unwavering, into the jaws 
of death ! 

The orders of Major General Mahone were obeyed to the very 
letter, the brink of the ditch was gained before a musket was dis- 
charged, the cry "No quarter !" greeted us, the one volley responded, 
and the bayonet plied with such irresistible vigor as insured success 
in the shortest space of time. Men fell dead in heaps, and human 
gore ran in streams that made the very earth mire beneath the tread of 
the victorious soldiers. The rear ditch being ours, the men mounted 
the rugged embankment and hurled their foes from the front line 
up to the very mouth of the "Crater." In the meantime, the 
Georgia Brigade had charged, but were repulsed; and soon after it 
was re-formed in column of regiments and again charged, but was 
met by such a withering fire that it again recoiled with heavy 
slaughter. 

Our bloody work was all done so quickly that I have scarcely an 
idea of the time it required to accomplish it, some say it was twenty 
minutes. It was over I am sure about noon, and then for the first 
time we realized the oppression of the scorching rays of that July 
sun, and many almost sank from exhaustion. The brigade captured 



m 

fifteen "battle- flags, and our own regiment owned five of the sevett 
that I had counted in its front. How many men had rallied to each 
of these captured flags I have no means of ascertaining ; but the 
Ninth Corps had been recently recruited, and its regiments must 
have been well up towards the thousands, and from these captured 
ilags alone the reader mav form an idea of the numbers we had 
overcome. In that supreme moment, when exulting over j& great 
victory, how great I shall leave for others to judge, as our eyes feel 
upon the bleeding comrades' around us, our hearts sickened within, 
for more than half our members lay dead, dying, wounded and 
writhing in agonies around us. 

The wonderful triumph had been won at the price of the blood 
of the bravest and best and truest. Old Company " F," of Norfolk, 
had carried in twelve men, all of whom were killed or wounded. 
The Sixth Regiment, to which it was attached, carried in ninety- 
eight men, and mustered ten for duty at this time. The Sharp- 
shooters carried in eighty men, and sixteen remained for duty. 
Nearly half of our own regiment had fallen and the Twelfth, Forty- 
first and Sixteenth Regiments had suffered in like propoition. Up 
to this time only an inconsiderable number of prisoners had been 
captured. 

Mention of special acts of bravery would, perhaps, be out of 
place here, for all who marched from that vale crowned themselves 
heroes, and need no encomiums from my feeble pen. 

During the charge, about fifty yards from the ditch, Captain 
John W. Wallace, of Company C, Sixty-first Virginia Regiment, 
was stricken down with a broken thigh. He lay upon his back, 
refusing to allow his men to take him from the field till the battle 
was over, waving his hat and urging his men to u Go on ; go for- 
ward." 

Lieutenant St. Julian Wilson, of the same company, was mortally 
wounded, and died the next day. He was a young officer, generally 
admired for his gallant conduct on the field and manly Christian 
virtues in camp. 

Captain John T. West, of Company A, encountered two burly 
negroes at the brink of the ditch, and while parrying their thrusts 
with his sword, was bayoneted in his shoulder by one of his own 
men, who was too eager to assist him. Privates Henry J. Butt, 
Jeremiah Casteen and D. A. Williams, three of the bravest of the 
brave, from the same company, were instantly killed. 

Private John Shepherd, a noble soldier of Company D, was slain 
just before reaching the main line of breastworks. 

Captain W. Scott Sykes, of Company F, Forty-first Va. Regi- 
ment, was wounded in the shoulder while gallantly leading his men. 

Colonel Harry Williamson, of the Sixth Virginia Regiment, lost 
an arm. 



94 

Captain David Wright, Company H, Sixth Virginia Regiment, 
was instantly killed while leading his men. He had been promoted 
from the ranks to Captaincy on account of his gallant and meri- 
torious conduct. 

Our townsmen, Judge C. W. Hill and John T. Hill, (of Ports- 
mouth) members of the same regiment, the Sixth Virginia, were 
wounded almost at the same instant ; the former through the left 
arm, which was afterwards amputated, and the latter through the 
wrist. 

Major W. H. Etheredge, of the Forty-first Regiment, displayed 
great gallantry, as was always his custom on the field. As he 
jumped in the ditch, a brave Federal in the front line fired through 
the traverse and killed a soldier at his side. He immediately 
dropped his empty musket and snatched another from a cowering 
comrade to kill Major Etheredge. At this juncture the Major, 
with remarkable self-possession, caught up two Federals who were 
crouching, in the ditch, and held their heads together between 
himself and his determined opponent, swinging them to and fro to 
cover the sight of the musket, the Federal doing his best to uncover 
it so as to unharm his friends by his bullet. Peter Gibbs, of the 
Forty-first Virginia Regiment, rushed to the assistance of the 
Major, and killed his foe. Gibbs was a gallant soldier, and fought 
with great desperation. It was said at the time that he slew 
fourteen men that day. 

Captain W. W. Broadbent, the brave commander of the Sharp- 
shooters, was mercilessly murdered ; his skull was broken in, and 
almost every square inch of his body was perforated with a bayonet 
stab. 

Although our principal task was completed, yet more heavy 
work remained to be done to fully re-establish our lines. Brigadier 
General Bartlett, with about five hundred men, were cooped up in 
the " Crater," and their capture was the crowning event of the 
bloody drama. Our w T ounded were sent to the rear as fast as possi- 
ble, and after piling the enemy's dead on each side of the trenches, 
to make a path- way, our ranks were closed in proper order. We 
were then ordered to keep up a sharp fire on the enemy's works in 
front to keep them close, and on the " Crater " to our right to pre- 
vent Bartlett's escape, as our position commanded his rear, while 
Saunders' Alabama Brigade formed in the valley and charged. 
The Alabamians made a grand charge under a terrible fire, reach- 
ing the crest of the " Crater" without faltering, and here a short 
struggle ensued. They tumbled muskets, clubs, clods of earth and 
cannon balls into the excavation on the heads of the enemy with 
telling effect. This novel warfare, as before stated, lasted only a 
few minutes, when Bartlett ordered up the white flag, and about 
five hundred prisoners marched to our rear. The negroes among 



95 

them were very much alarmed, and vociferously implored for their 
lives. One old cornfield chap exclaimed : " My God, massa, I 
never pintedagun at a white man in all my life ; dem nasty, stinking 
Yankees fotch us here, and we didn't want to come fus !" 

The appearance of this rough, irregular hole beggars description. 
It was estimated that it contained six hundred bodies. The 
importance of reconstructing this broken line of earthworks at once, 
prevented the removal of these bodies— therefore, they were buried 
as they had fallen : in one indiscri mate heap. Spades were brought 
in, and the earth thrown from the sides of the "Crater" until they 
were covered a sufficient depth. By 3 o'clock in the afternoon all 
was over, and we were enjoying a welcome truce. 

The extreme heat of the sun had already caused putrefaction to 
commence, and the bodies in our front and rear, and especially the 
blood-soaked earth under our feet in the trenches, exhaled such a 
nauseating smell that I was forced to abandon my supper, although 
I had not tasted a morsel of food since the previous night. 

There were thousands of captured arms around us, and during 
the night some of our men would shoot ramrods at the enemy just 
for the fun of hearing them whiz. One that was sent over drew 
from a Federal the exclamation : " Great God ! Johnnie, you are 
throwing turkey spits and stringing us together over here. Stop 
it!" 

A correspondent of one of the New York dailies, writing a 
description of this battle from accounts obtained from wounded 
officers, who had arrived - at Washington on the 2d of August, 1864, 
uses the following language : " Often have the Confederates won 
encomiums for valor, but never before did they fight with such 
uncontrollable desperation. It appeared as if our troops were at 
their mercy, standing helpless or running in terror and shot down 
like dogs. No such scene has been witnessed in any battle of the 
war. The charge of the enemy against the negro troops was ter- 
rific. With fearful yells they rushed down against them. The 
negroes at once ran back, breaking through the line of white troops 
in the rear. Again and again their officers tried to rally them. 
Words and blows were useless. They were victims of an uncon- 
trollable terror, and human agency could not stop them." 

Next morning was a bright and beautiful Sabbath, and nothing 
of moment occurred. At least three thousand of the Federal 
dead were still on the field, putrifying under the scorching rays of 
the sun. I remember a negro between the lines, who had both 
legs blown off, crawled to the outside of our woiks, stuck three 
muskets in the ground, and threw a small piece of tent cloth over 
them to shelter his head from the hot sunshine. Some of our men 
managed to shove a cup of water to him, which he drank, and 
immediately commenced frothing at the mouth, and died in a very 



short time afterwards. He had lived i a this condition for nearly 
twenty-four hours. 

On Monday morning a truce was granted, and the Federals sent 
out details to bury their dead between the lines. They dag a long 
ditch 7 and placed the bodies- crosswise, several layers up, and refilled 
the ditch, and thus ended the tragic scenes of three days in and 
around the " Crater." 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SIXTY-FIVE. 

The return of our soldiers to their homes can be better imagined 
than described. The terrible war through which they passed 
is too well remembered by the people of Norfolk and of the entire 
South, to be further described in this volume. Many a mourning 
dress, broken spirit, saddened life, ruined fortune, withered hope, 
empty sleeve, wooden leg, orphaned child, vacant chair, and name- 
less grave in our dear old Commonwealth, silently attest its horrors 
and terrors ! Norfolk lost her full share of men in the terrible 
conflict, and suffered in many other respects. Her brave sons who 
survived the great struggle settled down to hard work upon their 
return to their homes, and labored faithfully, to earn an honest 
livelihood. Those who perished in battle "fell where the shot came 
thickest," and their names are recorded in the long list of heroes 
" Who, vainly brave, 
Died for the land they could not save." 

But they yet live in the hearts of their comrades, and their glo- 
rious deeds of valor will be remembered and cherished as long as 
Southern hearts are true to Southern principles — as long as liberty 
is prized, and independence appreciated. To the living comrades 
of these fallen braves we here say in the language of Thomas Moore — 

Forget not the field where they perished. 

The truest, the last of the brave. 
All gone — and the bright hope we cherish'd 

Gone with them, and quench'd in their grave. 

Oh ! could we from death but recover 

Those hearts as they bounded before, 
In the face of high heav'n to fight over 

That combat for freedom once more. 

Could the chain for an instant be riven 
Which tyranny flung around us then, 
» No, 'tis not in Man, nor on Heaven, 

To let tyranny bind it again ! 

But 'tis past — and, tho' blazon'd in story 

The name of our victor may be, 
Accurst is the march of that glory 

Which treads o'er the hearts of the free. 

Far dearer the grave or the prison, 

Illumed by one patriot name, 
Than the trophies of all, who have risen 

On liberty's ruins to fame, 



101 

April 11th, the remains of Captain Robert Marsh, who died in 
North Carolina, arrived here for interment at Cedar Grove Ceme- 
tery. 

April 16th, the negroes of Norfolk and vicinfty had a grand 
parade in honor of the passage of the Civil Rights bill by Congress ; 
the result of this lawless jubilee, to-wit : — Robt. Whitehurst (white) 
and his stepmother, Mrs. Charlotte Whitehurst, were deliberately 
murdered by the infuriated and drunken mob, John Whitehurst, 
son of the deceased lady, was dangerously wounded ; Wm. Moseley, 
city policeman, badly beaten — his son beaten also ; W. Turner, 
wounded by a sabre cut; Mark Bennett, negro, killed; Lawrence 
Hampton, small negro boy, bayoneted in the abdomen by a negro 
in the procession. Several other persons, white and black, slightly 
injured. [It is said that this procession was headed and marshaled 
by some renegade white men, who are now in our midst]. 

April 19th, two negroes assaulted a white man on corner of Main 
and Church streets and beat him severely. Result — negroes walked 
off, and the bleeding white man was arrested and sent to the " Hard 
Labor Prison." [Major P. W. Stanhope, U. S. A., was in com- 
mand of this post at that time : is he proud of the honor he enjoyed ?] 

The various disturbances created by insolent negroes in April 
(1866), and which were winked at by the military authorities, caused 
much excitement and indignation among the citizens — particularly 
when Major Stanhope declared that if his command was " menaced 
by white men," he would " arm the blacks to assist him in carrying 
out his orders" — this was his language ; and at that time new 
troubles begun in the State. 

. April 20th, the ferry-boats between this city and Portsmouth, 
were unconditionally surrendered to the Ferry Committee by the 
military satf'aps, under special orders from Washington. [Probably 
one of President Johnson's acts of justice]. 

On the 19th day of November, Sylvanus Hartshorn died. He 
was for many years a valuable member of the Councils, and was 
honored and loved by all who knew him well. 

November 21st, the Norfolk Virginian saw its first anniversary, 
and changed hands. G. A.' Sykes & Co., the first publishers, sold 
out to S. Hodges & Co. ; and J. Marshall Hanna, Esq., assumed 
editorial control of the paper as successor of Captain William E. 
Cameron, of Petersburg. 

November 26th, Gens. Jos. E. Johnston, Jno. D. Imboden and 
H. A. Wise, arrived in this city to close up the affairs of the 
National Express Company, which was this day sold out under an 
attachment in favor of Geo. Dey, Esq., for house rent. 

November 27th, the Mayor, with numerous citizens and members 
of the City Council, of Wilmington, Delaware, arrived in this city 
on a visit. The distinguished visitors were met at the steamer by 



102 

Mayor Jno. R. Ludlow, and Committees from both branches of 
the Council, the Board of Trade, and of the Press. At the close 
of Mayor Ludlow's happy salutation, Mayor J. S. Valentine, of 
Wilmington, responded in behalf of the excursionists, returning 
thanks for the kind and courteous greeting extended them. A pro- 
cession was then formed, and with a band playing " Dixie" the 
entire party marched to the Opera House,where the Hon. Jno. Goode 
Jr., on T3ehalf of the city of Norfolk, delivered an eloquent and 
appropriate address of welcome, which was responded to by S. M. 
Harrington Esq., a prominent lawyer and former Secretary of the 
State of Delaware. 

The formal reception of the guests being over, the procession was 
again formed, and after marching through the principal streets, 
halted at the Atlantic Hotel, at 1 o'clock p. m., where they partook 
of a lunch, "and so-forth" — particularly the latter, which may be 
appropriately classed among "creature comforts" — [according to the 
report of the Council Committee on expenses]. 

After spending half an hour in " wooding up," the party pro- 
ceeded to Portsmouth and the Navy Yard, from whence they 
returned about 4 o'clock P. M., to partake of the splendid collation 
prepared for theru at the hotel. The dining room of the Atlantic 
was handsomely ornamented, by "mine host" A. G. Newton Esq., 
with tables running the entire length of the room. The centre 
table was presided over by Mayor Ludlow at the head, and Gilbert 
C. Walker Esq., President of the Exchange National Bank, at the 
foot. 

The North table was presided over by Gen. Blow, President of the 
Common Council, at the head, and Richard Wales Esq., Treasurer 
of the Seaboard Railroad, at the foot. 

At the head of the South table sat Col. W. W. Lamb, with Col. 
V. D. Groner, Agent of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad, at 
the foot. After the substantials were duly discussed, " refreshing 
beverages" were ordered and the following toasts were oifered and 
happily responded to : 

1. The President of the United States. — May he secure for the 
country, peace at home and respect abroad. 

2. — Delaware — 

" Stand up, stout little Delaware, 

And bid thy volleys roll ; 
Though least among the ' old thirteen,' 

We judge thee by thy soul." 

3. — Pennsylvania — May she illustrate by her history that her 
Penn is mightier than the Sword. 

4. — New Jersey. — Always "True Blue." 

5. — Virginia. — The Old Commonwealth " still lives." 



103 

6. — The Mayor of Wilmington. — Our honored guest. Norfolk 
will always be glad to receive such a Valentine. 

7. — New Air Line To Wilmington. — May it more than realize 
the brightest hopes of its enterprising projectors. 

8. — Our Railroads. — Iron links which connect our noble harbor 
with the fertile fields of the Carolinas and the rich plains of the 
Great West. 

9. — Our Canals. — Uniting the waters of Virginia and North 
Carolina. May their Banks never break. 

10. — Commerce. — The magic wand that builds cities in a day. 

11. — Manufactures. — The triumph of mind over matter. 

12. — Agriculture and Mining. — The source of all material 
wealth. 

13. — Women. — Heaven's last, best gift to man. 

The first toast was. responded to with three hearty cheers and 
music, the band playing " Hail to the Chief." 

Delaware's toast was responded to by S. M. Harrington, Esq., of 
Wilmington, who offered in return the following sentiment: 

" God bless the Old Thirteen, that won 
The heritage we call our own ; 
God help the Thirty six to save — 
The precious boon the Thirteen gave." 

Music — "Auld Lang Syne." 

The toast to Pennsylvania brought forth Heister Clymer, Esq., 
the beaten, but not vanquished, candidate of the Conservatives at 
the Gubernatorial election in that State. His remarks were mag- 
nanimous and manly, and fully showed that Pennsylvania lost by 
her choice of another. 

Mayor Valentine, of Wilmington, responded to the sixtlv toast in 
a happy and pleasing manner, which was appreciated and loudly 
applauded. 

The Press being toasted, Frank Wells, Esq., editor of the Evening 
Bulletin, of Philadelphia, and Head Centre of the Press Delegation 
which accompanied the visitors, replied in their behalf. 

There were other speakers, both from home and abroad, who 
entertained the company until 10 o'clock at night, at which time the 
visitors departed on board the Steamer City of Norfolk, of the new 
line, which had just then been established between Norfolk and 
Philadelphia. They all seemed to be perfectly delighted with our 
city and the courtesies extended them. 

December 4th (1866) the first number of the Norfolk Journal 
was started by a Company composed of the business men of the 
city, with Colonel J. Richard Lewellen (the " wheel-horse " of the 
press in Virginia) as Business Manager. The names of the editors 
were not published at the time. 



104 

December 7th, a young Frenchman named C. Jeanneret, board- 
ing at Mr. George J. Oheim's restaurant, committed suicide by 
blowing out his brains with a pistol. No cause was assigned for 
the rash act. He was a watchmaker, in the employment of Mr. 0. 
F. Greenwood, and was steady and industrious. 

December 8th, early in the morning a fire occurred at corner of 
Church and Cove streets, which destroyed Mr. R. O. James' grocery 
store, No. 44 Church street, and No. 46, occupied by A. Ries as a 
millinery and fancy store; also, a frame house on Cove street. 
Several other stores between James' and the Opera House were 
badly damaged. The conflagration was caused by the explosion of 
a keg of powder in the grocery store. 

December 8th, at half-past three o'clock in the morning (Satur- 
day), the steamer Thomas Kelso, Captain Cralle, of the Old Bay 
Line, while en route to Norfolk from Baltimore, exploded her 
steam drum when about five miles north of Wolf Trap Light-boat, 
in Chesapeake Bay, 45 miles from Norfolk, off mouth of the Rap- 
pahannock river. The persons killed and wounded by this sad 
accident were as follows : Thomas Ennis, Charles Adams, and 
another man, name unknown, all colored coal-heavers, were 
instantly killed. Herman Butts, fireman, mortally wounded — died 
next day. 

Passengers Injured. — Stephen Hayes, badly scalded ; James 
Davis, slightly ; Major Eugene Carter, hands, slightly ; Mrs. James, 
Southampton county, Va., slightly ; Edward Zoeller, slightly ; 
George Pickett, slightly ; Dr. A. F. Osborne, Oxford, N. C, badly; 
Charles W. Mixon, Chowan county, N. C, very badly ; John T. 
Cowling, Nansemond county, Va., slight; L. A. Langteller, hands, 
slight. 

Officers and Hands Injured. — Charles Reeder, Baltimore, Chief 
Engineer; V. Wilson, Assistant Engineer ; R. W. Waldrop, Baggage 
Agent ; William Holt, Fireman ; John Rowan, slight ; Samuel 
McKenny, badly ; Samuel Young, colored, slight ; Joseph Boston, 
colored, slight ; John Thomas, colored, slight ; John Coburn, slight. 

Captain Cralle, the commander of the Kelso, was slightly injured 
in the hand. Rev. H. B. Cowles, of Dinwiddie county, Va., and 
Rev. J. C. Granberry, wife and child were on board and escaped 
unhurt. Dr. Purcell, of Baltimore, and Dr. Wilson, of Winton, 
N. C, were on board, and did all they could for the scalded. The 
steamer City of Norfolk, of the Annamessic Line, took the passen- 
gers off the Kelso at 10 o'clock a. m. About twenty horses and 
mules belonging to Mr. C. W. Mixon were scalded and ruined. 

On board the City of Norfolk, the passengers assembled together, 
and thanks were returned to Almighty God for His mercifnl deliv- 
erance by Revs. M. B. Cowles and J. C. Granberry. W. B. Wel- 
lons, a passenger on the City of Norfolk, conducted the exercises. 



105 

Mr. Charles Reeder, who was badly scalded, escaped with his 
life by holding his handkerchief to his mouth. A remarkable 
instance of presence of mind. 

On Saturday evening the steamers John Sylvester (Captain Z. 
Gilford) and Eolus (Captain P. McCarrick) were despatched to the 
scene of the disaster to extricate the Kelso and bring her to the 
city. That duty was performed with the promptness that always 
distinguished the movements of these two fine boats, and at day- 
light next morning the Kelso was safely moored at the wharf of 
the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad in Portsmouth. 

The wounded persons were conveyed to the Hospital of St. Vin- 
cent de Paul, and during the night the following physicians were 
in attendance on the sufferers, viz : Drs. R. W. Rose, S. J. 
Browne, S. K. Jackson, Samuel Selden, H. M. Nash and D. M. 
Sterling, aided by John R. Todd, Esq., druggist, who furnished 
the medical corps with bandages, lint, stimulants and dressing. 

December 10th, an accident occurred on the Norfolk and Peters- 
burg Railroad, at the drawbridge over the Albemarle and Chesa- 
peake Canal, which, resulted in the death of Mr. George W. Glenn, 
the draw-tender — a worthy man, and a native of Norfolk. On 
the same day the remains of Harry Hill (of the United Fire Com- 
pany) were buried, and the death of Ryland Capps, a member of 
the Select Council, occurred. Mr. Capps' death was the result of 
a chronic disease. 

December 17th, the Washington and Lee Association, organized 
by our dear ladies for the purpose of aiding in the support of 
destitute Confederate orphans, held a meeting and elected the fol- 
lowing officers, viz: President, Miss H. L. Hunter; Vice Presi- 
dents, Mrs. F. Mallory and Mrs. L. M. Lee; Secretary, Mrs. 
William H. Broughton ; Treasurer, Mrs. S. Bagnall. 

On motion, the vote upon the election of Directresses was 
taken separately, and the following ladies unanimously elected : 
Miss H. L. Hunter, Mrs. F. Mallory, Mrs. W. H. Broughton, 
Mrs. O. S. Barten, Mrs. M. Parks, "Mrs. A. G. Newton, Mrs. 
George Dey, Mrs. Nock, Mrs. Cofer, Mrs. Godfrey, Mrs. John 
Peters, Mrs. T. O. Gardner, Mrs. John B. Whitehead, Mrs. George 
C. Reid, Mrs. E. A. Hallett, Mrs. E. Canape, Mrs. Wertheimer, 
Mrs. Leroy M. Lee, Mrs. T. Bagnall, Mrs. A. F. Leonard, Mrs. 
G. R. Wilson, Miss Sarah Leigh, Mrs. S. R. Borum, Mrs. J. Rich'd 
Lewellen, Miss Virginia Fiveash, Mrs. K. Biggs, Mrs. S. S. Stubbs, 
Mrs. J. C. Kendall, Mrs. W. D. Reynolds, Mrs. G. D. Armstrong, 
Mrs. C. F. Mcintosh, Mrs. Seldner. 

The office of Itinerant President and General Agent was abol- 
ished, and the sum of one hundred dollars was directed to be paid 
to Mrs. Dr. J. S. Farrar in consideration of her services. 

December 21st, our policemen were first uniformed. The Vir- 



106 

ginian of that date says : " The new police will be placed on duty 
to-day — or at least eight of them — being the number chosen to 
guard the city from harm while the sun shines. The Sergeants 
appointed for the force by the Mayor, being four in number, are : 
John Burke, C. C. Benson, William H. Frost and John Smith. 
The entire force will be under the immediate charge of Captain 
Guy and Lieutenant Gray. Sergeant Frost and eight men, viz : 
William Mosely, Mathias Ward, Baker Ward, John Webber, John 
Banks, Joseph Taylor, Joseph Evans and S. B. Gwynn will be 
posted on their beats this morning by Sergeant Burke, and will be 
in full uniform. It will be a novel sight to our citizens, but they 
will soon get used to the new order of things." 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SEVEN. 

This new year began very quietly in Norfolk, and the prospects 
for an increase of trade were not at all flattering. 

January 3d, the United Fire Company, Captain Edward Lakin, 
enjoyed a magnificent banquet, prepared in honor of their anniver- 
sary day. Speeches were made on that occasion by Mayor Ludlow, 
ex-Ma) or Lamb, Colonel V. D. Groner, Dr. E. C. Robinson (then 
State Senator), Colonel William Lamb, Captain Thomas Kevill, 
Chief of the Fire Department, Captain James E. Barry and others. 
A letter was read from General Mahone, expressing regret at not 
being able to attend the banquet. Dan Knowles sang several songs, 
and the evening was pleasantly spent. 

January 8th, Tuesday morning at 1 o'clock, the Atlantic Hotel 
took fire and was entirely consumed. [It was then situated on Main 
street, between Gray and Bank streets — nearly opposite Roanoke 
Avenue]. The stores under the hotel were also consumed, to wit: 
Ludlow & Wilson's drug store ; Samuel R. Borum's liquor store, 
and Vickery & Co.'s book store. The Banking-house of Messrs. 
R. H. Chamberlain & Son, adjoining the hotel — (next to the First 
National Bank), was also burned down. The property destroyed 
was nearly covered by insurance, except that of Mr. A. G. Newton, 
the proprietor of the hotel, who lost about $20,000, more than his 
furniture, &c, was insured for — the total amount of his policies 
being only $15,000, and his loss being about $35,000. Our fire- 
men worked bravely at that fire, but the lack of water prevented 
their efforts from being successful. 

December 8th, the Ladies of St. Mary's Catholic Church Fair 
raffled off a handsome gold-headed cane, which was made from some 
of the timber of the Confederate Iron-Clad Steamer Virginia, as a 
present to Hon. Jefferson Davis, (Ex-President of the Confederate 
States) then confined as a prisoner of war in Fort Monroe by the 
United States authorities. The person who won the prize had the 
pleasure of presenting the same to Mr. Davis, and the lucky indi- 



107 

viclual was our good citizen, John O. Gamage, Esq., who took the 
cane down to the Fort anil presented it in person. 

January 14th, Thomas Portlock, an aged citizen, departed this 
life. He was a native of the county. 

January 21st, a committee consisting of Messrs. John E. Doyle, 
J. M. Freeman and Wtn. H. Turner, appointed by the Atlantic 
Hotel Company, to solicit stock subscriptions for the purpose of 
rebuilding the hotel, commenced their work. 

January 25th, Wm. D. Bagnall departed this life in the sixty- 
third year of his age. For thirty }'ears he had been an Elder in 
the Presbyterian Church. " Blessed are the dead who die in the 
Lord — Even so saith the Spirit, for they rest from their labors." 

February 1st, the National Hotel again came into the possession 
of Major J. M. Walters, as its popular proprietor. 

February 16th, Wm. Roscoe Leigh, a generous and noble 
citizen, departed this life. He was endeared to all who knew him. 

February 28th, some excitement was created by the arrest (under 
the Civil Rights Act) of our City Magistrates, to wit : Wm. W. 
Lamb, A. L. Hill, John E. Doyle, Conway Whittle and S. Marsh 
Esqs., on the charge of refusing (as a Court) to admit the evidence 
of some negroes whom Chas. H. Porter (a radical attorney) desired 
to introduce as witnesses in a larceny case. The order of arrest was 
issued by B. B. Foster, United States Commissioner, and served by 
U. S. Marshal Croft. After a hearing by the Commissioner, Mr. 
A. L. Hill was discharged, on the grounds that he was willing to 
admit the evidence of the colored people, and never refused to do 
so. But the other four gentlemen were sent on for trial before the 
notorious Judge Underwood, and were made to give bonds and 
security in the sum of $500 each for their appearance. [Foster's 
act needs no comment here]. 

March 4th, the " Tazewell Literaey Association celebrated 
its second anniversary, by an elegant supper and social entertainment, 
which took place at the residence of Nat Burruss Esq., on Free- 
mason street — Mr. B. being a valued member of the Society. 
Guests were invited and the entire evening was pleasantly and 
profitably enjoyed. The President of the Association, M. Glennan 
Esq., presided, and did the honors with becoming dignity and in 
his usual suave and easy manner. Speeches were made in reply to 
various sentiments by Mr. Glennan, Mayor Ludlow, Col. Lewellen, 
Messrs. Segar, Lamb, Rogers, Freeman, Burruss, and in fact by 
nearly every member of the Society — all of which were replete with 
wit and wisdom, and in every way worthy of the literary reputation 
and good sense of the several gentlemen who spoke. 

The following reminiscence of the days of slavery, when Sambo 
was free to put away one wife and take unto himself another, like 



108 

the Patriarchs of old, will be interesting, now that things have 

changed so radically: 

"Apiil the 20, 1862 Eastern-shore Va. 

My Dear Wife I imbrace this opportunity to w/ite these few 
lines to you in order I am Well And to Let you that Advertay Power 
has keeps me Away from you So you is well to be deed From me 
And so if you Can get any one That Will Take Care of you 
and your Children you better do so my Dear Wife I Will be glad 
to hear from you I give you this Write to have a husband my Self 
You have bin a Lady to me all of Days I have got me a Wife my 
Self is in deed for I was blist to do so your Dear be Love Husband 
I hope the Lord Will Adhisblesing to those few line. 

Frum Mr. Isaac Wise North Hampton County to his fust wife 
Lizer in the city uv Norfolk Virginny." 

[The above letter was published in March 1867, in the same 
spirit which prompts its publication here; but it made some Yan- 
kee philanthropists "awful mad" when they saw it — in fact, a 
Northern lady denounced it asa"disgraceful lie!"] 

April 7th, our esteemed fellow citizen, Edward P. Tabb, departed 
this life in the 57th year of his age. He was a successful merchant, 
an useful member of the Councils for many years, an honorable, 
upright and praiseworthy citizen. H is death was a great loss to the 
community. 

April 15th, Monday night, the Union Hook and Ladder Com- 
pany, C. T. Tooker, Foreman, held a meeting and unanimously 
agreed to disband. On the 9th instant, the Company was re-or- 
ganized at the office of Chief Engineer Thos. Kevill, and the follow- 
ing officers elected : Captain, Wm. E. Foster; Assistants, G. R. 
Hanfts and A. J. Manning; Secretary, James F. Milligan ; 
Treasurer, Henry Jordan. 
April 22d, G. R. Sneed, formerly of Portsmouth, departed this life. 

April 23d, C, W. Trower, a citizen of Norfolk, was drowned by 
falling overboard from the steamer Thomas A. Morgan, while off 
Egg Island, blow the Pocosin river. The deceased was a great 
favorite with the steamboat men. 

April 24th, the the United Fire Company visited Petersburg, 
under command of Captain Edward Lakin, and had " a glorious 
time." 

May 2d, Henry Rolland departed this life in the 84th year of 
his age. He was a Frenchman by birth, and was for twenty-five 
years connected with the Bank of Virginia. " An honest man, 
the noblest work of God." 

May 6th, the Washington Fire Company from Wilmington, 
Del., arrived here on a visit, and were royally entertained by our 
gallant firemen. 



109 

May 8th, A. A. McCullough's warehouse at the foot of Church . 
street, was destoyed by fire. Much of Mr. M.'s stock (lime, &c.,) 
was saved by the efforts of our firemen, aided by their visitors,! the 
Washington Fire Company, of Wilmington, Del. 

May 14, the Hon. Jefferson Davis arrived in the city on the 
steamer Niagara from Richmond, bound for Canada, to join his 
family there. A large number of citizens paid their respects to the 
unfortunate but dearly loved ex-President of the lost Confederacy. 
[Mr. Davis had appeared before the United States Court in Rich- 
mond, the day previous, on the charge of high treason to the United 
States Government, and was admitted to bail in the sum of $100,000 
to appear before the Court the following November. The United 
States Judge (Underwood) required half of the bail to be given by 
persons residing in the State of Virginia. Among his bondsmen 
were the following well-known names: Horace Greeley, Esq., 
Gerritt Smith, Esq., and Augustus Schell, Esq., of New York; A. 
Jackman, Esq., of Philadelphia; Hon. John Minor Botts and 
Franklin Stearns, Esq., of Richmond. Hon. Charles O'Connor, of 
New York, appeared as counsel for Mr. Davis]. 

May 30th, 1wo houses, Nos. 22 and 24, on the west side of Mar- 
ket square, owned by the estate of John E. Tunis, deceased, fell to 
the ground, caused by the digging of a foundation adjoining them 
for the erection of Messrs. E. P. Tabb & Co.'s large warehouse. A 
lady named Mrs. Cheshire, wife of William Cheshire, Esq., was 
killed by the falling buildings, and several other persons more or 
less injured. 

June 18th, the funeral of our lamented citizen, Alexander Bell, 
took place from Christ Church. 

June 27th, early, in the morning,- an iron safe containing about 
$2,000 in money and many valuable papers, was stolen from the 
premises of Mr. Daniel Moloney, No. 32 Union street. 

June 22d, Captain Elias Guy died. He had been Chief of 
Police for a long time, and was ever faithful in the discharge of 
his duty. An useful citizen, devoted husband, kind father, generous 
friend, and a consistent and upright man, were the chief charac- 
teristics of his nature. He was buried by the Odd Fellows, of 
which Order he was a shining light. 

July 24th, George Martin, alias Martin Madison, fireman on the 
steamship Niagara, was killed by a man named George Smith, 
residing on Water street, near Town Point. The faithlessness of 
Smith's wife was the sole cause of the murder. Smith was sent on 
for trial, and bail refused. 

August 8th, the Bollingbrook Fire Company of Petersburg paid 
a visit to Norfolk. They were received by the "Hope" Company 
of this city, Chas. B. Langley, Captain. 

August 29th, the building of the new Atlantic Hotel (the present 



110 

handsome structure on Granby street), was begun by digging for 
the foundation. Mr. Chas. Reid, President of the Hotel Company, 
" broke the first ground and threw the first spade full of dirt into 
a cart" at the new location. Messrs. Brown and Face received the 
contract for the brick work of the building. [About that time a 
large number of new buildings were going up in our midst]. 

September 3d, the State's interest in the Dismal Swamp Canal, 
660 shares, was sold by Messrs. Leigh Bros. & Phelps, auctioneers, 
at $13.00 per share— Col. T. J. Corprew and Wm. H. C. Ellis Esq., 
being'the purchasers. The par value of this stock was $250.00 per 
share, and the sale of the State's interest at such a great sacrifice 
was an astonishing event. 

September 15th, Col. Thos. J. Corprew resigned his position as 
Treasurer of the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad, much to the 
regret of the President and Board of Directors. [The resignation 
was afterwards reconsidered]. 

September 16th, the Creigliton Base Ball Club went to Suffolk to 
play the " home-and-homegame" with the Petersburg Independent 
Club. These clubs had previously played two games — the Creigh- 
tons winning the one played in Norfolk, and the Independents the 
one played in Petersburg. The third game (at Suffolk.) was also 
won by the Creightons by a score of 43 to 9. 

September 18th, the Old Street Fire Company, from Petersburg, 
visited Norfolk as the guests of the United Fire Company, and 
were handsomely entertained. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Merchants' and 
Mechanics' Exchange, held on Saturday evening, September 21, 
1867-, it was 

" Resolved, That a meeting' of the merchants and citizens gen- 
erally be called on next Saturday evening, September 28th, at 8 
o'clock, at the City Hall, to hear addresses from General George 
Blow and Colonel William Lamb in behalf of the Norfolk and 
Great Western Railroad, and to take such action as may then be 
deemed expedient in regard to said road. 

" General Tochman, the agent of the Virginia Immigration So- 
ciety, being introduced, addressed the Board in behalf of the 
Society, after which, on motion, it was 

" Resolved, That we have listened with much interest to the 
remarks of General Tochman in behalf of immigration to Virginia, 
and in aid of the Polish exiles now in the county of Spotsylvania, 
and we commend him to the favorable consideration of the mer- 
chants and citizens of Norfolk. 

" (Signed) J. R. RICKS, Secretary." 

During the latter part of this month a new bank was formed 
here, called " The People's Bank," and the following officers were 
elected : President, J. C. Deming ; Cashier, W. S. Wilkinson ; 



Ill 

Directors, J. C. Dealing, Washington Reed, A. L. Seabury, T. D. 
Toy, W. J. Hardy, E. W. Moore, J. Vickery, James E. Barry, 
Gilbert Elliott. 

October 11th, Mr. Thomas Mehegan, an old and respectable 
citizen of Norfolk, died at the residence of his son on Church street, 
in the 70th year of his age. 

October 15th, the corner-stone of the new Atlantic Hotel was 
formally laid by the Masonic fraternity. It was a gala day with 
our citizens. The buzz of preparation about the various Lodges 
was a noticeable feature during the day, and towards the hour 
appointed throngs of ladies, gentlemen and children might be seen 
wending their way to the location of the building. Ample prepa- 
rations had been made for the comfort of the ladies, by the erection 
of a platform sufficiently roomy and secure, and the police were 
stationed about the locality to preserve order and decorum among 
the throng. 

According to notice the various Lodges assembled at the Masonic 
Hall at 3 o'clock. The Portsmouth Lodges arriving at the time, 
proceeded to the Hall for the purpose of uniting with the city 
Lodges in the ceremony. The procession formed at the appointed 
hour, and under the direction of the chief marshal, J. G. Smith, 
passed dowu Church street to Main, along Main to Bank and Cath- 
arine, up these streets to Freemason, along Freemason to Granby, 
and down Granby to the site of the Hotel in the following order: 

Band of the New Hampshire. 

Portsmouth Naval Lodge No. 100. 

Mount Vernon Lodge No. 166, Portsmouth. 

Owens Lodge, U. D. 

Atlantic Lodge No. 2. 

Norfolk Lodge No. 1. 

Worshipful Master and Master of Ceremonies, Robert Santos ; 
Orator of the occasion, James Barron Hope, and Chaplain, Rev. 
Mr. Pettit. 

Transient members of other Lodges. 

At the scene of the ceremonies ihe crowd was very large. The 
vast platform was thronged with the beauty of the two cities, and 
the bright, beaming faces added much to the interest of the occa- 
sion. The windows of the surrounding houses were also in use by 
the fair ones. The trees in the neighborhood were occupied by 
boys, and a vast crowd filled the street in front of the building. 

The northeast corner of die new building, fronting on Granby 
street, was the one selected for laying the stone, which was com- 
posed of granite, having a cavity in it, in which the box, contain- 
ing various articles, was deposited. Among the articles deposited 
were the following from S. R. Borum, Esq. : 

One bottle pale Hennessey brandy, and one bottle London Dock 



112 

brandy — vintage of 1858 — imported' by Mr. Borum September, 
1867. 

One copy of the City Index, dated November 17, 1858, and pub- 
lished by Borum & McLean. 

One copy of the Wilmington, N. C, Journal, dated July 9, 
1862, and containing the military operations of the war, during the 
first year of its existence, from the "commission of the overt act " 
by Major Anderson, December 26, 1860. Compiled by the Char- 
leston Courier. 

One copy each of t>he Norfolk Virginian, Journal and Day Book) 
dated October 15, 1867, and onf copy of the Merchant* Weekly 
Trade Circular, dated October 10, 1867. 

The following paper was also placed in the box by the officers of 
the Hotel Company : 

. "The Norfolk Hotel Company, having for its object the erection 
of a new hotel in this city, was incorporated by the Worshipful 
Court of Norfolk county, on the 29th day of June, 1867. 

The officers of the Company at the time of incorporation were : 
W. E. Taylor, President ; R. H. Chamberlaine, Treasurer; Henry 
Ghiselin, Secretary; Henry Irwin, F. F. Ferguson, John H. Row- 
land, J. I. Bloodgood, Jas. H. Johnson and Chas. Reid Directors. 

On the 19th of April, 1858, the company contracted with Wm. 
Callis, of this city, to build a hotel on the corner of Main and 
Gray streets, in accordance with plans and specifications prepared 
by Lind & Murdoch, architects of the city of Baltimore, Md. 

The house then contracted for was called the Atlantic Hotel, and 
having been completed, was leased on the 14th day of July, 1859, 
for a period of five years, to A. G. Newton, formerly of Alexandria, 
Va. At the expiration of the term of lease, it was again rented to 
Mr. Newton, who continued to occupy it until the 8th of January, 
1867, when it was totally destroyed by fire. 

The company, having increased its capital stock by new sub- 
scriptions determined to erect another hotel in place of the Atlantic, 
and contracted with V. J. Clutter, of the city of Richmond, Va., 
on the 19th day of August, 1867, to build this house, which is to 
be known as the " Atlantic Hotel." 

The plan of this hotel was designed by E. G. Lind, architect, of 
the city of Baltimore, (one of the firm which furnished the design 
of the Atlantic) and, by the terms of the contract the house is to be 
completed on the 1st day of July, 1868. 

The officers of the company at this time were as follows : 

Chas. Reid, President and Treasurer ; Henry Ghiselin, Secretary ; 
F. F. Ferguson, S. R. Borum, Kader Biggs, C. W. Grandy, Cicero 
Burruss, Thomas B. Rowland, Richard Dickson, Directors." 

After singing a Masonic Ode, the Master of Ceremonies, R. W. 
Santos, made the following address : 



113 

"My Friends — Our ancient Masonic Order is assembled here at 
this time, by invitation of the Norfolk Hotel Company for the 
purpose of laying the corner stone of their new hotel with Masonic 
rites. 

Our fraternity, as Speculative Masons, is often called upon to 
perform this work, which is properly the work of the Operative 
Masons. We, as Free and Accepted Masons, have selected the tools 
and implements of architecture as symbolic emblems most expres- 
sive, to imprint on the mind wise and serious truths. For us all 
the implements of Masonry have a beautiful moral signification, 
and inculate an important duty of life. 

To symbolize the one we are now about to perform — the Opera- 
tive Masons tries each stone by the square, level and plumb — we 
are taught to square every action of our life by the square of moral- 
ity, seeing that no presumption or vain glory causes us to transcend 
the level qf our allotted sphere of life, and no vicious propensity 
lead us swerve from the plumb line of rectitude. And thus, as the 
master workman proves every part of the building true and trusty, 
so will our celestial Grand Master accord to us the plaudit of well 
done, good and faithful servants." 

After the address, Chaplain Pettit offered up a fervent prayer, at 
the conclusion of which the band played, and the Master of Cere- 
monies proceeded to lay the stone. 

Turning to the architect, he asked the question, '* What is the 
proper intrument used by a Master Mason ?" and was answered, 
" The Trowel." 

Then taking the plumb in hand, he remarked : "The plumb is 
used by Operative Masons to try perpendiculars, the square, to 
square the work, and the level to prove horizontals ; and having 
tried this stone, I now pronounce it well formed, true and trusty." 

The Masonic consecration then took place. Taking corn, wine and 
oil, and pouring them on the stone, he remarked : "Corn is emble- 
matical of health, wine of peace and oil of plenty ; and may those 
who are engaged on this building be protected from accidents, and 
those who are to occupy it enjoy health, nourishment, joy and glad- 
ness." The assembled Masons then exclaimed thrice : "The will 
of God accomplished, so mote it be; amen" — the band playing 
joyful music. 

The trowel was then handed to Mr. Linn by the master of cere- 
monies, who remarked : "I now hand you the trowel, recognizing 
you as a Master Mason, fully versed in the arts of Masonry." Then 
turning to those assembled, he introduced Captain James Barron 
Hope, the orator, as follows : 

" It is customary on occasions similar to this to have a Masonic 
address. Our Brother Hope has kindly consented to serve us in 
this capacity, and I accordingly introduce him to the assembly." 



114 

Captain Hope's oration was a grand one and delighted the vast 
assemblage. The conclusion of the oration ended the ceremonies,, 
and the crowd dispersed. 

October 16th, the Norfolk Opera House was under the manage- 
ment of Sardo & Co., with Mr. George Kunkel as director. Mr. E. 
Eddy, a fine tragedian, delighted our play-goers in the great char- 
actor of Damon, in Damon and Pythias. 

October 18th, Colonel Gilbert C. Walker and Dr. W. W. Wing, 
were nominated as Conservative candidates for election as the 
Representatives of Norfolk in the Constitutional Convention of the 
State — a Convention ordered by the United States Military Com- 
mander of the State, under orders from Washington, for the purpose 
of adopting a new Constitution upon which the old "Mother of 
States and of Statesmen" was to be admitted " back into the Union." 
[This was an admission that the State hadbeen out of the Union — a 
virtual acknowledgement of the right of Secession, against which 
the general Government had fought so long and earnestly]. 

October 22d and 23d, the two delegates to represent the city in 
the State Convention, were chosen by popular vote. To the blacks 
it was indeed a joyous occasion, the day havingat length arrived upon 
which they could exercise for the first time the long-coveted privi- 
lege,theright of franchise. Long before the hour appointed for open- 
ing the polls, dense crowds of them congregated at all the polling- 
places, waiting with feverish anxiety until they could perform the 
highest obligation known to freemen. 

The police were stationed in strong force at each precinct, and by 
their presence prevented any confusion and disorder that might 
possibly have arisen under the unusual circumstances. Everything 
passed off quietly and each voter, after depositing his iballot, was 
required to make room for those behind him. 

From the thorough organization of the negroes, they were enabled 
to poll almost their entire strength before two o'clock, and their 
carriages were kept busy, flying hither aud thither, wherever a vote 
was to be picked up ; but the whites, on the contrary, exhibited a 
strange apathy and listlessness, utterly unaccountable. 

The Republican party in the city, composed then (as it is now) 
almost entirely of negroes, with a slight addition of carpet-baggers 
and scallawags, had two candidates in the field, viz : Henry M. 
Bowden, white, and " Dr." Thomas Bayne,' colored. The result of 
the election was a victory for the negro party, as the following vote 
will show — [note the difference between the white and the black 
vote — Hall, was an independent candidate] : 

Total number of white votes polled for the candidates were: Col. 
Gilbert C. Walker, 1,503 ; Dr. Warren W. Wing, 1,471 ; Bowden, 
62; Hall, 71 ■ Bayne, 9. 



115 

Total number of negro votes polled for the candidates : Bowden, 
1,810;. Bayne, 1,768; Walker, 22; Wing, 6; Hall, 38. 

Total number of white polled, 1,576 ; negro votes, 1,823. 

Bowden's majority over Walker, 347 ; Bayne's majority over 
Walker, 252; Bowden's majority over Wing, 395; Bayne's 
majority over Wing, 300. 

So, Bowden and Bayne were the elected delegates from the city 
of Norfolk, to aid in the work of making laws for the people of this 
State to live under — what laws they made, are well known to our 
people. 

October 26th, Francis F. Butt, a respected young citizen and 
gallant Confederate soldier, died in the 36th year of his ayje. 

October 31st, George Smith was tried for the murder of Martin 
•Madison, and acquitted — Charles H. Porter, counsel for the Com- 
monwealth, and Colonel J. W. Hinton, for the defense. ■ 

November 9th, our esteemed fellow citizen Simon S. Stubbs 
departed this life in the 59th year of his age, after a long and pain- 
ful illness which he bore with Christian fortitude and resignation. 
He was a distinguished member of the Norfolk Bar. 

November 16th, the Southern Opinion, a newspaper publishedln 
Richmond, thus spoke of the Norfolk members of the Virginia 
House of Delegates : 

" The Norfolk delegation, composed of Messrs. John Goode and 
A. F. Leonard, is an able one; and what is better, they have no 
antagonistic interests to sever their votes upon measures affecting 
the welfare of the " city by the sea." 

" Mr. Goode is a lawyer of methodical mind, that in its astute- 
ness reminds us of Edmund Burke. He is emphatically an easy 
speaker— not easy in the sense that such an expression usually 
conveys — but easy as the flow of a strong current, that is not 
broken, or obstructed or impeded by obstacles, but carries the 
obstacles from their moorings resistlessly upon its tide. He is not 
a studied orator, but nevertheless he is the most effective of orators 
by the very force and correctness of his opinions. He possesses the 
art of making converts of those who would otherwise remain 
skeptics. Physically considered, Mr. Goode is a beau ideal of 
legislators, and though the least presumptuous, is the most promi- 
nent member of the body." 

" Mr. Leonard is a deep thinker and planner, and some of the 
most valuable measures affecting the interests of his section have 
emanated from his brain. His intellectual weight is felt in the 
House, though he speaks but little, and then only when the local 
interest of bills calls him forth." 

November 17 th, General B. F. Butler — alias, "Picayune," 
"Beast," &c, arrived in this city. When he landed, an Irish 
hackman named Adams, be it said to his credit, refused to allow the 



116 

distinguished (!) General to ride in his carriage. On the 19th 
instant, the Norfolk Virginian contained the following article : 

" The Spoons, Forks and other articles of Silver Ware in the 
city of Norfolk held a meeting on Sunday evening, in which the 
Committee on Public Safety reported the following preamble and 
resolutions as expressive of the objects of the Convention : 

"Whereas, we are reliably informed that the immortal hero, B. 
F. B., has arrived in Norfolk, with his eyes ingeniously adjusted 
to look two ways at once ; and 

"Whereas, it is reasonable to suppose that he meditates disturbing 
our domestic tranquility, and breaking up our family relations ; and 

"Whereas, under these circumstances it becomes our duty to 
provide for our own safety and that of our families; therefore be it 

"Resolved, That the presence of B. F. B. in Norfolk furnishes us 
a warning which we should not disregard. 

"Resolved, That the best way in which this danger should be 
avoided is taught in the campaigns of B. F. B. himself. 

"Resolved, That acting on hints thus furnished, we recommend 
immediate flight and concealment. 

"A jingle of approbation ran round the hall as the chairman 
concluded his report. When this subsided, a massive Punch Ladle 
arose and addressed the chair. The Ladle said that it approved 
the report fully; it looked around the assembly and missed many 
familiar pieces of plate ; it heard from all parts of the country that 
B. F. B. had an inexorable animosity against spoons, which he 
cruelly tortured over a fire, and reduced to the inferior condition of 
ingots. [Applause]. ' Yes, Mr. Chairman,' continued the Ladle, 
' Yes, I understand that butlerization and vulcanization are synony- 
mous terms. [Applause]. The question as to how we shall escape 
so dreadful a fate has been well met by the Committee. [Sensa- 
tion]. It only remains for us to decide what method we shall elect. 
For my part, I prefer to be buried at midnight in an obscure 
corner.' 

"The Ladle then moved the adoption of the report of the Com- 
mittee on Safety. The motion was seconded by a large and battered 
Tea Pot. The Tea Pot concurred in all that had been said by its 
friend, the Ladle. It spoke by experience, having remained a 
whole year in the northeast corner of a capacious cistern. Its 
present battered condition was to be attributed to that fact; but it 
thanked Heaven it had escaped the perils of cold water and B. F. 
B. combined, and trusted that its friends then present would 
be equally fortunate. [Applause]. At this moment a bran new 
Spoon, that glittered like a moonbeam, ran into the hall and cried 
out, ' I saw a crossed-eyed man coming this way." A sudden 
clatter shook the room. Ladles, Spoons, Forks, Tea-trays, Salvers, 
Urns, Butter Knives, Dishes, and a thousand other articles sprang 



117 

to their feet in the wildest confusion, and bolted for the door. 
During the night an extraordinary series of plumps into neighbor- 
ing cisterns were remarked on by the watchmen, and it is supposed 
that the entire supply of domestic silver in Norfolk has betaken 
itself to those old familiar haunts as a wise precaution against our 
' distinguished visitor.'' " 

Butler left the city that afternoon — the 19th. 

November 25th, Mr. John White, one of Norfolk's best firemen, 
departed this life in the 33d year of his age. The entire Depart- 
ment paraded at his funeral. 

December 2d, at night a large and enthusiastic meeting of the 
white citizens of Norfolk was held at the Courthouse, when the 
Conservative party of the city was systematically organized. 
Speeches were made by Governor Vance, of North Carolina, and 
Messrs. C. W. Newton, J. W. Hinton and John Goode, Jr. Mr. 
Newton presided over the meeting, and Messrs. W. S. Forrest and 
W. A. S. Taylor acted as Secretaries. 

December 30th, a terrible storm prevailed here, which prevented 
the Baltimore and Philadelphia steamers from leaving their 
wharves to make their regular trips up the Bay. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SIXTY-ETGHT. 

February 1st, the extensive barrel and stave factory of Messrs. 
Storms, Baird & Roper was destroyed by fire. Over one hundred 
persons were thrown out of employment by this destructive confla- 
gration. 

February 6th, occurred the funeral of Mrs. Blow, consort of 
General George Blow. A large concourse of people paid the last 
sad tribute of respect to themiemory of that estimable lady. 

February 17th, Burruss & Rogers' row of houses on Roanoke 
avenue was badly damaged by fire. The alarm was sounded at 2 
o'clock in the morning, and the firemen were promptly on the 
spot, but could not prevent a great destruction of property. The 
whole district visited by the fire comprises a number of tenements, 
which were occupied as follows, and all of which were more or 
less damaged : 

No. 8, frame building, was occi pied by negroes in the basement, 
and the other floors by several white families. The furniture in 
this building was partially saved. No. 10, on the first floor, the 
telegraph office, and the floor above, Rice's job printing estab- 
lishment. No. 12, S. R. Borum's liquor store, above which was 
J. Parker Jordan's law office, in the rear of which was Colonel J. 
Rich'd Lewellen's sleeping apartments, whereiu was stored a quan- 
tity of household furniture, all of which was a total loss. No. 14, 
Merchants' Exchange, over which was the law office of W. R. 
Pearce, with a picture frame factory in the rear. No. 16, J. T. 
Jones' auction rooms. No. 18, Journal office, with editorial and 



118 

composing rooms up-stairs. No. 20, A. E. Smith's restaurant., 
over which was the Journal job office. . No. 22, F. F. Ferguson's 
auction house, with the Journal's job office also extended. Next to 
this row was the store of W. G. Webber, whose stock was consid- 
erably damaged by water. 

The losses on the stocks contained in the several buildings were 
verv considerable, principally from water, and were only partially 
covered by insurance. The Journal office was somewhat damaged 
by water. F. F. Ferguson, auctioneer, slightly damaged by 
water. Messrs. S. R. Borum and W. G. Webber lost heavily by 
water and damage in moving their stocks. Mr. Jordan's loss was 
considerable in books and papers. Colonel Lewellen lost heavily 
in furniture, upon which there was no insurance. Mr. Rice esti- 
mated the damage to his job office at $3,000, partially covered by 
an insurance of §2,000. The telegraph office was moved with only 
trifling loss. 

February 13th, the Virginian contained the following short but 
sad story. It explains all except the name of the base man who 
wrought the ruin spoken of: 

" When the Forty-first Virginia Regiment was stationed here in 
1861 and 1862, one of the members of Company B induced his 
wife to leave her home in Petersburg and visit this city. She came, 
and after remaining for a period, concluded to make Norfolk her 
home, at least so long as her husband remained. After being here 
some nine months the woman's husband" lost his life by being 
drowned. Consequently she was left without a protector, with but 
little money and few friends. However, summoning all her forti- 
tude under the trying circumstances, she resolved to seek employ- 
ment and earn an honest living. Accordingly a situation was 
obtained in a very respectable family, and things went on smoothly 
for some time. But an ' evil eye ' was in the family mansion, or at 
least visited it — an Almshouse official. He became acquainted 
with the widow, paid attention to her, addressed her, and report 
says he engaged himself. All this, no doubt, to succeed in his base 
intentions, which he finally accomplished. The woman, to hide 
her shame, left her home, and sought refuge in the house of a negro 
family residing in the upper portion of the city, who kindly gave 
her shelter. A number of ladies, learning her condition, visited 
the house, and administered to her wants. She still remains with 
the colored family, and at present is in quite destitute circum- 
stances." 

February 19th, the American Hotel, on Main street, near Church, 
kept by Benj. Peddle Esq., was partially destroyed by fire. Loss 
several thousand dollars, not covered by insurance. 

February 24th, George Loyall Esq., a former prominent and use- 
ful citizen, departed this life in the 79th year of his age. In his 



119 

youthful clays he represented the Borough of Norfolk in the Legis- 
lature, and afterwards in Congress. His demise, though not unex- 
pected, was greatly deplored. 

Now comes again the vile military rule. The following order 
from Virginia's Military Master, was the forerunner of a great deal 
of trouble: 

Headq'es First Military District, State of Virginia, | 

Richmond, Va. 5 March 30, 1868. j 
General Orders No. 33. 

I. By an order issued from these headquarters on the 2d day of 
April, 1867, all elections for State, county and municipal officers in 
Virginia, having been suspended until the regulations prescribed by 
act of Congress should be completed ; and it having been found ' 
expedient to continue said suspension of elections, whereby certain 
elective offices have become vacant by expiration of terms of service ; 
and some of the officers whose terms have expired being ineligible 
for re-election, appointments will be made by the Commanding 
General as soon as suitable persons can be selected to fill all such 
vacancies. 

II. Military Commissioners will report, without unnecessary 
delay, the names of all elective officers whose legal terms have 
expired • stating whether such officers are eligible for re-election, 
and if ineligible, they will also forward the names of suitable per- 
sons to fill the vacancies, accompanied with satisfactory evidence of 
character and qualifications. Petitions from citizens, registered 
voters, for the appointment of any person to office will in like 
manner be forwarded by the Military Commissioners, with endorse- 
ments as to the character and qualifications. 

III. All officers will continue to act after the expiration of their' 
official terms as required by existing laws until their successors are 
qualified. By command of Brevet Major General Schofield. 

S. F. CHALFIN, A. A. G. 

Of course the men appointed to office by the military powers, 
were of the "black and tan" stripe, and had no respect for any one's 
opinion except their own — and there was "the rub." 

April 3d, the funeral of Captain Chas. R. Grandy took place, 
and was attended by the members of his old Company (the Norfolk 
Light Artillery Blues) the Masonic fraternity, the United Fire 
Company, and a large concourse of citizens. The solemn rites were 
performed at the family residence on Bute street, by Rev. Dr. N. A. 
Okeson, of St. Paul's Church. The deceased was elected Captain 
of the Blues in the latter part of 1861, while the Company was 
stationed at Sewell's Point. He was re-elected in April 1862, and 
was in command of the Company when Norfolk was evacuated. 

During the seven days' fight around Richmond, Capt. Grandy 
was engaged with his battery in guarding Appomattox river, and 



120 

performed the service with which he was entrusted with credit to 
himself and command and with honor to the State. 

After the seven days' fight the battery was ordered to Petersburg 
to recuperate. In October, 1862, the command was ordered to 
Brandy station, to join Chambliss' Cavalry Brigade, under whom it 
participated in the fights before Federicksburg, in December, 1862, 
shortly after which it went into winter quarters in Caroline county. 
In January, 1863, his battery was again ordered to the front, and 
put on picket duty at United States Ford, on the Rappahannock 
river, where he remained until May, 1863, when by overpowering 
numbers he was forced to fall back in the direction of Fredericks- 
burg, disputing gallantly every foot of ground. After reaching a 
position on the Mine road, the battery fought one gun against 
four of the Federals' and maintained its position at short range. The 
same night the battery moved forward, and remained in line of 
battle all next day, when it was relieved, and ordered to the rear. 
Shortly afterwards the Blues followed Gen. Lee in his march to 
Pennsylvania, and returning with the forces, were quartered for the 
winter in Albemarle county, Va. 

In the spring of 1864 they moved to the front at the Wil- 
derness, and were actively engaged in every battle until April, 
1865, when they were captured in front of Petersburg, near the plank 
road, manfully maintaining their position against overwhelming odds. 
One of the gunners was actually shot by a Federal soldier who had 
his bayonet in his victim, while training one of the pieces to fire. 
Here the battery of tour pieces, and fifty-eight officers and privates 
were captured, the men being sent to Point Lookout, and the offi- 
cers to Johnston's Island, in Lake Erie, at which place, while a 
prisoner of war, Captain Grandy contracted the disease of which he 
died. 

A friend has justly and truly said that "the deceased in his 
deportment was modest and unassuming, untiring and inflexible in 
his duty. As a disciplinarian he was exacting but just, studying 
always the interest of his men, and striving by every means in his 
power to sustain their efficiency when called upon for service. Few 
officers in the army of Northern Virginia had a brighter record 
than our departed friend, and his heroic deeds and manly virtues 
are indissolubly connected with the fame of that great army of 
Northern Virginia, in whose exploits he bore so honorable a part, 
and the battery he commanded was worthy to support such tried 
and valiant infantry as the Juniors, Company F, Independent 
Greys, Woodis Rifles, Ludlow's, Wilson's, and other companies 
from this vicinity, who participated with glorious distinction 
throughout the trying scenes of the late war." 

April 9th, when the military authorities called upon Mayor Jno. 
R. Ludlow for a list of the city officers, for the purpose of finding 



121 

out who among them could take the test oath, His Honor furnished 
Major Smith, United States Army, with the required list, and 
opposite his own name made a note as follows : 

" I cannot take the oath called the "iron-clad." 

For this reason the Mayor received no written, inquiry as did the 
other officials. 

John Williams, Esq., the faithful and efficient City. Register, 
replied to the military inquiry with the following : 

Sir — In reply to your communication of the 7th inst., I beg 

leave respectfully to say, that I am neither applicant for, nor an 

expectant of office of any kind, and that I do not mean to ta*e the 

oath of office prescribed by the act of Congress of July 2d, 1862. 

Very respectfullv, your obedient servant, 

JOHN WILLIAMS, City Register. 

R. Q,. Drummond, the City Collector, replied as follows: 

Sir — In reply to yours of the 7th inst., I respectfully state that I 
cannot take the oath prescribed by act of Congress of July 2d, 
1862. Although I have never borne arms against the United 
States Government, or sought or held any office in any Government 
inimical thereto, still I have countenanced, counselled and encour- 
aged those who were. Respectfully, yours, &c, 

R. Q. DRUMMOND, City Collector. 

Dr. A. T. Bell, Physician to the Almshouse, returned the com- 
munication addressed to him endorsed as follows : 

Sir — I had the honor of serving in the Confederate service as a 
surgeon during the whole war, and cannot take the iron-clad oath. 

Respectfully yours, 
ALEX. T. BELL, Physician to the Almshouse. 

The replies of the Constables to their several notices were as fol- 
lows : 

Norfolk, April 9, 1868. 
Sir — In compliance with your communication of the 8th inst., I 
would state that I have never borne arms against the United States 
Government, nor encouraged persons engaged in armed hostility to 
the United States ; but I cannot swear that I did not countenance 
my own people who were in hostility to the United States. 

Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, 
GEO. H. MILLER, Constable City of Norfolk. 
Adolphus Merchant's communication is the same as above. 

Norfolk, April 9, 1868. 
Sir — In compliance with your communication of the 8th inst., I 
respectfully inform you that I cannot take the oath prescribed in 
the act of Congress. 

Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, 
JOHN FORSYTH, Constable City of Norfolk. 



122 

Norfolk, Va., April 9, 1868. N 

Sir — In compliance with your communication of the 8th hist., I 
would respectfully state that it is impossible for me to take the 
"oath" required. Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, 

B. K. TAYLOR, Constable City of Norfolk. 

The Street Inspector, in response to the inquiry, replied : 

Norfolk, April 9, 1868. 

Sir — I cannot take that oath. I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, yours, &c, 
N. B. LEE, Street Inspector. 

The Second Wood Measurer made the following reply : 

Norfolk, April 9, 1868. 

Major H. E. Smith : Sir — In reply to your communication of 
the 8th, I would say that I cannot take the oath prescribed by 
act of Congress. Very respectfully, &c., 

G. F. CLARK, Second Wood Measurer. 

D. B. Dyer, Clerk of the Market, replied as follows : 

Sir — I cannot comply with the conditions of the iron-clad oath, 
under any circumstances, pretext or excuse. While not actively 
engaged in the war, my sympathies were with the cause. 

Yours, respectfully, 
D. B. DYER, Clerk of the Market. 

Edward Sales, City Gauger ; Jesse D. Ewell, Sealer of Weights 
and Measures ; and John Campbell, City Weigher, all replied that 
they "could not conscientiously take the oath reqnired." 

These men were true Virginian's, and the noble stand they took 
will never be forgotten by those who appreciate honor and truth. 

April 29th, Samuel W. Paul, one of our most useful and 
esteemed citizens, departed this life in the 66th year of his age. 
He was a true, Christian gentleman, and by his death our commu- 
nity sustained a loss not soon to be repaired. 

April 30th, the following military appointees to office in this 
city qualified, to-wit : J. J. Wood bridge, Street Inspector ; A. L. 
Hill, City Collector ; J. W. Thompson, Lieutenant of Police. 

May 1st, Caleb T. Mears, a well known citizen, committed 
suicide by the means of poison. The deed was committed in a box 
car at the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad depot. 

May 5th, the Common Council appointed by the Military Com- 
mander held its first meeting. This body was far more respectable 
than the good people of the city first expected it would be. Mr. 
William T. Harrison was chosen President of it. 

May 11th, John Everett, Esq., of London, England, addressed 
the citizens at the City Hall upon the subject of direct trade. On 
the next day the Board of Trade held a meeting, with Colonel 
William Lamb, President, in the chair, and Major William C. 
Marrow as Secretary. 



123 

The object of the meeting was stated by the President, where- 
upon Marshall Parks, Esq., moved that a committee of seven be 
appointed to tender the hospitalities of the Board to John Everett, 
Esq., of London, and invite him to view the harbor. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted, and the chair appointed 
the following gentlemen as a committee to carry out the arrange- 
ments in accordance with the resolution : 

Marshall Parks, James Y. Leigh, VV. D. Reynolds, Thomas B. 
Rowland, E. T. Hardy, S. Hamburger and E. C. Lindsey. 

On motion, Colonel William Lamb, President, and Major W". C. 
Marrow, Secretary, were added to the Committee. 

Mr. E. T. Hardy moved that the Board of Trade heartily concur 
in the thanks tendered Mr. Everett by the meeting on Monday 
night for his excellent address in behalf of direct trade. 

The meeting then adjourned, and at half-past 12 o'clock the 
Committee of Arrangements and members of the Board of Trade 
proceeded to General Mahone's rooms at the railroad office, on Main 
street, and escorted Mr. Everett, General Mahone and other invited 
guests to the wharf of the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company 
where the party embarked on board the barge Beauty. The barge 
was taken in tow by a tug, and proceeded towards the Navy-yard. 
After which the party viewed the harbor from the Navy-yard to 
Craney- Island. Upon their return they landed at the Atlantic Iron 
works, near Fort Norfolk, and fully inspected that extensive estab- 
lishment. 

The Committee appointed by the Board of Trade made ample 
provisions for the inner man in the shape of " creature comforts." 
Good cheer and sentiment prevailed. Speeches in response to tpasts 
were made by Colonel Lamb, Messrs. Biggs, Robinson, Reynolds, 
Everett and General Mahone. About 4 o'clock the party landed 
at Todd's wharf, and escorted their guests through the city, visiting 
the new Atlantic Hotel, and taking a bird's-eye view of the city 
from its lofty roof. 

After the party left the hotel they proceeded up Main street to 
General Mahone's office, where Mr. Everett was bid adieu. He 
thanked them kindly for the consideration and courtesy he had 
received, and said "that his visit would ever be cherished with the 
liveliest feelings of regard and esteem for the people of the South, 
who had been, as before stated, so outrageously misrepresented in 
England." 

May 12th, the Select Council appointed by the military held its 
first meeting. Mr. Cicero Burruss was elected President. 

May 13, Mr. Francis DeCordy, who had been appointed Mayor 
of the city by the military powers, qualified and took his seat. W. 
P. Hennelley and S. D. Campbell, Esqs., were appointed, respec- 
tively, as Clerk of the Market and Register (City Treasurer). 



124 

May 17th, the steamship Isaac Bell, of the Old Dominion 
Steamship Company;, arrived here on her first trip. She was com- 
manded by Captain H. A. Bourne. Mayor Hoffman and many 
other distinguished citizens of New York were on board as excur- 
sion passengers. On the 20th of May (when the Bell returned 
from Richmond) Commodore N. L. McCready, President of the 
Company, extended invitations to the members of the Councils, 
Board of Trade, the Press, and of the Pomological Society, and 
many other citizens, to a splendid collation given on board the 
new ship under the personal management of Colonel Thomas H. 
Webb, the popular and efficient Agent of the Line. Speeches were 
made by Mayors DeCordy and Hoffman, President McCready, 
Messrs. VV. T. Harrison, G. F. B. Leighton, S. A. Stevens and 
others, in compliment to the pleasant occasion. 

June 7th, a destructive fire occurred on Main street, which almost 
entirely destroyed the stores occupied by L. L. Brickhouse & Co., 
shoe merchants, and Phillips & Zills' notion house. Mr. Thomas 
Walter's photograph gallery in the upper part of one of the build- 
ings, was totally destroyed. 

June 8th, the steamer Nellie Jenkins was destroyed at Baird & 
Roper's wharf. She was owned by Captain Robert Gwinn. 

Sunday morning, June 28th, the Methodist Episcopal Tabernacle, 
on Charlotte street, was dedicated to the service of God by Bishop 
Levi Scott, of Delaware. Rev. C. S. Williams, the pastor, preached 
in the afternoon. 

July 4th, "Independence Day, " was joyfully celebrated by the 
negroes of Norfolk and the carpetbag and scallawag element. 
Sable excursionists from Petersburg and elsewhere spread over the 
city like locusts in Egypt — and thus passed the once " glorious 
Fourth ! " 

July 27th, Mr. Alexander Tunstall (father of Dr. R. B. Tun- 
stall) departed this life in the 82d year of his age. He was one of 
Norfolk's oldest and best citizens. 

July 28th, Mr. E. J. Myers, one of our aged and highly esteemed 
Jewish citizens, fell upon the pavement and seriously injured him- 
self. 

The first Democratic pole raised in Norfolk since the war was 
erected in the Fourth Ward on the night of July 29th (1868). A 
large crowd assembled to hear the Seymour and Blair speeches 
delivered by Colonel J. Rich'd Lewellen, Captain John S. Tucker 
and others. 

August 7th, the funeral of Colonel Simon Stone took place from 
his (late) residence on Granby street, Rev. Father O'Keefe officia- 
ting. Nearly all the city officials and a large number of our old 
citizens attended, and paid the last sad tribute of respect to their 
deceased friend. 



125 

August 19th, a game of base ball was played between the Mary- 
land Club, of Baltimore, and the Creightons, of this city. The 
Norfolk fooys were defeated by a score of 87 to 10. 

September 8th, Mr. Benjamin A. Barrom, a well known and 
respected citizen of Norfolk, died suddenly at Fortress Monroe, 
from the effect^ of a congestive chill. 

September 19th, Mr. Wtn. S. Upshur, an old and valued citi- 
zen, departed this life at the age of 65 years. He always enjoyed 
the respect and implicit confidence of his fellow citizens. 

September 26th, the proprietors of the Norfolk Virginian, gave 
an annual reception supper to a number of invited guests, atMorri- 
sett's Club House, on Bank street, Speeches weri' made by Hon. 
John Goode, Jr., Gen. Geo. Blow, Col. J. Richard Lewellen, Col. 
L. D. Starke, Capt. Jno. S. Tucker, Capt. Thos. F. Owens, Capt. 
James Barron Hope,editor of the paper, and M. Glennan Esq., one of 
the proprietors, and at that time the youngest newspaper man in the 
State. [Mr. Glennan was also one of the youngest soldiers that left 
Norfolk in defence of the Confederacy. He entered the army at 
the age of sixteen years, and although he was legally exempt from 
duty — -not only by age, but from being lame for life, he served 
gallantly during the entire war. Early in 1861 he applied for 
enlistment in a Norfolk Company, but was refused on account of 
his age, and crippled condition. He afterwards went to North 
Carolina, and joined the 36th North Carolina Regiment, under Col. 
Wm. Lamb, of this city. He was captured at the fall of Fort 
Fisher, and after the surrender of Gen. Jos. E. Johnston, was 
brevetted as a Lieutenant for his gallantry. He returned home 
after the war, and by his great energy and perseverance has gradually 
worked himself up to be the sole owner of the Virginian, and one 
of the best newspaper men in the State. Such an instance of patrio- 
tism and merited success is well worthy of record.] 

October 8th, the new Atlantic Hotel was formally opened to the 
public by A. G. Newton, Esq., who gave a magnificent entertain- 
ment to the Hotel Company (the stockholders of the building) and 
many invited guests. 

Monday October 12th, the Washigton and Lee Bazaar, a temple 
of fancy, or fair, gotten up by the ladies of the Washington and Lee 
Association, in Norfolk, for the support of Confederate Orphans, 
was opened to the public. Everything fancy, useful and good to 
eat, was exposed for sale in aid of the noble objects of the Associa- 
tion. The following ladies were actively engaged in the good cause : 
Mrs. S. Hodges, Mrs. J. Richard Lewellen, Mrs. E. A. Hallett, 
Mrs. F. Mallory, Mrs. J. Vnkery, Mrs. Kader Biggs, Mrs. Wm. 
H. Broughton, Mrs. Pinkham, Mrs. Duncan, Mrs. Roberts, Miss 
Henrietta Hunter, Mrs. Timberlake, Mrs. Hall, Mrs. Moore, Mrs. 



12(y 

Brickhonse, Mrs. Santos, Mrs. M. Wertheimer, Miss Kate Sarsfco 
and many fair assistants whose names we cannot give here. 

October 14th, was the first day of the assembling of the Railroad 
and Commercial Convention. The city was gaily decorated with 
flags, banners, mottoes, &c, and the great crowd present betokened 
an era of great importance. The Convention met at the Opera 
House, and was called to order by Colonel Wm. Lamb, President 
of the Norfolk Board of Trade. Delegates were in attendance from 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, 
Kentucky, and other States. The Convention was held in the 
interests of direct trade with Europe, with Norfolk as the shipping 
port for the South and West. Col. George W. Boiling, of Peters- 
burg, presided over the body, which was in session four days. Our 
city was filled with visitors and they were royally entertained — it 
was a regular jubilee occasion.' The number of delegates present 
exceeded two thousand. 

October 27th, two young men — George C. Devereux, and Thos. 
Only, engaged in a friendly wrestling match, when Only was thrown 
by his opponent and so badly injured that he died in a few hours. 
The affair caused a great deal of sadness, as the young men were 
good friends, and wrestled only for friendly sport. 

December 17th, Miss Laura Keene, the New York Actress, 
appeared at our Opera House, in the beautiful play of "Hunted 
Down." She essayed the character of "Mary Leigh" and delighted 
a large audience. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SIXTY-NINE. 

January 10th, James Woodhouse, an aged and respected citizen, 
departed this life. 

January 25th, Messrs. Burrow & White's drug store, on Church 
street, w T as destroyed by fire. Loss not fully covered by insurance. 
Several other stores in the vicinity were damaged. 

February 1st, Charles F. McCoy, a printer by trade, and former 
member of the Norfolk Independent Grays, departed this life. 

February 9th, Mr. Andrew Sigourney, one of our public spirited 
citizens, died in the city of Baltimore. His remains were brought 
home for interment. 

March 25th, Edward Lakio, the beloved and efficient Captain of 
the United Fire Company, died. He was a gallant Confederate, a 
brave fireman, a kind and generous man, and an useful citizen. 
Peace to his ashes, and respect to his memory. 

April 5th, Messrs. Pullen & Pierce's carriage factory, on Union 
street, was destroyed by fire — the work of incendiaries. 

May 12th, Colonel Gilbert C. Walker, addressed a meeting of 
citizens upon the political issues of the day. This was his first 
political speech in Virginia, and the commencement of his brilliant 
and victorious campaign as the candidate for Governor, against 



12? 

Henry Happy Wells, the carpet-bagger and Radical candidate. 

June 21st, the Norfolk City and Princess Anne County Conser- 
vative Convention, called to nominate a candidate for the State 
Senate, met at the Courthouse. Colonel Lewellen called the meet- 
ing to order, and Mr. Ethan Allen was made chairman. Major 
Jas. F. Milligan nominated Mr. W. II. Burroughs, of Princess 
Anne ; Mr, Charles Sharp nominated Col. Walter H. Taylor, of 
Norfolk; whereupon, Major Milligan withdrew his nomination in 
favor of Col. Taylor. On motion of Judge George S. Oldfield, the 
nomination of Colonel Taylor was adopted by acclamation — unani- 
mously. 

June 28th, a Conservative Convention was held, by which, 
Messrs. W. H. Burroughs and A. S. Segar were chosen as candi- 
dates for election to the House of Delegates from Princess Anne 
county, and this city. These gentlemen were also unanimously 
nominated. [Norfolk city and Princess Anne county, together, 
were only entitled, at that time, to one Senator and two Delegates.] 

July 1st, the revision of the registration lists was finished, and it 
was shown that the white majority in the entire city was only 84. 
£" The boys" had hard work to do then, sure ; but it isn't 
so now]. At that time Major General Canby was in command of 
Virginia, and he did all he could to encourage the Radical party, 
and to help Wells against Walker. 

July 4th, a colored picnic was enjoyed by a large number of our 
sable citizens below Fort Norfolk. While some of the party were 
returning home in the afternoon, a row boat capsized and five little 
girls and one boy were drowned. 

July 6th was election day — the first State election that our people 
were permitted to hold since the war. The State Constitution 
framed by the "Black and Tan" Convention, was submitted to 
the people for adoption or rejection, with certain very objectionable 
clauses submitted to a separate vote. These clauses were defeated, 
but the balance of the Constitution was adopted, and Colonel Gil- 
bert C. Walker was triumphantly elected Governor, over H. H. 
Wells, the negroes' candidate — and that was the death blow to 
Radicalism in Old Virginia. [Oh! glorious day — brave, victo- 
rious Walker! " Methinks I see thee still"]. Wells' majority 
in the city over W r alker was 76 ; Colonel Taylor's majority (for 
State Senate) in the city over Major J. N. Croft, was 15 ; majority 
for the Constitution, 3,803 ; majority against the objectionable 
clauses, 5. [The clauses stricken from the Constitution by the votes 
of the honest people, were known as the " test oath " and " dis- 
franchising" clauses]. Mr. A. S. Segar was elected as a Delegate, 
and Colonel Walter H. Taylor, as Senator, by small majorities. 
r oughs was defeated by Henry M. Bowden, Radical]. At 
this election Norfolk, as well as the State, repudiated Radical rule. 



128 

July 7th, onr people were called upon to mourn the death of 
another old citizen — Mr. David Corprew, who died in the sixty- 
first year of his age. 

At night, July 7th, the city was illuminated, and a grand jolli- 
fication procession marched to the Atlantic Hotel to congratulate 
Colonel Walker upon his election. The Colonel addressed the 
crowd in a happy and pleasant manner. Speeches were also made 
by Hon. John B. Whitehead, Colonels Hinton and Blow, Mayor 
DeCordy, S. A. Stevens, H. D. Ghiselin, Colonel L. D. Starke, 
W. H. C. Ellis and Arthur S. Segar. 

August 6th, some distinguished citizens of Georgetown, D. C, 
made an excursion to Norfolk on the steamer W. W. Coit, and were 
entertained at the Atlantic Hotel by onr city authorities. 

August 21st, Mr. W. J. Hozier's grocery store, corner of Char- 
lotte and Bute streets, was destroyed fire. Loss about $5,000 — not 
insured. 

September 2d, Dr. Robert S. Newton addressed the merchants 
of Norfolk in the interests of the Mediterranean and Oriental 
Steam Navigation Company of New York. 

Departed this life September 2d, after a lingering illness, Purser 
John Debree, one of our oldest and most esteemed fellow-citizens. 

Sunday, September 12th, the Fire Department and Odd Fellows 
escorted to their last resting place the remains of Richard L. Nel- 
son, who died on Friday, the 10th instant. 

September 18th, Officer George Scultatus, of the city police 
force, shot and killed a soldier named Charles H. Smith, of Com- 
pany K, 17th Regiment United States Infantry. Smith and his 
comrades resisted the officer (while attempting to arrest them for 
disorderly conduct) and threatened his life. Mr. Scultatus was 
tried and acquitted on the grounds of having acted purely in self- 
defence. 

September 25th, Mr. Franklin G. Moore, another old citizen, 
departed this life. He had been a faithful Customhouse officer 
for a number of years. 

October 8th, Rev. Father Farren, a former citizen of Norfolk, 
died in Lynchburg, Va. He was educated in Rome, and was a 
priest of great promise and popularity, and only thirty years of age. 

October 11th, General J. B. Magruder delivered a lecture in 
Tazewell Hall, on Mexico, Maximilian and Carlotta. His audience 
was delighted with the historical and intellectual treat. 

October 17th, the Hope Fire Company left this city on board the 
Steamer George Leary, for Wilmington, Delaware, to pay a visit to 
Washington Fire Company, of the city maned. The Company 
returned October 23d, well pleased with their trip and the courtesy 
extended by their Delaware friends. 

October 27th, the funeral of George Bramble took place at Christ 



129 

Church, Rev. O. S. Barten, officiating. The Church was crowded 
with sorrowing friends of the lamented deceased. 
• December 7th, the members of the National Board of Trade 
(composed of distinguished men from the large cities of the North 
and West) paid a flying visit to Norfolk. An elegant entertain- 
ment was given to the visitors at the Atlantic Hotel, and next day, 
the 8th inst., they were complimented with an excursion trip to 
Old Point, on the Steamer George Leary, of the Old Bay Line, 
which was greatly enjoyed. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SEVENTY. 

January 1st, the Steamer Astoria, the largest iron steamer ever 
built here, was launched at the Atlantic Iron Works. The launch 
was witnessed by a large concourse of people. 

January 5th, the ladies of the Washington and Lee Association, 
gave a calico ball, which was largely attended. The receipts were 
applied to the support of Confederate orphans, in accordance with 
the objects of the Society. This pleasant affair was under the 
management of Miss Henrietta Hunter, the efficient and patriotic 
President of the Association. 

January 18th,. a large meeting of the citizens of Norfolk was held 
at Tazewell Hall, to give expression to their views concerning the 
consolidation of the railroads from here to Bristol, Tennessee, and 
the Clifton Forge connection. Speeches were make by Hon. John 
Goode, Hon. S. McD. Moore, Hon. Thos. S. Bocock, Maj. Jno. W. 
Daniel, and others. The Committee on Resolutions then submitted 
the following, which were adopted unanimously : 

" Resolved, That we have listened with great interest and pleasure 
to the able addresses of the distinguished gentlemen who have ad- 
dressed us this evening on behalf of the proposed extension of the 
Southside Railroad to Clifton Forge, on the line of the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Railroad. 

"Resolved, That we hail with lively satisfaction the movement 
which has been recently inaugurated by our fellow citizens of 
Lynchburg, and other communities in the Southside, which has for 
its object the completion of the proposed connection between Clifton 
Forge, by the most eligible route which may hereafter be indicated. 

"Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting, the people of 
Norfolk will be found ready and willing hereafter to co-operate to 
the full extent of their ability in the completion of the proposed 
extension. 

"Resolved, That delegates be appointed by the chairman 

of this meeting to represent the city of Norfolk, in the General Con- 
vention, which has been called to meet in the city of Lynchburg." 

After the adjournment, the delegation, escorted by the Board of 
Trade, members of the Select and Common Councils and the invi- 



J 30 

ted guests, proceeded to the National Hotel where a bountiful colla- 
tion had been prepared. 

January 23d, Lewis W. Webb was removed from the position of 
Collector of this Port, and Luther Lee Jr., Esq., appointed in his 
place. The on!}' cause of this change was Gen. Grant's preference 
of a carpet-bagger to a native — [one of Grant's chief characteristics]. 
February 2d, a fire occurred at the corner of Main street and 
Loyall's lane, which destroyed B. Peddle's restaurant, D. P. Morris' 
cigar store, E. Leithardt's shoe shop, Washington & Hunt's barber 
shop, and Richard Lee's club room. A fireman named Charles 
James was badly injured at this fire, by a portion of the front wall 
of the burning building falling upon him. 

February 10th, Miles & Creekmur's clothing establishment, No. 
7 Market Square, was also destroyed by fire. 

February 12th, Mr. Samuel H. Hodges, an honored citizen and 
an upright Mason, died at his residence on Cumberland street. He 
was buried with Masonic honors. 

February 13th, Henry Carroll, an estimableyoung man, departed 
this life. He was a former m -mber of the "Norfolk Juniors," and 
was disabled by a wound received in battle May 8th, 1864. 

February 28th, Seth March, a prominent merchant and respected 
citizen, died in the 58th year of his age. He was buried March 
2d, from the Cumberland Street Baptist Church. 

March 19th, Lewis Rose, a former gallant member of the Nor- 
folk Blues, departed this life. He was a faithful clerk in Messrs. 
M. A. & C. A. Santos' drug store, and won the confidence and 
esteem not only of his employers, but of all who knew him. He 
left a wife and two young children to mourn his untimely death. 

March 23d, Dr. Samuel J. Brown departed this life, after a brief 
illness. He was a talented and popular physician, and his death 
was deeply lamented. 

March 31st, Governor Walker's "Message to Mayor DeCordy" 
was received, and brought with it good tidings. Here is a copy 
of it : 
Commonwealth of Virginia, Executive Department, ) 

Richmond, March 30, 1870. J 
"Hon. Franeis De Cordy, Mayor of the City of Norfolk : 

Dear Sir — Enclosed please find Commissions for the Council- 
men of the city of Norfolk. I have to request that you cause the 
same to be delivered to the several appointees to-morrow morning, 
and summon a meeting of all the members to-morrow evening, at 8 
o'clock, for the purpose of organization, after qualification. As soon 
as organized, they will proceed under the charter to elect a Recorder 
and Aldermen, and then a Select Council. The oaths of office 
may be taken before a magistrate, Judge, or notary public, and the 
14th Amendment oath may be forwarded by mail to the Secretary 



131 

of the Commonwealth to-morrow. Please attend to this promptly 
and oblige, "Your obedient servant, G. C. WALKER." 

The following is a correct list of the names accompanying the 
above, from which were selected the magistrates of the city and the 
members of the Select Council : 

J. B. Whitehead, John E. Doyle, J. Montgomery, E. Vance, R. C. Taylor, 
Samuel R. Boruni, V. D. Groner, T. M. Wilson, Geo. E. Maltby, E. W. Moore, 
S. A. Stevens, S. R. White, W. F. Allen, W. W. Wing, W. B. Deggs, C. H. Row- 
land, M. Howell, G. R. Wilson, A. Oberndorfer, Wm. Rosson, P. Dilworth, C, 
W. Grandy, S. G. Tuttle, W. T. Harrison, John A. Rosson, Thos. H. Webb, A. 
A. McCullough, Jas. Reid, Wm. Lamb, (J. Billups, E.G. Robinson, A. G. Mil- 
hado, G. W. Cowdery, W. W. Gwathmey, J. (J. White. 

The Commissions were promptly delivered. A meeting of the 
new Council took place on the evening of the 31st inst., and Mr. 
Chas. H. Rowland, waselected Recorder. The following gentlemen 
were then elected as Aldermen : Messrs. E. Vance, John E. Doyle, 
T. M. Wilson, C. W. Grandy Sr., John B. Whitehead, Jas. Reid, 
A. A. McCullough, and Wm. Lamb. Mayor F. DcCordy was then 
unanimously elected Mayor to fill the unexpired term of that office. 

This was a compliment which Mr. DeCordy scarcely expected to 
receive, but which he really deserved, for he had been a just and 

mpartial officer]. 

April 1st, the Council held an adjourned meeting and elected the 
following officers : 

City Register, S. S. Dawes; City Collector, Andrew L. Hill; City Assessor, J. 
C. Saunders ; City Attorney, Thos. W. Peirce ; Street Inspector, J. J. Wood- 
bridge; City Gauger, Edward E. Sales ; City Surveyoi", John F. Dezendorf ; Clerk 
of the Market, W. P. Hennelly ; Keeper of Almshouse, Wm. Hawkins; Physician 
to Almshouse, Dr. E. D. Grainier; Weigher of Hay, Peter Powell; Sealer of 
Weights and Measures, F. G. Storey ; Wood Measurers, M. J. Walker and G. F. 
Clark ; Captain of the Watch, Edwin M Gray ; Lieutenant of the Watch, C. C. 
Benson ; Captains Hipkins, Chamberlaine and Phillips, were elected as Port 
Wardens ; Captain John Gibbs and A. Baum, were appointed Harbor Masters. 

April 7th, the officers of the Danish Corvette, Tho", (then lying 
in our harbor), were entertained at the Atlantic Hotel with a magni- 
ficent dinner, given by our energetic young townsman, Samuel 
Kimberly Esq., of the firm of Kimberly Brothers. The affair was 
reeherche in every respect, and was duly appreciated by the visitors, 
who united in proclaiming "Sammy" to be the "Prince of o-ood 
fellows." 

April 8th, the Methodist Episcopal Sunday School Convention, 
which had been in session for four days, adjourned. Bishop D. S. 
Doggett, D. D., was elected President of the State Sunday School 
Association by this Convention. 

April 9th, William H. Burroughs, Esq., qualified as Judge of 
the Corporation Court, upon appointment by the Legislature, to 
succeed Judge B. B. Foster, who held the position by military 
appointment. On the 12th instant Judge Burroughs took his seat, 
and " Mr. Foster" retired. 



132 

April 12th, the Board of Trade held an important and animated 
meeting in regard to the bill before the Legislature to consolidate 
the line of railroads between Norfolk and Bristol. After much 
discussion the following resolutions were adopted: 

" Resolved by the Norfolk Board of Trade, That we heartily desire the consol- 
idation of the Southside line of railroads, embracing the Norfolk and Petersburg, 
Southside, Virginia and Tennessee, and Virginia and Kentucky Roads, believing 
it presents the only means whereby we can successfully compete with the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad for the trade of the great West, and defeat the cities 
North of us, to draw the trade of Virginia and the States West and South of us, 
through our own State, to markets further North. 

" 2d. That we unequivocably advocate the consolidation of said Roads, and 
earnestly request our Representatives in the Legislature to use their utmost efforts 
for the consummation of such a policy. 

"3d. That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to our Senator and Dele- 
gates in Richmond." 

Ayes : Messrs. Gwathmey, Rowland, Glennan, Taylor, Cowand, Underhill, 
Hinton, Wright, Hamburger, Couper and Reed — 11. 

Nays : Messrs. Lamb, Graves, Bell, Barna, Howell and Shanks — 6. 

As we have previously stated in this volume, there was great 
opposition to the consolidation of these railroads — especially by 
persons who had no interest in Norfolk, and who sold themselves 
for dollars and cents to the hired agents and lobbyists of the Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland Railroad monopolies. There were persons 
in Norfolk who opposed the 'plan of consolidation, but not the 
consolidation in fact — and such men gave some reasonable excuses 
for such opposition; but there were some people, here and else- 
where, who opposed the entire bill on account of personal preju- 
dice against General Mahone — [and these same " blockheads " 
would to-day plunge Norfolk and the whole State into a common 
ruin, in order to satisfy their " spite against Mahone," or any other 
man]. 

All the prominent business men of the State readily saw how 
materially this Consolidated Line would aid in making Norfolk a 
port of great importance, and, rising above petty prejudices and un- 
scrupulous selfishness, they gave their aid to the great scheme — 
working for the interests of Virginia and her only seaport city, 
without halting to consider personal ends and insignificent animosi- 
ties ; and such were the men who came to the rescue of Norfolk 
and made their voices potent in advocacy of the Consolidation Bill 
which the enemies of our State were striving with all their might and 
means to defeat — and why did they desire its defeat ? Simply 
because they had sense enough to know that by its passage 
and fulfilment, they would be injured and Virginia benefitted. 
. Philadelphia and Baltimore's opposition to it alone, was enough to 
show how important the measure was to Virginia, but there were 
many weak eyes that could "not see it in that light." But, thanks to 
Intelligence, Norfolk saw it and sees it still. So mote it be. 

April 18th, the monument erected at Elmwood Cemetery by the 



133 

United Fire Company, to the memory of Edward Lakin, their dead 
comrade, was unveiled in the presence of a large gathering of our 
citizens. The Fire Department of this city and that of Portsmouth, 
the St. Patrick's Societies of the two cities, the Norfolk Blues' Bene- 
volent and Memorial Association, the Mayor and members of the 
City Councils, all joined in the procession that marched to the 
Cemetery to honor the memory of a gallant soldier and fireman. 
Capt. John S. Tucker delivered the dedicatory oration, and Capt. 
James Barron Hope delivered a beautiful poem to the memory of 
the dead Captain — the brave Ned Lakin. 

April 20th, the work of building the Norfolk city railway was 
begun under the superintendance of Virginius Freeman Esq., Civil 
Engineer. 

April 30th, our noble old Confederate Commander, Genera 
Robert E. Lee, arrived in this city via the Seaboard and Roanoke 
Railroad. When it was known that he was on the train, the 
Portsmouth boys borrowed the gun " Brick Pomeroy," belonging 
to the Hope F\re Company, and as the train reached the depot, 
they fired a salute to welcome the hero. The General, accompanied 
by his daughter, was met by Colonel Walter H. Taylor, his former 
Adjutant General, and was by him conducted through the dense 
throng to the ferry-boat. The air, during his passage through the 
assemblage, was vocal with shouts of welcome to the old chieftain. 
It may be also remarked that those shouts were not of the measured 
"hip-hip-hurrah" kind now in vogue, but were the genuine, old- 
fashioned Confederate yells, which quickened the pulses at all the 
battles in this State, from Big Bethel to Appomattox Courthouse, 
and which doubtless awakened a host of memories in the breast of 
him in whose honor they were uttered. On board the ferry boat 
the cabin in which the General was seated was beseiged by a crowd 
eager to catch a glimpse of the hero, but the door i was faithfully 
guarded, and as far as possible he was relieved from the inconve- 
nience of being enveloped by a multitude whose only wish was to 
do him honor. As soon as the boat started, several Roman candles 
signalled to the United Fire Company, of this city, that the General 
was on board, and in a few minutes their cannon pealed forth a 
warlike welcome, which was kept up until the arrival of the boat 
on- this side Here another immense concourse was assembled, and 
as the General and his daughter stepped on the wharf they were 
greeted with another succession of the familiar yells of the battle- 
field, which continued until they had reached a hack and were 
whirled rapidly away. 

The General remained in the city for several days, the guest of 
Colonel Taylor, and received calls from a number of devoted friends 
and brave comrades. 



134 

May 9th, a tremendous Conservative mass meeting was held to 
make preparations for the approaching municipal election. 

May 11th, the registration of new voters was completed, and the 
white majority in the city was only 171. 

May 13th, the City Conservative Convention (Hon. John Goode, 
chairman,) met and nominated the following city ticket, to-wit : 

For Mayor, Hon. John B. Whitehead; Clerk of the Court, Mr. Thomas W. 
Peirce ; Commonwealth's Attorney, Mr. Thomas T. Cropper; City Sergeant, 
Colonel J. Rieh'd Lewellen ; City Treasurer, Mr. J. M. Freeman ; Commissiuner 
<>f Revenue, Mr. John Branham ("old Braddox"); City Collector, Captain John 
R. Ludlow ; City Attorney, Mr. John H. Nash ; Street Inspector, Mr. A. J. 
Dalton ; City Surveyor, Colonel Harry Williamson ; Captain of the Watch, Ed. 
Gray; Lieutenant of the Watch, 0. C. Benson ; Constables, Robert Steele, John 
R.Morris, A. Merchant, James Reilley, James Butler and George H. Miller; 
Clerk of Market, John Stavro; Physician to Almshouse, Dr. J. W. Leigh; 
Keeper of Almshouse, E. N. Bobee ; Hay Weigher, R. A. Forbes; Sealer of 
Weights and Measures.J. T. Ewell ; Wood Measurers, B. Roskam and G. F. Clark ; 
Gauger, Frank vVood. 

May 14th, the funeral of Benjamin D. Thomas occurred. The 
deceased served gallantly during the war as a member of the Blues, 
and was a favorite with all who knew him. 

May 17th, the Radicals met in Convention and nominated the 

following ticket, to-wit : 

For Mayor, P. Dilworth ; City Sergeant, William H. Brooks ; Collector, John 
T. Daniels; Treasurer, L. W. Webb; Clerk of the Courts, Henry M. Bowden ; 
Commissioner of the Revenue, Dr. Thomas Bayne (negro) ; Assessor, W. T. Bell ; 
Commonwealth's Attorney, George S. Oldfield ; City Attorney, John Parker 
Jordan ; Street Inspector, R. T. Guinn ; Keeper of the Almshouse, James H. 
Hall ; City Surveyor, John F. Dezendorf ; Health Officer, Dr. James YV. Leigh ; 
Gauger of Liquors, Thomas F. Paige, (negro) ; 1st Wood Measurer, John Walker; 
2d Wood Measurer, Ben Bailey; Clerk of Market, W. P. Hennellv ; Weigher of 
Hay, D. B. Balsom. 

Six constables, all negroes, were also nominated. [They put 
some good men on their ticket to give it strength — also some black 
ones, to make it stronger^. 

May 22d, the Conservatives had a grand torchlight procession, 
which created great enthusiasm. 

Thursday, May 26th, was municipal election day, and Norfolk 
was once more " redeemed, regenerated and disenthralled," by the 
election of <her own citizens (with one or two exceptions) — white 
men with white men's principles, to fill her city offices. The 
triumph was a glorious one — it was a Waterloo to the Rads. The 
only Republicans elected were the following : A. L. Hill, Esq., 
Commissioner of the Revenue ; W. P. Hennelly, Esq., Clerk of 
the Market (two good men) ; Robert T. Guinn, Street Inspector; 
J. H. Hall, Keeper of the Almshouse. The balance of the officers 
were the regular Conservative nominees, and all good men and true. 

A large majority of the Counoilmen elected were Conservative 
nominees, which of course gave that party entire control of the city, 
once more, thanks to the good Lord above. 



135 

May 27th, the funeral of James D. Gammon, a worthy and 
popular citizen, took place from the Cumberland Street Methodist 
Church, Rev. Mr. Cheatham officiating. 

June 2d, the 47th Annual Session of the Baptist General As- 
sociation of Virginia, convened in this city — Hon. Robert L. 
Montague (a lay delegate) presiding. It was in session four days. 

June 7th, the Railroad Consolidation bill (known as the "bill^to 
authorize the formation of the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Rail- 
road") was passed by the House of Delegates, it having previously 
passed the Senate. Upon receipt of the good news here (June 8th) 
the people became jubilant with delight, and in the afternoon hand- 
bills were circulated, stating that there would be a grand mass 
meeting of the citizens at the City Hall, for the purpose of testify- 
ing their approval and gratification at the result achieved. In the 
evening a salute of one hundred and eleven guns (one for every vote 
cast in the Senate and House for the bill) were fired, and at night 
the streets were illuminated by flaming tar barrels. At the Norfolk 
and Petersburg depot, the event was celebrated by a grand display 
of fire works, and the locomotives and cars of the company, departing 
and arriving, were gaily decorated with wreaths and flowers, and 
flying steamers. 

The grand ratification meeting was held according to announce- 
ment, and it was a joyous occasion. Hon. JohnGoode addressed the 
citizens upon the importance of the event. He gave an accountof 
the opposition to t the bill. It had encountered a most violent, a 
most bitter opposition. Heaven and earth, as it were, were moved 
to defeat the measure, but, thanks to the patriotism and integrity 
of your General Assembly, thanks to the untiring energy of your 
Representatives in the Legislature, and thanks to General Mahone, 
we have been able to route the enemy and achieve a victory as great 
as the celebrated fight of the Crater. The speaker then explained 
the bill as passed. He spoke of the great attempt made by Balti- 
more to control the railroad system of the State and gain possession 
of the entire trade of the magnificent country now tributary to 
Norfolk by the passage ©f this bill. We will shortly have con- 
tinued and uninterrupted travel to Louisville, and on to St. Louis, 
to Cincinnati, Omaha and the Pacific. Have we not reason to 
rejoice, especially when we consider the great advantages which are 
to flow from the work performed — our great measure of State 
policy — Norfolk's pet scheme — a scheme which is essentially Vir- 
ginian, the only completed line that runs East and West, termina- 
ting at Norfolk, and which must result eventually in building up 
and establishing direct trade. He rejoiced as a Norfolk man, as a 
Virginian, at the great prospect and the defeat of Baltimore in her 
attempt to become mistress of all she surveys. 

Other speeches were delivered, and after adopting suitable reso- 



13G 

lutions, the meeting adjourned. [It is proper to state just here, 
that the Consolidation Bill, as passed by the Legislature, was ap- 
proved by the Governor and became a law on the 17th of June 
(1870), and that the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany, was duly organized, under said bill, on the 12th day of the 
following November, by the election of General Wm. Mahone, as 
President, and the following gentlemen as Directors, viz : Thomas 
J. Corprew and R. C. Taylor, of Norfolk; R. B. Boiling, J. A. 
Johnston and R. D. Mcllwaine, of Petersburg ; C. W. Statham 
and J. F. Slaughter, of Lynchburg; Wm. Watts, of Roanoke, 
James A. Walker, of Pulaski, and A. Fulkerson, of Washington 
counties]. 

June 16th, the orphans of St. Mary's Asylum presented the 
Hope Fire Company with a handsome flag. The presentation took 
place at the Catholic Fair-room, on Market Square. Presentation 
addresses were made by Misses Ellie Carr and Alice Corbett, and 
were responded to by Dr. E. C. Robinson and Captain John E. 
Doyle. 

July 20th, the people of Norfolk voted upon the subject of sub- 
scribing to the building of Norfolk and Great Western Railroad, 
and^for want of a three-fifths majority the proposed subscription was 
defeated. 

August 2d, the cars for the street railway arrived, and were drawn 
through the streets for the first time. Superintendent Virginius 
Freeman had the track ready for their reception. 

Saturday night, August 13th, our city was illuminated, cannons 
were fired, and a grand jubilee meeting was held in honor of the 
Conservative victory gained by North Carolina, our gallant sister 
State, in their late State election. A multitude of our citizens — 
many of whom were natives of the "Old North State," assembled 
at the Courthouse to hear speeches in honor of the splendid victory 
of the "tar heel" Conservatives. 

About half-past eight o'clock the meeting was called to order by 
Colonel J. W. Hinton, who called to the chair Col. Kader Biggs, 
which nomination was ratified by tumultuous shouts. 

Cols. George W. McGlauhon, J. M. S. Rogers, Major William 
J. Baker, and. George H. Freer, Esq., were appointed Vice-Presi- 
dents, and Messrs. George Arps, C. G. Elliott and Wm. G. Martin, 
were appointed Secretaries. 

Colonel Biggs, the chairman, in a few admirably appropriate 
remarks, explained that the object for which the meeting was called, 
was to tender to the people of North Carolina our hearty sympathy 
and congratulations on their release from the thraldom of Radical 
servitude. His remarks were listened to with deep attention, and 
when he closed, he received a round of applause and a salvo of 
artillery. 



137 

He was followed by Colonel L. D. Starke, of this city, who was 
unprepared for a speech, but nevertheless handsomely introduced 
the following series of resolutions, which were read by him, to- wit : 

" Resolved, That as friends and former citizens of the good old State of North 
Carolina, we feel a profound interest in everything that affects the welfare and 
happiness of her people. We know them for their manly virtues, their law-abid- 
ing spirit, and patriotic temper. AVe mourn with them in their sufferings, and 
rejoice With them in all things that tend to their well-being and prosperity as 
individuals, and their honor and glory as a State. 

" Resolved, That we have watched the progress of the recent political struggle in 
that State with the deepest anxiety, and have been shocked and grieved at the 
diabolical warfare which has been waged upon the rights and liberties of her peo- 
ple by those who were bound by the most solemn oaths and obligations to protect 
them. 

" Resolved, That we heartily and sincerely rejoice with the good people of that 
State in the victory of law and order which they have achieved through the 
peaceful means of the ballot-box, and under circumstances which were well calcu- 
lated to exasperate and madden them. 

" Resolved, That we cannot too highly commend the spirit of calm and dignified 
moderation with which the people have borne themselves during the trying 
ordeal through which they have passed, and we trust and believe they will con- 
tinue in well-doing, as well in this, the hour of their prosperity, as in adversity. 

" Resolved, That we tender our most earnest and heartfelt sympathy to the good 
and true men who are now suffering military imprisonment, and bid them be of 
good cheer, in the confident hope that they will soon be restored to liberty through 
the peaceful agency of the great writ of habeas corpus." 

The resolutions were adopted with a deafening response of "aye !" 
and after more speaking, the vast atseinblage dispersed. 

August 13th, our street railway was put in operation. The cars 
were constantly crowded during the day with persons anxious to 
get a cheap ride "just for the novelty of the thing." 

September 11th, Major Wm. E. Taylor died, in the 61st year of 
his age. He was the second son of General Robert Taylor, the 
heroic defender of Norfolk in the last war with Great Britain. He 
was buried with military and civic honors. 

September 25th, the steamship Wyanoke, of the Old Dominion 
Line, arrived on her first trip to Norfolk. She was greeted at the 
wharf by a large crowd of citizens. 

September 28th, the census takers made their returns of the pop- 
ulation of Norfolk, to-wit : total population, 19,284 — which was 
generally considered " entirely too small." 

October 4th, our young men indulged in a tournament at the 
Fair Grounds for the honor of crowning a Queen of Love and 
Beauty. The charge to the Knights was delivered by our talented 
young townsman, Thos. R. Borland, Esq. The following Knights 
were successful : 

1. Knight of the "Sable Plume"— S. S. Gresham, Jr. 

2. Knight of " Fra Diavolo "— J. M. Hardy. 

3. Knight of " Norfolk "—Henry L. Turner. 

4. Knight of the " Old North State "—Asa Biggs. 



138 

The Coronation and Ball took place at the Atlantic Hotel, and 
was a brilliant affair. Miss Sterling, of New York, was crowned 
Queen of Love and Beauty, attended by her Maids of Honor, as 
follows : Miss Jennie Taylor, Miss Lula Blow and Miss Mollie 
Webb, who did honor to her Majesty's Court by their conspicuous 
grace and beauty. [The Knight of " Norfolk" yielded his honor 
to the Knight of "Sir William ofDeloraine" (Mr. Wm. A. Gresham) 
who selected Miss Lula Blow as second Maid of Honor]. 



"'-'tfftW— 



October 12th, General Robert Edward Lee, the 
Christian soldier and hero of an hundred battles, breathed 
his last at Lexington, Va., and on the next day the 
whole city of Norfolk was in mourning, inwardly if not 
ostensibly. A meeting was called by Mayor Whitehead 
on the afternoon of the 14th, and a large crowd gathered 
at the Courthouse in sadness and sorrow, and adopted 
suitable resolutions of respect to the memory of our great 
and beloved hero. 



October 20th, Major William P. Williamson departed this life in 
the 61st year of his age. He was a Chief Engineer in the Confed- 
erate Navy, and filled the position during the entire war with 
distinguished ability. 

October 22d, at " Tower Hill," his family seat in the county of 
Sussex, Va., Colonel George Blow, Sr., departed this life in the 
84th year of his age. He was buried from the residence of his son 
(Judge Blow) in this city, on the 24th instant. Another good and 
honest man gathered to his fathers. 

November 1st, Hon. Mr. Robeson, Secretary of the United 
States Navy, arrived in this city to make a political speech in 
behalf of James H. Piatt, the Radical candidate for Congress from 
this District. The speaking took place at the Courthouse, but did 
not last long, as it was broken up in a row caused by the insolence 
of the negroes and the incendiary utterances of their white leaders. 
Pistols were freely used during the " scrimmage," and the Rads did 
some "tall running to save their bacon." [We guess Mr. Robeson 
will never attempt to make another political speech to the Norfolk 



139 

negroes. If he does, he will probably use more respectful language 
than he did upon the occasion of his last speech here]. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-ONE. 

January 3d, Messrs. R. O. Epes & Co.'s crockery store, on Main 
street, opposite the Customhouse, was destroyed by fire. 

February 8th, Mrs. Martha Haynes Butt Bennett, died in the 
city of New York, after a very brief illness. She was one of Nor- 
folk's most gifted daughters, and was a great loss to our literary as 
well as social circle. 

February 23d, the carpenter shop of Messrs. Fletcher & Under- 
bill, on Granby street, was entirely consumed by fire. Loss heavy 
beyond their insurance. 

February 24th, Carey Weston died in the 27th year of his age. 
He was one of our most popular citizens, a devoted son, a kind and 
affectionate husband and a father, a true and generous friend, a tried 
and trusty soldier, an honored and upright Mason. He fell in the 
bloom and vigor of manhood, smitten by a mortal disease, which, 
in the short space of four days, wore out his young life and stilled 
his warm heart in death ! Revered be his memory, for he was truly 
an ornament to life. 

March 20th, Mrs. Adelaide Robinson, beloved wife of Dr. E. C. 
Robinson, departed this life. She was a consistant Christian, and 
was distinguished for her noble and lovely character. Her death 
carried sorrow to many hearts. 

March 22d, Major Emanuel Myers died, in the 89th year of his 
age. He was a man of great distinction — having received several 
medals from the Great Napoleon for gallantry as a soldier. He was 
for many years a respected merchant here, and had a large circle of 
friends to grieve at his death. 

March 23d, Messrs. T. A. Hardy & Son's warehouse on Wills' 
wharf, was destroyed by fire. Loss about $6,000, and insured. 

March 29th, B. N. Brickhouse & Co.'s shoe store, and Robert 
Freeman's jewelry store, Nos. 21 and 23 Main street, were destroyed 
by fire. Most of Mr. Freeman's valuable goods were saved by 
being locked in a fire proof safe. 

April 10th, Leon F. V. Schisano, Esq., the French Vice Consul 
of this port, departed this life after a long and painful illness. He 
was the eldest son of the late Pascal Schisano, who was the French 
Consul here for many years. 

April 13th, the funeral of Henry M. Bowden, Esq., late member 
of the Legislature from this city, took place from his family resi- 
dence on Freemason street. 

April 18th, the Cornerstone of the Masonic Temple was formally 
laid, by Thomas F. Owens, Esq., Grand Master of the State. It 
was a grand occasion, and the Masons had a royal time. 



140 

May 25th was municipal election clay for all city officers except 
Mayor. The Conservatives again carried the day, but several Radi- 
cals worked into office by the hypocrisy of weak-kneed men who 
were persuaded to vote for them. [At this election Robert T. 
Guinn was elected City Collector, over Captain John R. Ludlow, 
through the influence of Conservatives ; and it was a lasting disgrace 
to the men who voted for him, for he afterwards "embezzled" (stole) 
a large amount of money from the city and "skedadled" to Yankee 
land. It is a well known fact, that, but few white Radicals can 
be trusted with money]. 

June 5th, the United Fire Company, Captain Samuel Kimberly, 
left for Baltimore on board the steamer Louisiana, Captain Darius 
J. Hill. They went on a pleasure trip, which was extended to 
Wilmington, Del. Dr. E. C. Robinson, then President of the 
Common Council, accompanied "the boys ; ' on the tour. 

June 9th, Mr. William W. Sharp died in the 70th year of his 
age. He was an honored citizen, and his death was regretted by 
our entire community. 

June 15th, the first moonlight excursion of the season to Old 
Point and the Capes was given by the Norfolk City Guard (which 
Company has just been organized), under command of Captain 
Robert Freeman. 

August 3d, the Potomac Boat Club, of Georgetown, D. C, beat 
the Undine Club, of Norfolk, in a six-oared race. A large number 
of persons witnessed the sport. 

August 9th, the Knights of Pythias had a grand parade and 
banquet in honor of the presence of the Grand Chancellor of the 
State and other Grand officers. 

August 22d, a large number of citizens aecpted invitations ex- 
tended by Colonel V. D. Groner, Agent of the Merchants' and 
Miners' Transportation Company, to enjoy an excursion on board 
the new steamer William Crane, which had just arrived here on 
her first trip from Boston. The steamer left her wharf about 11 
o'clock a. m., and returned about 5 p. m. The excursion, and the 
handsome entertainment extended to the guests, were highly enjoyed 
— particularly by the ladies who graced the occasion with their 
presence. 

August 31st, the Atlantic Hotel, which had been closed for 
several months, was opened by Mr. R. S. Dodson, of Baltimore. 
[This Hotel is still kept by Mr. Dodson, its owner, and is one of 
the most attractive houses in the South]. 

On the same day (August 31st) our people were grieved at the 
death of John P. Leigh, E^q., one of our best citizens. He was of 
the firm of Leigh Bros. & Phelps, and was a business man of fine 
talents and strict integrity. His death was a great loss to the 
community at large. 



141 

September 14th, the Excelsior Hose Company, of Lowell, Mass. ? 
arrived in this city on a visit to the Hope Fire Company. 

September 16th, at night, some members of the United and Hope 
Fire Companies had a row, in which pistols were freely used, and 
several persons badly injured. There had been bad feeling between 
these two companies for some time previous to this difficulty, 

James Dernay, of the United Fire Company, died on the 18th 
instant from the effects of a pistol-shot wound received in the 
firemen's fight of the 16th. 

September 19th, the visiting firemen from Lowell, Mass., left 
for home on board the steamer William Crane, Captain Solomon 
Howes, of the Boston Steamship Line. 

November 2d, the City Conservatives held an immense mass 
meeting to ratify the nomination of Messrs. Marshall Parks and 
Thomas R. Borland, as Delegates to the Legislature from this city. 
Among the brilliant speakers of the evening was Hon. A. M» 
Keiley, Mayor of the city of Richmond. 

November 8th, Messrs. Marshall Parks and Thomas R. Borland 
were elected to the Legislature as Delegates from this city, over 
Messrs. George S. Oldfield and John F. Dezendorf, the Republican 
candidates. Here is the vote as officially recorded : Borland, 
1,981; Parks, 1,976; Judge Oldfield, 1,750; Dezendorf, 1,728; 
average Conservative majority, 377. 

November 21st, the Norfolk Virginian entered upon its 7th 
year of existence, under the firm of Glennan, Ruffin & Co., propri- 
etors. Long may it flourish. 

November 29th, our esteemed fellow-citizen, Judge Richard H> 
Baker, departed this life, in the 83d year of his age. He was buried 
from St. Paul's Church on the 30th instant, Rev. N. A. Okeson 
officiating. The funeral was attended by a large congregation, 
including the members of the Bar of this city and of Portsmouth. 
Another good man gone from our midst. 

December 4th, another good old citizen died in the person of 
Mr. Nicholas Parker, a native of Isle of Wight county, but for 
many years a faithful Customhouse officer in this city. 

December 12th, the St. Joseph's Benevolent Society of Norfolk 
was presented with a beautiful banner as a testimonial of esteem 
from Rev. Father M. O'Keefe, pastor of St. Mary's Catholic 
Church. 

December 14th, the Norfolk City Guard paraded for the first 
time in public. They were clad in the " old familiar gray," and 
were commanded by Captain Nat. Burruss. The fine band from 
the U . S. Receiving-ship New Hampshire furnished music for the 
occasion. 

December 20th, Mr. James Barry, one of our oldest citizens, 
breathed his last, after a protracted and painful illness, in the nine- 



142 

ty-eighth year of his age. He was the father of our esteemed 
townsman Capt. James E. Barry, and was respected and honored by 
our entire community. 

December 30th, a frame building was burned down on the corner 
of Hawk and Lodge streets, and this was the first fire that the paid 
fire department ever worked upon in this city. [The paid depart- 
ment was severely cried down for awhile after it was organized 
(December 1871), but the, people soon saw the efficiency of it, and 
their objections gradually died out]. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-TWO. 

January 15th, Professor Donaldson made a balloon ascension from 
the lot near the gas works. A large crowd of people witnessed the 
daring gymnastic feats of the Professor as he gracefully ascended to 
the clouds. He landed just twenty-two miles from the city. 

January 22d, the Norfolk Light Artillery Blues (newly organ- 
ized) were inspected by Colonel Thomas F. Owens, Aide-de-Camp 
to Governor Walker. The Company passed inspection, and its 
officers were recommended for Commissions — William E. Taylor, 
Captain. 

February 1st. Mr. Richard Walke, another old and highly es- 
teemed citizen, departed this life in the 60th year of his age. He 
had been of one most useful citizens of this community and was a 
direct descendant of one of the first families that located in the 
Borough of Norfolk. 

March 14th, Mrs. Margaret Walke Allmand, relict of Albert 
Allmand, Esq., died in the 77th year of her age. She was a 
daughter of Captain and Mrs. O'Grady, the latter being a descendant 
of Lord Baltimore. The funeral took place from the family resi- 
dence on Boush street, Rev. Dr. Barten officiating. 

March 22d, the Mercantile Bank of Norfolk was organized : Wm. 
J. Baker, President ; Gilbert Elliott, Cashier ; Hon. John Goode, 
Jr., Judge W. H. Burroughs, Messrs. Wm. J. Baker, C. G." Elliott 
and W. D. Aydlott, Directors. 

March 24th, Edward Tabb Griffith, son of our well known citi- 
zen, E. J. Griffith Esq., departed this life in the 22d year of his 
age. He was a member of the Norfolk City Guard, and of Charity 
Lodge No. 10, Knights of Pythias. 

April. During this month the ridiculous "Dolly Varden" lunacy 
captured the ladies of Norfolk, and swept off its victims by the 
hundred. It was revealed in linen, cotton, silk and woolen goods, 
the dark ground of which was illuminated with figures of leaves, 
vines and flowers, such as roses, hollyhocks, sunflowers, &c., of all 
the beatiful hues of the rain- bow. A friend of our says that the 
effect of this new style dress upon the masculine eye can only be 
described by such adjectives as "loud" or "stunning." It gives to 
lovely woman the appearance of a perambulating conservatory, and 



143 

it only needs the appearance of an occasional snail, butterfly, cater- 
pillar or hummingbird to complete the illusion. The Dolly Varden 
is expensive. One couldn't expect to get all that richness of color 
and profusion of design for the same price as vulgar Merri macs, but 
one dollar a yard for calico is rather precipitous. But the Dolly 
Varden must run its course, and we must make up our minds to 
encounter it in parlor and kitchen as well as at Church and on the 
streets. [When "Dolly Varden" dresses were the style, the ladies did 
not hold them up to their waists to display "cardinal red" petticoats 
and fluted underskirts (often dingy) as they do now — the dear 
creatures were more modest then.] 

April 5th, Mr. Edwin Booth delighted our theatre-goers with 
his sublime rendition of "Iago," in Shakspeare's Othello. He 
drew large audiences during the entire engagement. He was suc- 
ceeded at the Opera House April 8th by the attractive " Berger 
Bell dingers." 

May 7th, the Undine and Chesapeake Boat Clubs of this city 
rowed a match race in their six-oared gigs over the usual " three 
mile course " (3^ miles). The race was won by the Chesapeake's 
crew in nineteen minutes and 20 seconds. 

In the Undine boat, " Norfolk," six-oared gig, were the follow- 
ing men and weights : 

Bow — William Webber 157 pounds 

No. 2— J. C. Lynch 152 

No. 3— -James O'Rourke.. 148 

No. 4.— J. C. Carroll 141 

No. 5 — James McMenamin 162 

Stroke — John A. Hebrew 165 

Coxswain — Ed. B. Lepage 130 



Total 1,055 pounds 

The Chesapeake's entered their six-oared gig " Vesta," with the 
crew and weights as follows : 

Bow — William C. Dickson 149 pounds 

No. 2— L. W. Tazewell 14J " 

No. 3— J. C. Baker 143 " 

No. 4 — W.C.Hardy 169 " 

No. 5— George Mcintosh 150 " 

Stroke— Fred Hardy , 145 " 

Coxswain — P. T. Moore 130 " 



Total 1,027 pounds 

On the day after this race the members of the Chesapeake Boat 
Club, in order to testify their appreciation of the skillful manner 
in which they had been trained by Mr. Faulkner, purchased a 



144 

handsome gold watch and chain to be presented to him. The watch 
was procured from Messrs. C. F. Greenwood & Bro., was an ele- 
gant affair, and bore on the inside of one of the cases the following 
inscription ; 

GEORGE FAULKNER, 

FEOM THE 

CHESAPEAKE BOAT CLUB, 
Norfolk, Va. 
May the 7th, 1872. 
Vesta — 19 minutes, 20 seconds. 
At 4 o'clock in the afternoon a deputation from the Club, con- 
sisting of Messrs. John C. Baker, P. T. Moore, William C. Dick- 
son, W. C. Hardy, John White, Fred. Hardy and others waited 
upon Mr. Faulkner, in his rooms at the Atlantic Hotel, and thanked 
him for the skill and patience he had exhibited in training their 
crew for a victorious race. After stating that they had paid him the 
visit for the purpose of bidding him farewell, John C. Baker, Esq., 
President of the Club, stepped forward and told Mr. Faulkner that 
he had been deputed by the Club to present to him on their behalf 
the watch he held in his hand, as a testimonial of their appreciation 
of his efforts in giving their crew a thorough course of training, by 
means of which they had been enabled to win a race which so 
many considered hopeless. He concluded by wishing that this 
might not be the last time he might have the training of the Ches- 
apeakes, and assured him that whenever a race was in prospect he 
would be called upon, and that the members of the Club would 
place themselves under his guidance, with an assurance of victory. 
Mr. Faulkner was surprised at this manifestation of kindness on 
the part of his new made friends. He wished them success in all 
their efforts, and received the watch as a token of their esteem. 

May 22d, there was great excitement in the city over the approach- 
ing municipal election. The Republicans made a desperate effort 
to gain the victory, and used all manner of means to secure their 
ends. They caused conspicuous placards to be posted up at night, 
which contained the follows : 

"True Republicans Vote Your Ticket Straight ! 

No Compromise on account of Race or Color ! ! 

Norfolk Expects Every Republican to Do His Duty ! ! I 

No Cajoling with Conservatives ! 1 1 

Equal Rights for all ! ! ! 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OPEN TO ALL WITHOUT DISTINCTION OF 

COLOR!!! 
We Know our Rights, and Knowing, Dare Maintain Them ! ! ! 
By direction of (Signed) J. F. DEZENDORF, 

Chairman of City Republican Ex. Committee." 

This aroused the white men of Norfolk, and gave them new 
courage in their fight against those who were trying to degrade 
them, and their children. 



145 

May 23d, the election came off, and the entire Conservative ticket 
was elected, with the exception of the Councilmen in 4th Ward. 
The persons elected were as follows : 

MAYOR : 

JOHN R. LUDLOW. 

CITY SERGEANT : 

T. J. CORPREW. 

commonwealth's attorney : 
WM. H. WHITE. 

CITY COLLECTOR : 

MERRITT T. COOKE. 

CITY ATTORNEY : 

WM. B. MARTIN. 

COMMISSIONER OP REVENUE : 

JOHN B. BRANHAM. 

city surveyor: 
VIRGINIUS FREEMAN. 

[All other city officers were elected by the new Council]. 
The following Councilmen were elected : 

First Ward — M. Flanagan, Charles Reid, W. C. Marrow, H. Hamburger, F. 
J. Robinson, W. E. Thomson, J. D. Proctor, C. B. Ackiss. 

Second Ward— W. F. Allen, V. D. Groner, E. C. Robinson, W. J. Baker, R. 
C. Taylor, Fred. Taylor, Thomas Hope, Gus. Hanfts. 

Third Ward— E. W. Face, T. A. Williams, J. W. Gregory, C. G. Elliott, W. 
E. Taylor, J. D. Conper, W. W. Gwathmey. 

Fourth Ward, (Radicals) — V. O. Cherry, J. D. Eppes, A. H. Portlock, J. F. 
Burwell, J. A. Riddick. 

The defeated Radicals for city offices were as follows : For 
Mayor, R. T. Guinn ; lor Sergeant, W. B. Deggs ; for Common- 
wealth's Attorney, Ed. Spaulding ; for Collector, L. W. Webb ; for 
City Attorney, J. Parker Jordan ; for Commissioner of Revenue, 
A. L. Hill ; for Surveyor, J. F. Dezendorf. [This election vir- 
tually put an end to Republican aspiration for office in Norfolk]. 

May 31st, the funeral of our respected citizen, Mr. Jacob Um- 
stadter, took place, and was attended by a large number of sorrow- 
ing relatives and sympathizing friends. The services at the dwelling 
consisted of a German prayer by Rev. Louis Harefeld, and an 
address in the same language by Rev. Dr. A. S. Bettelheim, of 
Richmond — after which the remains were conveyed to the Syna- 
gogue, where Dr. Bettelheim delivered an impressive funeral 
oration. 

June 1st, a young man named Wilder committed suicide on 
Church street. Upon his person the following letter was found, 
which we publish as a solemn warning to all young men who drink 
liquor to excess : 



146 

" Dear mother, father and brother, good-bye, for you will not see me again, as I 
have taken a close of laudanum, which the doctors say will kill any man. You 
may think this is a rash act in me, but it is not so, as I have had it on my mind 
for two years or more. 

" Dear mother, my reason for doing this is that I have contracted a habit of 
drinking liquor to such an extent that I cannot stop it, and rather than bring 
disgrace on you and brother I would rather die. 

"From your loving son, CHARLIE F. WILDER." 

June 3d, the Vue de l'Eau Hotel (on Sewell's Point) was opened 
for the reception of guests for the Summer season. The place was 
opened by Mr. R. S. Dodson, of the Atlantic Hotel, who was ably 
assisted in its management by Mr. Joe Sam Brown, of Portsmouth, 
one of Virginia's most jovial and deservedly popular young men. 
[The grand opening ball at this popular resort took place June 
20th, and was well patronized by the Norfolk and Portsmouth 
people]. 

June 25th, Dr. W. H. Finch, a native of Portsmouth, but for 
many years a resident of this city, departed this life in the 48th 
year of his age. He was an honest and industrious man, and 
universally popular. 

July 10th, news was received here of the endorsation of Horace 
Greeley for Presidentby the National Democratic Convention, which 
assembled in Baltimore. There was some enthusiasm manifested, 
but many staunch old Democrats in Norfolk "didn't enthuse worth 
a cent." [The nomination of Greeley and Brown proved to be an 
unfortunate event for the Democracy]. 

July 22d, a Greeley and Brown ratification meeting was held at 
the Courthouse by the Conservatives. Colonel J. W. Hinton pre- 
sided over the meeting, and the large audience was addressed by 
United States Senator J. R. Doolittle, of Wisconsin, and. other 
speakers. A committee was appointed to organize the "Chappaqua" 
Club (named in honor of Mr. Greeley's country residence), and 
report suitable persons as permanent officers, when the following 
were recommended : President, John B. Whitehead ; Vice-Presi- 
dents, James Y. Leigh, E. W. Face, Francis DeCordy, J. F. Well- 
born; Treasurer, T. B. Rowland; Secretary, H. P. McPhail ; 
Corresponding Secretary, A. B. Cooke. 

A motion by Colonel L. D. Starke that the recommendations of 
the committee be adopted, was carried. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted and the meet- 
ing adjourned : 

" Resolved, That we, the Chappaqua Club, composed of citizens of Norfolk, 
irrespective of past political differences, who are desirous of having peace and 
good will between all sections of our country, do hereby ratify the nominations of 
Horace Greeley, for the Presidency, and B. Gratz Brown, for Vice-Presidency of 
the United States, and that we do cordially adopt the platform of principles 
adopted at Cincinnati and reaffirmed at Baltimore." 

July 24th, the National Hotel, with furniture and fixtures, was 
sold by auction for the sum of $37,100. Mrs. E. L. Jenkins, the 



147 

proprietress of the Mansion House, was the bidder, but afterwards 
gave up the bargain to Messrs. Holt & Bro., two elegant gentlemen 
from Lynchburg, Va., the former proprietors of the well-known 
Norvell House, in that city. 

August 7th, Mrs. Ann E. Woodbridge, wife of Mr. John J. 
Woodbridge, was killed on the Ocean View Road, by a fish cart 
running into the buggy in which she was seated. This terrible acci- 
dent was the result of reckless driving. 

September 19th, a Greeley pole was raised at the head of Market 
Square by the " Chappaqua Club." The pole, 76 feet long, was 
cut from Mr. Greeley's farm land at Chappaqua, New York, and 
brought here on a New York steamer. 

September 29th, Mr. N. B. Strong's livery stable, on Union 
street, was destroyed by fire. Several mules and horses perished in 
the flames. Several other buildings were badly damaged by this 
fire. During the conflagration Mr. James Denny, one of our most 
valuable firemen, saved Mr. Strong's watch and pocketbook from 
the flames at great personal risk of life. The act was a brave and 
daring one. 

October 3d, Mr. Daniel Moloney's livery stable, on corner of 
Union and Church streets, was entirely destroyed by fire. All the 
horses and some of the vehicles, harness, &c. } were saved by the 
employees at the stable, assisted by the firemen. Insurance on the 
building was only $2,000. 

October 7th, the good Sister Mary Agnes, of St. Mary's Asylum, 
departed this life. She was a victim of consumption, and was a 
great sufferer, but bore her misfortune with great fortitude, and 
never faltered in her duties. 

October 10th, Captain Adam Baum departed this life. He was 
a brave soldier and useful citizen, and his death caused deep regret 
throughout our whole community. His funeral was attended by 
the Independent Order Mechanics, the Odd Fellows, firemen, and 
many other citizens. 

October 20th, Wright Southgate Whittle, one of our most 
talented and promising young lawyers, departed this life in the 24th 
year of his age. He was a member of Owens Lodge of Masons, 
and was buried with Masonic honors. The death of this young 
man cast a gloom over the entire community. 

October 22d, the Virginia and North Carolina Agricultural 
Society^ begun its fair, which lasted six days. The exhibition 
would have been a grand success had it not been for bad weather. 
"I October 26th, another explosion occurred at Capt. William A. 
Graves' ship-yard, by which two men were killed and six or seven 
wounded. Those killed were Peter Tines, and a colored engineer 
named Peter Evans. 

October 30th, Mr. Edward Glennan, another respected and ven- 



148 

erable citizen, departed this life, in the 64th year of his age. He 
was a native of Ireland, but came to Norfolk many years ago. 

November 5th, the Presidential election occurred. The majority 
for Greeley and Brown in this city was only one vote. Maj. Baker 
P. Lee's majority over James H. Piatt for Congress, was sixty- 
one. 

The official vote of this (2d) Congressional District, was as fol- 
lows : Grant, 15,621 ; Greeley, 10,081 ; James H. Piatt, 15,553 ; 
Baker P. Lee, 10,339. Grant's majority over Greeley, 5,540 ; 
Piatt's majority over Lee, 5,214. 

November 29th, Mr. Thomas Smith, one of our leading dry 
goods merchants and successful business men, departed this life, 
after a short illness. His funeral took place from St. Mary's 
Church, in presence of a large assemblage of former friends and 
acquaintances. 

During this month the horses of Norfolk were attacked with 
Epizooty, a terrible disease, which killed many valuable animals 
in our midst. Fully nine-tenths of the horses in the city were 
afflicted with the malady. 

December 16th, the Norfolk Virginian announced the retire- 
ment of T. B. Ruffin, Esq., from the firm of Glennan, Ruffin & 
Co. Mr. R. sold his interest in the paper to M. Glennan, Esq., 
and the new firm-name was Glennan & Adkisson. 

December 19th, the annual meeting of the Atlantic, Mississippi and 
Ohio Railroad Company, was held at the Opera House. Hon. Thos. 
S. Bocock, of Lynchburg, was chosen chairman of the meeting and 
Captain N. M. Osborne, Secretary. The President's annual report 
was submitted and received with much satisfaction to the stock- 
holders. 

December 20th, the Stockholders of the Atlantic, Mississippi & 
Ohio Railroad, with many invited guests, were tendered a compli- 
mentary excursion trip to Old Point Comfort, on the Steamer 
George Leary, through the courtesy of Captain John M. Robinson, 
President of the Baltimore Steam Packet Company. The trip was 
very much enjoyed — particularly by the visitors from the Moun- 
tains, some of whom were "never on board of a steamboat before." 
After viewing the big guns and other sights at Fort Monroe, the 
party returned to the city in the best humor imaginable. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-THREE. 

January 10th, the Pythians' "Castle Hall" was formerly dedicated. 
Addresses were delivered by Judge George S. Oldfield, and Rev. 
R.M.Saunders. 

January 13th, Madame Fannie Janauschek, appeared at our 
Opera House, the first time in Norfolk, and created quite a sensa- 
tion among the theatre-goers. She played "Mary Stuart," in 



149 

Schiller's beautiful representation of the hapless Queen, and was 
well supported by Mr. James H. Taylor. 

February 4feh, a meeting of citizens was held at the Courthouse to . 
adopt resolutions of respect to the memory of the late Commodore 
Mat hew Maury. 

February 8th, Mr. Joseph H. Jarratt, formerly of Sussex County, 
died suddenly at the City Hall, while conversing with an official. 
He was 58 years of age, and had been living in Norfolk about six 
years. 

March 3d, Captain Robert M. Balls died in the 55th year of his 
age. He was paralyzed in 1869 and had been an invalid ever since. 
His usefulness as a member of the Howard Association in 1855, 
will not soon be forgotten. 

March 8th, George W. Brown, a good citizen, died very sud- 
denly while at work near the city. Mr. B. was a member of the 
Fayette Artillery, from Richmond, during the war, and in one of 
the engagements near his native city he was wounded in fifty-six 
different places by the explosion of a shell from a Federal battery. 
He was captured on Lee's retreat and sent to Point Lookout prison, 
where he remained until the summer of 1865, when he was paroled 
and came to Norfolk. 

March 13th, Edward Walter Shelton, one of our rising young 
merchants, departed this life, in the 33d year of his age. He was 
a gallant member of the "Norfolk Juniors," 12th Virginia Regi- 
ment, Mahone's Brigade, during the entire war, and was twice 
wounded in defence of Southern Rights. Green be the grass that 
grows upon his grave, that his virtues may be fresh in our 
memory. 

April 6th, Hannan & Kelly's livery stables, and several houses 
adjoining, on Union street, were destroyed by fire. Horses all 
saved. No insurance on any of the personal property destroyed. 

April 9th, the corner-stone of the Protestant Episcopal Guild 
(now St. Luke's Church, on Bute street), was formally laid — Rev. 
Dr. O. S. Barten, of Christ Church, officiating. The chosen orator 
of the occasion was Hon. John Goode, Jr., who delivered an ap- 
propriate address. 

May 20th, the exciting boat race between the Chesapeake Boat 
Club of Norfolk, and the Seaboard Club of Portsmouth, took place 
over the usual three mile course down our harbor. This race was 
witnessed by an immense crowd of persons and was intensly exci- 
ting, as it had been the subject of conversation for some months pre- 
vious. The Chesapeakes had been victorious in all their races, and 
they wore their laurels proudly and confidently ; but the "young- 
sters" from "across the way," knowing what splendid talent they 
had to contend against, worked with all their might to make them- 
selves equal to the task before them, and tfhev sr.rvieprlpd — their 



150 

victory was complete. They made the trip in eighteen minutes 
and fifty-five seconds, against nineteen minutes and twenty-five 
seconds, for the Chesapeakes. The Seaboard's crew consisted of the 
following young men : 

Age. Weight. 

Bover Lemosey, bow, 17 133 

Jas. H. Brown, Jr., No. 2, 17 128 

C. H. Niemeyer, No. 3, 19 140 

Herman C. Niemeyer, No. 4, 17 146 

Jas. T. Burton, No. 5, 23 140 

W. F. Lemosey, stroke, 19 141 

N. A. White/coxswain, 19 108 

Total 936 

Their boat, a six-oared gig, was called the "Ripple," built in 

New York. 

The Chesapeake's crew was composed of the following well 

known gentlemen : 

Bow Oar— Wra. A. Graves, Jr., 137 lbs. 

No. 5— F.B.Dornin 128 " 

« 4— W. C. Dickson 151 " 

" 3— L. W. Tazewell 144 " 

" 2— J. C.Baker 146 " 

Stroke— Fred. Hardy .145 '« 

Coxswain— Wm. Waller 106 " 



Total 957 

Their gig was called the "Vesta," and was built in Boston. 

May 22d, Edward Davis Hodges, a former associate of the Nor- 
folk Virginian, and a good and useful citizen, departed this life. 

May 24th, Colonel Thomas J. Corprew died. He was a man 
well known for his great force of character — a true friend, full of 
generous impulses, and a public spirited citizen, he drew around him 
a large circle of devoted admirers, and no man ever died in our 
midst who was more loved by his friends. Colonel Corprew had 
for years been a true and faithful public servant. 

June 2d, Colonel Robert L. Owen, formerly of Lynchburg, Va., 
and Ex-President of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, died 
at the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital, in the 53d year of his 
age. In 1869 he was elected to the State Senate from Lynchburg, 
and served one term. In 1871 he moved to this city and purchased 
the well known Drummond farm, in Norfolk county, four miles 
from town. He left a faithful and devoted wife, and two sons to 
mourn his loss. Colonel Owen was a distinguished and patriotic 
Virginian, a good man, and a worthy Master Mason. 

June 4th, the Chesapeake Boat Blub of this city gained a victory 



151 

over the Analostan Club, of Washington, in a three mile race on 
the Potomac. The news of this victory (over the "crack club" of 
Washington) cause much pleasurable excitement here. The crew 
of the Chesapeake Club in this race was as follows : 

Fred. Hardy, stroke, 145 lbs. 

John Baker, three 146 " 

L. W. Tazewell, two 142 " 

W. C. Dixon, bow 149 " 

The boat used by our boys was a four-oared shell, called the Ches- 
peake. When the victorious crew returned home, they were received 
by our people with an ovation not soon to be forgotten. An address 
of " welcome home " was delivered by Col. J. W. Hinton, and a 
grand banquet was given at Atlantic Hotel, in honor of the event. 

June 21st, Mr. John Gormley, an aged and respected citizen, 
departed this life. In all his transactions with his fellow men he 
displayed the character of a Christian. 

June 24th, the Old Street Fire Company, of Petersburg, Captain 
Thelly Nugent, arrived in this city on a visit, and were received 
with usual honors and courtesies by oiir firemen. 

June 25th, the buildings at Captain Wm. A. Graves' ship-yard, 
together with the shipping-house of Jacob Baum & Co., and Mr. 
A. A. McCullough's stable, were destroyed by fire. Mr. Graves' 
loss in machinery and lumber was estimated at about $30,000, and 
not half insured. 

July 20th, Mr. John Dodd departed this life, in the ninety-first year 
of his age. The deceased was a native of Ireland, but had been an 
esteemed and useful member of this community for more than fifty 
years. He was conspicuous for his integrity and manliness of 
character, and by his energy and industry, he had accumulated a 
handsome fortune for the support of his family. His death was 
deeply lamented, for the city could ill afford to lose such a man. 

July 25th and 26th, the stores of Hof heimer, & Co., S. Frank, 
W. R. Hudgins, & Co., L. Raphael, W. T. Harrison & Son., J. R. 
Lewellen, and Taylor, Martin & Co., were destroyed by fire. 

On the night of 26th, and on Sunday, the 27th, the fire broke out 
again in the same row of buildings, and destroyed Weil & Ull- 
man's shoe store, and Robert Nott's fancy store. J. D. Gale's 
hardware store was also badly damaged, both by fire and water. 
This was the largest conflagration that had occurred here since the 
war — the loss being over $200,000 on the nine buildings and stocks, 
which was mostly covered by insurance. 

September 1st, the free letter-delivery system (by carriers) wag 
put in operation here by the United States Postal authorities. 

October 1st, Captain James Barron Hope retired from the 
editorial chair of the Virginian, to enter another field of useful- 
ness in the same line of business. 



152 

October 4th, Captain Finley F. Ferguson died. He was an 
honored citizen, and had filled many positions of trust in our com- 
munity. He was truly a noble man. 

October 7th, the second annual exhibition (since the war) of our 
Agricultural Society was commenced under favorable circumstances. 
The annual address was delivered on the 8th inst., by Gen. W. B. 
Taliaferro, one of Virginia's brave and chivalrous sons. The fair 
lasted four days and closed with a tournament. [It was at this 
exhibition that Mr. John A. McCaull's trotting horse, "Orange 
Blossom," was first brought to the notice of the Virginia people. 
He afterwards proved to be a fast one. Mr. McCaull lives in Roa- 
noke county, where he has a stud farm, and raises fine horses]. 

October 13th, Gustavus R. Hanfts, a well known and popular 
German citizen of Norfolk, died in the 33d year of his age. 

October 15th, our City Councils met and appropriated fifteen 
hundred dollars to be sent to the Yellow Fever sufferers of Mem- 
phis, Tennessee. 

October 16th, the booming of cannon and sound of fife and drum, 
told the people that a grand Conservative Mass Meeting would be 
held at the National Hotel, at 8 o'clock p. m. The hotel building 
was handsomely illuminated, and the front portico was decorated 
with flags. Major W. T. Taliaferro was selected as chairman 
of the meeting, and addresses were delivered by Captain John 
S. Wise, Ex-Governor Wm. Smith and Gen. Jas. L. Kemper — the 
latter being the Conservative candidate for Governor, against Colonel 
Robert W. Hughes, the Republican nominee. 

October 19th, the Second Presbyterian Church (on Freemason 
street) was solemnly dedicated to the service of God. The prelim- 
inary services were conducted by Rev. Dr. Geo. D. Armstrong, 
of the First Presbyterian Church, and the dedication sermon was 
preached by Rev. Moses D. Hoge, of Richmond, from the follow- 
ing text : 12th chapter John, and 32d verse — "And I, if I be lifted 
up, will draw all men unto me." [The congregation of this Church 
effected its organization in July, 1871, by the election of William 
H. Broughton, William D. Reynolds, and David Humphreys, as 
Elders ; and J. M. Freeman, Henry S. Reynolds and Luther 
Sheldon, as Deacons. Rev. Neander M. Woods, of Kentucky, 
accepted a pastoral call to the Church, and up to this writing (1877) 
has faithfully ministered unto the growing congregation]. 

October 18th, the Councils met in joint session and elected the 
following Water Commissioners for the term of two years : Messrs. 
George K. Goodridge, W. W. Chamberlaine, and Capt. John S. 
Tucker. 

October 2,1st was the occasion of another grand Conser- 
vative rally, in the cause of Kemper and Withers, our candidates 
for Governor and Lieutenant Governor. His Excellency, Gov- 



153 

ernor Gilbert C. Walker, came to the city to address the 
people upon the occasion, and he was met at the depot 
by one of the largest torchlight processions ever seen in 
Norfolk. The speaking took place from the front balcony of the 
National Hotel ; Gov. Walker, Col. R. B. Berkley, of Farmville, 
and Colonel William E. Cameron, of Petersburg, delivered suitable 
addresses. This meeting was presided over gracefully by Thomas 
R. Borland, Esq. 

October 25th, Rev. Neander M. Woods, was ordained to the full 
work of the gospel ministry, by the East Hanover Presbytery, 
which was then in session at the Second Presbyterian Church — Rev. 
W. A. Campbell, preaching the ordination sermon. Mr. Woods 
was,ontho same day, duly installed as pastor of the Second Church — 
Rev. Mr. Darnell, delivering the "charge to the pastor/' and Rev. 
Dr. M. D. Hoge, the charge to congregation. 

October 28th, the Conservative Nominating Convention of the 
oity met, and nominated Major Wm. E. Foster, and Mr. Frederick 
S. Taylor, as candidates to represent the city in the House of Dele- 
gates, of the State Legislature. Colonel William S. Oswald, the 
efficient City Superintendant of the party, presided over the Con- 
vention, and the members of the press acted as Secretaries. [Major 
C. B. Duffield, of Norfolk, had been previously nominated by the 
Conservatives of the District for a seat in the Senate. Princess 
Anne County and Norfolk City, composed the Senatorial D.strict]. 

November 1st, another grand rally of the Norfolk Conservatives 
took place at the National Hotel. Speeches were delivered by 
Major William E. Foster, Major C. B. Duffield, and Fred. S. 
Taylor, Esq., our candidates for the Legislature, and Colonel O. T. 
Beard, a Northern Republican, who, since his residence in Rich- 
mond, Va., had found out what class of men composed the Repub- 
lican party in the South, and knowing that the ascendancy of such 
a party, with negroes and carpetbaggers at the head of it, would 
literally paralyze the commercial and mechanical industry of the 
State, took the stump boldly and manfully against it, and advocated 
the Conservative cause. This distinguished gentleman has endeared 
himself to the Virginians who know him, and he was warmly 
received upon the occasion of his first speech in our city. 

November 4th, the election of General James L. Kemper as 
Governor of Virginia over Colonel Robert W. Hughes, the Repub- 
lican nominee, occurred. Kemper's majority in this city was 828, 
the largest Conservative majority given in Norfolk since the war — 
up to that time. Our candidates for the Legislature (Duffield, 
Foster and Taylor) were also elected. Kemper's official majority 
in the State over Hughes was 27,257. [We will state, in passing, 
that Colonel Robert W. Hughes, at the time of his nomination, 
was the strongest and most popular Republican in Virginia. He 



154 

is at present United States District Court Judge (at Norfolk, Rich- 
mond and Alexandria), as successor to Judge John C. Underwood, 
deceased, and in this position he is honored and respected by the 
best people of our State. Being "native here and to the manner 
born," Judge Hughes is too noble and pure to act in any way not 
consistent with the demands of justice and honesty. His political 
opinions and associations have not yet lead him from the plain path 
of official duty, nor have they been of such a nature as to compro- 
mise him in the estimation of his political opponents. General 
Kemper's victory over such a Republican was a double triumph, 
and he may well be proud of it. There are no Republicans in 
Virginia, and very few in the whole South, who can command the 
respect that Judge Hughes enjoys]. 

November 5th, Messrs. R. W Smith & Co.'s little bay mare 
Nellie, a pacer, was matched against the New York trotting mare 
Huntress, for a fifteen hundred dollar purse. The race came off at 
the Cornpostella race track, near this city, and was won by Nellie, 
the Norfolk mare — she winning three out of the five heats, viz : the 
second, third and fifth, one mile each. Best time made was 2:32J. 
A large crowd of people witnessed the sport, and were delighted at 
Norfolk's victory. [Nellie afterwards paced a mile in 2:30, and at 
this time (1877) can trot almost as fast as she paced then. She is a 
remarkable little animal]. 

November 11th, the fourth annual session of the Virginia Medi- 
cal Society met in this city, in the lecture room of Christ Church. 
An address of welcome was delivered by Dr. Samuel Selden, of 
Norfolk. The annual oration was delivered by Dr. R. S. Hamil- 
ton, of Staunton. Dr. Harvey Black, of Montgomery County, 
presided over the meeting until the new President, Dr. Alfred G. 
Tebault, of Princess Anne County, was elected. 

December 13th, Judge Thomas C. Tabb departed this life in the 
73d year of his age. He was a prominent and well-known gentle- 
man, an able lawyer and a true friend. The members of the Nor- 
folk Bar held a meeting and adopted resolution of respect to his 
memory. 

December 17th, Mr. Joseph Jefferson, the great American Com- 
edian, played Rip Van Winkle for the first time in this city. A 
large audience greeted him. 

December 26th, Mrs. Lucy Ann, the beloved wife of Rev. Dr. 
N. A. Okeson, rector of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, departed 
this life after a long and painful illness. This excellent lady was 
loved by all who knew her. 

On same day, Mr. Elisha Pendleton died very suddenly at his 
residence on Freemason street. He was over 75 -years of age, and 
highly respected. 



155 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FOUR. 

January 7lh, a splendid collation was given to the business men 
of Norfolk, on board the magnificent new Iron Steamship Johns 
Hopkins, upon this the date of her first trip to Norfolk. The 
Hopkins is the finest boat on the Norfolk and Boston line — the 
pride of the Merchants' and Miners' Transportation Company. 

January 24th, Mrs. James A. Oates, and her very popular com- 
pany, played the amusing burlesque opera of "Fortunio," to a large 
audience at our Opera House. 

February 1st, Mrs. Annie Carter, the beloved wife of Rev. W. 
E. Edwards, pastor of the Granby Street M. E. Church, departed 
this life. Her remains were taken to Richmond, her former home, 
for interment. 

February 5th, Professor W. H. Donaldson, the iEronaut, made a 
balloon ascension from Market Square. Mr. T. H. Johnson, 
of Norfolk, accompanied the Professor on the airy trip. 

February 9th, our respected townsman, Thomas T. Cropper, 
Esq., departed this life in the 65th year of his age. He was a 
popular and useful citizen. 

d February 13th, Mr. Wm. J. Hardy, one of our most valuable 
citizens, departed this life in the 77th year of his age. As a syste- 
matic, upright and honorable business man he had but few equals ; 
as a kind and devoted husband and father, he had no superiors. He 
had been actively engaged in business here for many years, and at 
the time of his death was the Norfolk Agent of the Peruvian Gov- 
ernment, for the sale of its celebrated guano. When the broke out 
Mr. Hardy retired from business, and devoted himself to his affec- 
tionate family. 

February 16th, a fire occurred near the corner of Water street 
and Market Square, which nearly destroyed R. P. Lovitt's dry 
goods store, B. Goodrich & Oo.'s liquor store, A. G Lyons' liquor 
store, M. Puccini's fruit stand, and L. Hoffman's tobacco and cigar 
store. 

February 25th, Mr. John W. Barcroft, one of our most popular 
restaurant keepers, departed this life in the 52d year of his age, 
after a short illness. He was a kind and generous man, a warm 
and faithful friend. 

March 1st, General John S. Millsou, another of Norfolk's oldest 
and most prominent citizens, breathed his last. He was born here 
in the year 1808; was married in 1841 ; was one of the Polk and 
Dallas electors in 1844; was a canvasser for the Democratic nominee 
for the Presidency in 1848; was elected to Congress in 1849, and 
kept his seat until the war broke out, when he resigned and came 
home, to resume the practice of law. He was, at the time of his 
death, the oldest member of the Norfolk Bar. 



156 

March 18th, our people were called upon to mourn the death of 
Mr. C. W. Grandy, Sr., who departed this life in the 66th year of 
his age. He was one of our oldest merchants and was eminently 
successful in business. He came to Norfolk in 1844, from Camden 
County, North Carolina, and commenced the commission business, 
establishing the house which now bears his name, in 1845. He was 
at one time the beloved Captain of the Norfolk Blues, which com- 
pany one of his sons commanded so gallantly during a portion of the 
late war. The merchants held a mass meeting on the 20th instant, 
and adopted resolutions of respect in memory of their deceased 
friend. 

March 26th, Hon. John B. Whitehead was presented with a 
magnificent silver punch-bowl and ladle, bearing the following in- 
scription, which fully explains itself: 

" Presented to the Hon. John B. Whitehead, by the Clearing 
House Association of Norfolk and Portsmouth, in testimony of their 
high appreciation of the valuable services gratuitously rendered by 
him while acting as Trustee and Custodian of securities during the 
financial crisis of 1873." " Praesens absensque idem erit." 

April 22d, Commodore T. Aloysius Dornin, another old and 
highly esteemed citizen of Norfolk, died in the 74th year of his 
age. His death took place in Savannah, Ga., at the residence of 
his daughter. The deceased entered the United States Navy as a 
Midshipman in 1815, appointed from the State of Maryland, and 
rapidly rose to the rank of Captain. In 1856 he was made Com- 
mandant of the Norfolk Navy-yard, and remained in that position 
three years. He was next in command of the San Jacinto, on the 
coast of Africa, where he remained until the late war begun, when he 
was ordered home in command of the Constellation. In 1862 he 
was made a Commodore, and was assigned to the command of the 
Naval Station at Baltimore, where he remained during the entire 
war. In 1837 he married Mrs. Thorburn, of Fredericksburg, and 
to them were born six children — two of his sons served in the 
Confederate Navy during the war. Commodore Dornin was a 
native of Ireland, and his father was exiled in 1803 on account of 
his friendship for Robert Emmett, the Irish patriot. 

April 25th, at night, a disturbance occurred between some 
drunken men on Church street, which resulted in a fight,and during 
which, pistols were fired, and a young man named John W. Gay- 
lord was instantly killed. It is said that the unfortunate young 
man had nothing whatever to do with the row that was going on 
at the time, and that he only went to the scene of it through excited 
curiosity. It is generally supposed that he was accidentally shot, 
or shot through mistake ; but some persons contend that he was 
deliberately murdered. The truth of the case will probably never 
be known. 



157 

April 28th, Mr. John B. Upshur departed this life in the 44th 
year of his age. He was a good citizen and served gallantJy^as^a 
Confederate soldier during the late war. 

May 5th, the first Grand Gift( oncert of the Masonic Relief Asso- 
ciation of Norfolk, took place at the Opera House. The Navy-yard 
Band discoursed excellent music, and the largest crowd that was 
ever congregated in the house was present that night. This gift ex- 
hibition was arranged upon the plan of a lottery. It was gotten up 
to raise money to complete the Masonic Temple, then in an un- 
finished state. The Relief Association was organized, and incor- 
porated by the Legislature ; and their Gift Concerts were carried on 
under a special charter. The capital prize in this, the first gift 
distribution, was $25,000, and was drawn by our respected fellow 
citizen, James Reid, Esq , proprietor of Reid's well known steam 
bakery on Main street. 

May 9th, Andrew Jackson Mellon, departed this life in Lynch- 
burg, Va. He was a conductor on the Atlantic, Mississippi and 
Ohio Railroad, and had many friends in this city, which had been 
his home for about one year. In all stations of lite he was an honest 
man, a sympathizing friend and genial companion. His noble heart 
did often throb with sorrow for the misfortunes of his friends, and 
beat with joy for their happiness and prosperity. The writer of 
this knew him for many years, and never heard one word spoken 
of " Jack Mellon" except in his praise. 

May 15th, a complimentary benefit was tendered by~numerous 
citizens to Harry and Rose Watkins, the popular actors, at the 
Opera House. The night was inclement, but the crowd was good, 
nevertheless. The play was called " Trodden Down ; or, Under 
Two Flags." 

May 25th, a warehouse on one of the wharves, belonging to Mrs. 
Tunis, was discovered to be on fire. It contained a large amount 
of cotton and guano, stored by Messrs. Hymans & Dancy — all of 
which was slightly injured. [Since the city has had her water 
works and paid fire department in operation, fires don't amount to 
anything serious]. 

May 28th was municipal election day, and there was great ex- 
citement about it. The Republicans refused to put a ticket in the 
field, and this fact so overjoyed the Conservatives that they had a 
little family quarrel, and nominated two full tickets for the city 
offices — one known as the Whitehead ticket, and the other as the 
Kimberly ticket — the latter being defeated by about 400 (average) 
majority. The following officers were elected, viz: Mayor, Hon. 
John B. Whitehead ; Sergeant, W. Hunter Saunders ; Collector, 
M. T. Cooke ; Commonwealth's Attorney, W. H. White ; City 
Attorney, W. B. Martin ; Commissioner of Revenue, John B. 
Branham; City Surveyor, J. C. Cooke. 



158 

June 4th, Colonel William L. Oswald, the valuable and energetic 
Superintendent of the City Conservative party, died suddenly at 
his country residence, about four miles from the city. He was 
about 43 years of age, and came here to live in 1864, from West 
Troy, New York. He was an ardent Democrat, and was twice 
elected to the New York Legislature. He took an active part 
against the Radicals of Norfolk, and the Conservatives, seeing his 
usefulness and good sense, elected him as their Chief — and a good 
one he was. 

June 8th, the grand opening ball of the season took place at Vue 
de 1'Eau, under the management of Captain James Little, the new 
proprietor of the place. A large crowd of ladies and gents from 
Norfolk went down, and returned on the Steamer Banks at 12 P. M. 

June 10th, the fourth annual session of the Catholic Benevolent 
Union of this State, met in Norfolk, at St. Mary's Chapel on Holt 
street. The body was in session three days, and the large number 
of delegates were feted and otherwise honored by the local Catholic 
societies and clubs. 

June 16th, Mr. Jas. H. Johnson, another fine business man and 
valuable citizen, departed this life. He was seventy-three years of 
age. 

July 14th, the 9th Annual Session of the Virginia Educational 
Association, convened in this city. Professor B. L. Gildersleeve, 
its President, delivered a fine address. The body was in session 
four days. 

July 28th, Mr. W. W. Hall, departed this life in the 77th year 
of his age. He was well known as a kind and generous man. He 
was buried by Lafayette Lodge, No. 9, I. O. Odd Fellows, from 
the Cumberland Street M. E. Church. 

August 6th, Colonel William W. Lamb, one of our oldest and 
best loved citizens breathed his last. He was 70 years of age, and 
had often served this comuuity in various places of trust, with 
fidelity and satisfaction. His death caused a gloom to spread over 
the entire city, for the people all loved him. 

August 12th, the Conservatives reorganized their party by elect- 
ing Mr. William F. Allen as Superintendent, vice Colonel W. L. 
Oswald, deceased. The interests of the party could not have 
been trusted to a better man than Mr. Allen, as subsequent events 
plainly proved. 

September 9th, an exciting boat race took place between two 
Portsmouth clubs, viz : the Virginia and the Elizabeth. The 
race was won by the latter club in nineteen minutes and fifty-eight 
seconds. It was a six-oared gig contest for the championship of the 
harbor, and was witnessed by a large gathering of Norfolk people. 

September 17th, a large delegation of gentlemen from the Texas 
Editorial Association, arrived in this city on a visit, and were hospi- 



159 

tably received by the members of the Norfolk press and our chief 
■city officials. The visitors were taken to the Navy-yard and to 
Old Point, and were extended many other courtesies. 

November 3d, occurred the most exciting election ever held in 
this Congressional District. It was the day on which the Hon. John 
Goode, Jr., one of Virginia's noblest and most gifted sons, defeated 
the notorious Vermont carpet-bagger, James H. Piatt, Jr,, for 
Congress from this District. Piatt had been misrepresenting us in 
the National Legislature for several years and the people concluded 
that they had been disgraced quite long enough ; so they "put their 
shoulders to the wheel," and gallantly overcome "Dr." Piatt's 5,000 
negro majority, and elected Mr. Goode — thereby ridding this people 
of the greatest nuisance they ever endured, viz : the presence in 
their midst of so vile a man as James H. Piatt, Jr., of Vermont. 

November 13th, the fine Steamer Louisiana, of the Old Bay 
Line, collided with the steamship Falcon, of the Baltimore and 
Charleston Line, and was sunk. The accident occurred in Chesa- 
peake Bay. Captain W. R. Mayo, of this city, commanded the 
Louisiana, and by his coolness and prompt action, all the passengers 
and their baggage, all the Express and Mail matter, and many 
valuable articles belonging to the boat were removed from her before 
she sunk. The Falcon conveyed the Louisiania's passengers to 
Baltimore, from which place the sad news was telegraphed to Nor- 
folk. The lost boat was the finest one on the line, and cost more 
than $150,000. 

November 18th, Mr. Samuel R. Veale died in the 60th year of 
his age. He was a prominent member of the Odd Fellows, and a 
highly respected citizen. 

November 25th, our esteemed fellow citizen, Mr. D. C. Crowell, 
departed this life in the 47th year of his age. He left a large circle 
of friends and relatives to mourn his loss to the community. 

November 26th, (at night) Norfolk was brilliantly illuminated 
in honor of the election of Hon. John Goode, Jr., to Congress, over 
Piatt, the carpet-bagger. The demonstration upon this occasion was 
the most enthusiastic ever witnessed in the city — the torchlight 
procession was the largest and the fireworks the grandest. Never 
in the history of the place was there such tumultuous rejoicing over 
any event, as there was over Mr. Goode's triumph. 

December 1st, (at night) the Norfolk Conservatives again formed 
in a torchlight procession and marched over to Portsmouth, to aid 
the gallant people of that place in honoring John Goode's election. 
Our Sister City " fairly outrivaled" Norfolk in the brilliancy of 
her illuminations. [This same kind of rejoicing was carried on all 
through the District]. 

December 16th, the upper part of the store-house of Messrs. 
Heard & Bro., produce dealers, on Roanoke square, was destroyed 



160 

by fire. The building was owned by Hon. John B. Whitehead, 
and was insured. Loss of stock was very slight, as the flames did 
not reach the lower floor of the building. 

December 27th, Sunday night, Rev. Thomas Hume, Jr., was 
installed as the pastor of the Cumberland Street Baptist Church. 
The installation services were conducted by Rev. Messrs. William 
E. Hatcher, of Petersburg, W. D. Thomas and Reuben Jonas. A 
large congregation was present. 

December 29th, the second (and last) Grand Gift Concert of the 
Masonic Relief Association took place at the Opera House, in 
presence of a vast audience. The brass band from the United 
States Receiving Ship New Hampshire was engaged, and discoursed 
excellent music. The capital prize of $7,500 was drawn jointly by 
two gentlemen — one in Richmond, and the other in Chicago. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SEVENTY- FIVE. 

January 9th, a Roller Skating Rink was opened at Johnson's 
Hall. Our young people of both sexes enjoyed the sport very much 
for several weeks. 

January 23d, Colonel James W. Hinton died suddenly, and 
great gloom was cast upon our community. He was an eminent 
lawyer, a patriotic citizen, an able and active vindicator of truth 
and justice. His death was a great loss not only to this city and 
District, but to the whole State of Virginia. The Norfolk Bar, 
the officers of the Granby Street M. E. Church, and Owens Lodge 
of Masons, adopted suitable resolutions in respect to his memory. 

Thursday night, January 28th, the steamer Lady of the Lake, of 
the Norfolk and Washington, D. C, Line, was destroyed by fire 
while lying at her wharf in this city. She was a sidewheel steamer, 
built in New York in 1866, cost $100,000, and was only partially 
insured. 

February 4th, a banquet was given at the Atlantic Hotel to a 
delegation of gentlemen who visited Norfolk from along the line 
of the Rappahannock river. The visitors were mostly merchants 
and produce raisers, and they came here on business connected 
with the proposed new line of steamers between Fredericksburg 
and our city. 

March 4th, Messrs. Baird, Roper & Co.'s three-masted schooner 
" Lydia H. Roper " was launched from their ship-yard near Gil- 
merton, on the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth river. A large 
number of Norfolk people were invited to be present, and greatly 
enjoyed the beautiful sight. 

On the night of the same day, our city was thrown into a state 
of excitement on account of the murder of a white woman named 
Lizzie Stevenson, alias Alice Robinson, by a mulatto man named 
James Bruce. [Bruce was afterwards tried and sent to the peni- 
tentiary for 18 years]. 



181 

March 8th, the United States Sloop of War Huron — name 
afterwards changed to the Alliance — was launched at our Navy- 
yard in presence of at least ten thousand persons. Among the 
distinguished personages present was Mrs. Scott Siddons, the great 
"Queen of Tragedy," who was in Norfolk at the time on a profes- 
sional visit — giving public readings. 

March 29th, Mr. William J. Taylor, a native of Norfolk, and a 
former member of the Blues, died in Philadelphia. His remains 
were brought here for interment. 

April 5th, R.Joseph Drummond, another former member of the 
Blues, and a popular young citizen, departed this life in the 35th 
year of his age. He was buried with military honors — the Blues 
firing a salute to his memory. 

April 7th, another delegation of visitors from the vicinity of 
Fredericksburg, arrived here on the steamer Eliza Hancox, and 
were hospitably received and entertained by our merchants. 

April 9th, the Norfolk City Guard, Captain E. V. White, cele- 
brated their fourth anniversary by a grand parade — after which 
they partook of a handsome collation at Mr. Charles Brown's 
restaurant, on Hill street, where toasts and speeches were gracefully 
enjoyed during the entire evening. 

April 23d, Mr. William Grieves, a well known citizen, and a 
Scotchman by birth, died very suddenly, in the 55th year of his 
age. He was buried by the Odd Fellows, of Harmony Lodge. 

May 8th, the members of the Norfolk and Portsmouth Bars, 
held a meeting in this city and adopted resolutions of respect to 
the memory of their recently deceased brethren, Judge E. P. Pitts 
and Colonel Charles K. Mallory. Tazewell Taylor, Esq., presided 
over the meeting. 

May 24th, a Conservative primary election (the first ever held in 
Norfolk) took place, to elect the candidates for the Council at the 
approaching municipal election. A full ticket was chosen, and the 
nominees gave very general satisfaction. 

May 26th, the Norfolk City Guard made an excursion to Old 
Point and were handsomely received by the United States soldiers 
at Fort Monroe, under command of General W. F. Barry. While 
en route for Old Point, the Guard, through First Lieutenant Robt. 
Freeman, presented their gallant Captain (E. V. White, Esq.,) with 
a very handsome sword. 

May 27th, the election of City Councilmen took place, when a 
full Conservative ticket was elected from each ward. The Repub- 
licans made no opposition, except in 4th Ward, and were beaten 
there. [This was the first time since the war that the Conserva- 
tives elected all the Councilmen ; Fourth Ward always elected 
" Radicals" previous to this time]. 

June 4th ; Mr. Cornelius H. Mathias, a native and for nearly 60 



162 

years a resident of Norfolk, departed this life. He was buried on 
the 6th instant, from St. Paul's Episcopal Church. 

June 14th, Mr. John Williams, one of our oldest citizens, died 
in the 72d year of his age. He had filled many important positions 
in our midst, and died as he had always lived, an honest man and 
a consistant Christian. 

On the same day, the Norfolk Light Artillery Blues departed 
for Boston, Mass., to attend the Centennial anniversary celebration 
of the battle of Bunker Hill. The following commissioned officers 
went with the Company: James W. Gilmer, Captain; Samuel H. 
Hodges, Senior First Lieutenant ; R. Frank Vaughan, Junior First 
Lieutenant ; Henry V. Moore, Second Lieutenant ; Dr. Herbert 
M. Nash, Surgeon. The Company mustered Jtfty-five men, besides 
the officers named above. They were escorted to the Boston 
Steamer William Lawrence, Captain F. M. Howes, by the Marine 
Corps from the Navy Yard, and when they departed on their trip, 
Commodore Stevens, of the Navy Yard, ordered a salute to be fired 
in honor of the event. When the steamer passed Fort Monroe, 
General Barry, the United States Commander there, gave them 
another salute, which was duly returned by the Blues, who took 
their guns along with them. 

July 1st, the newly elected City Council held their first meeting 
and elected the following city officers for the ensuing year : 

H. W. Burton, Street Inspector; R. J. Barrett, Keeper of Alninhouse ; Dr. 
Joseph B. Whitehead, Health Officer ; T. J. Hudgins, Clerk of Market ; B. T. 
Camp, Janitor of City Hall ; E. L. Winder, W. T. Shippand John K. Hodges, 
Wood Measurers ; Charles H. Kennedy and Robert Freeman, Hay Weighers ; J. 
T. Ewell, Sealer of Weights and Measures; W. E. Mehegan, Fire Commissioner; 
Frank Wood, City Ganger ; John F. Evans, John R. Lawrence, John H. Pumph- 
rey and George PL Miller, Constables. These officers at once entered upon the 
discharge of their respective duties. 

Same day, the 9th Division, Uniformed Corps, of Knights of 
Pythias, celebrated their first anniversary by a graod parade and 
banquet. 

July 3d, Mr. Jeremiah Kehoe, an aged citizen, who resided on 
James street, was gored to death by an enraged bull. The deceased 
was about seventy years of age. 

July 5th, a horrible calamity occurred in Hampton Roads, near 
the mouth of Elizabeth River, by which the steam tug-boat Lum- 
berman was sunk, and ten citizens of Norfolk killed or drowned. 
The tug was returning from Old Point with a party on board who 
had been down to witness the annual holliday display of fireworks at 
Fort Monroe,and just as she got nearly opposite Vue de l'Eau, she col- 
lided with the Steamer Isaac Bell, of the Old Dominion Steamship 
Line, and was instantly sunk. The victims of this unfortunate 
disaster were as follows : Mrs. Elizabeth Hudgins, Mrs. G. W. 
Baker, Mrs. Jesse Frederici, Miss Marion Borum, Mr. Harry 
Borum, Mr. James C. Borum, Mr. Joseph T. Wilson, Captain 



163 

Edward Cook, Mr. James Craft, and a colored woman named Clara. 
This terrible disaster overwhelmed our people with a sorrow thai 
will long be remembered. 

July 30th, Major General George E. Pickett, the Confederate 
hero of the battle of Gettysburg, departed this life at the St. Vin- 
cent de Paul Hospital, in this city. The death of this noble Vir- 
ginian and brave soldier, caused great sorrow — not only in Norfolk, 
but throughout the length and breadth of the entire South. His 
name had become a household word in Virginia, and his deeds of 
daring while at the head of his splendid Division in the Confederate 
Army, were the admiration of all good men. He was as generous 
as he was brave, as kind and affectionate as he was true to his 
people. General Pickett was born in Richmond in 1825. He 
graduated at West Point in 1846, was assigned to duty as a Second 
Lieutenant in the 8th United States Infantry, and fought in all of 
General Scott's engagements in Mexico. He was promoted for 
" distinguished gallantry and meritorious conduct" in the battles of 
Contreras, Cherubusco and Chapultepec, and was Captain Com- 
manding the post at Island of San Juan when Great Britain 
demanded the withdrawal of the United States troops from the 
Island — which demand he refused to comply with, and with his 
small Company of forty men defied the whole British force until 
the Governments settled the controversy. When Virginia seceded, 
he resigned his commission in the United States Army and came 
home; and in September, 1861, he was appointed a Colonel in the 
Confederate Army, and assigned to duty on the Rappahannock 
river. His subsequent gallantry and rapid promotions are familiar 
to all Virginians. His remains were taken to Richmond for inter- 
ment. Gone ! but not forgotten, " old chief." 

August 5th, the survivors of the Third Georgia (Confederate) 
Regiment, who had been on a visit to the people of Portsmouth 
for a few days, paid a visit to Norfolk, and were handsomely enter- 
tained by the Blues and other citizens. 

August 16th, Mr. E. D. Smith, paying teller of the Exchange 
National Bank, died suddenly of apoplexy. He was a genial and 
elegant gentleman. 

August 29th, Dr. J. W. Leigh, one of our popular physicians, 
departed this life. He was buried with Masonic honors. 

September 1st, the Undine Boat Club celebrated its fifth anniver- 
sary by a collation served at the boat-house. 

September 7th, the Lynchburg Home Guard, under Captain 
Kirk Otey, paid a visit to Norfolk, and were courteously received 
and entertained by our soldiers. A splendid banquet was given 
the visitors at the Blues' armory. It was a splendid affair. 

October 22d, Mr. Tazewell Taylor, the Nestor of the Norfolk 
Bar, and one of the most highly esteemed citizens of the State, 



departed this life. He was a true type of the old Virginia gentleman. 

On the same day, Mr. William Ward, another aged and highly 
respected member of our community, died. He had been a citizen 
of Norfolk for sixty-five years. 

October 25th, the Norfolk Blues and the City Guard left for 
Richmond to attend the unveiling of the Stonewall Jackson Statue. 
Captain E. V. White commanded the Guard, and and Lieutenant 
Samuel Hodges, the Blues 

October 28th, Mr. John W. Lee, another good citizen, departed 
this life. He was a native of Princess Anne County, and was in 
the 44th year of his age. 

November 2d, Major W. T. Taliaferro and Colonel L. D. Starke, 
two of our talented and well known citizens, were elected to the 
House of Delegates. They were the regular Conservative nomi- 
nees, and had no opposition. 

November 9th, the .Norfolk City Guard, numbering forty-two 
men, left for Wilmington, N. C, to participate in the reunion of 
the Fort Fisher veterans. 

November 18th, the new Masonic Temple was formally dedicated. 
The ceremonies were conducted by General William B. Taliaferro, 
the Grand Master of the Slate at that time. The procession which 
passed through the streets numbered several thousand persons, and 
was an imposing sight — the Knights Templar, in their showy 
regalia, looked perfectly grand. Masons were present from all 
parts of the country. Among the visiting Templars were Morton 
Commandery of New York and St. John's Commandery of Phila- 
delphia. The banquet given at Johnson's Hall in the afternoon 
surpassed anything of the kind ever gotten up in Norfolk on so 
large a scale. It was prepared under the superinteudance of 
Thomas Morrissett, Esq., a well known Norfolk caterer. 

November 19th, Grice Commandery of Knights Templar gave a 
grand ball and banquet to their visiting brethren from New York, 
Philadelphia, Petersburg and Portsmouth, which was a grand 
affair. The hall-room and banquet-hall of the New Temple were 
handsomely christened upon the occasion. 

December 1st, the new system adopted for sweeping the streets 
of the city by the " chain-gang, " went into effect. The city pur- 
chased and put to work on that day six mule-carts. (The new 
system gives us cleaner streets, at less cost, than the old plan did]. 

December 20th, Captain James L. Henderson, formerly of the 
United States and Confederate States Navies, died in Charlestown, 
West Virginia, at the residence of his sister, Mrs. Anna Forrest. 
His funeral took place from the residence of his son, in this city. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-SIX. 

January 18th, the N. L. A. Blues gave a grand promenade 
concert at Johnson's Hall in honor of their Boston visitors, who 



165 

came here to present to them a " peace offering " — a beautiful 
banner from the ladies of Boston. These Boston visitors consti- 
tuted a special committee of ladies and gentlemen appointed to 
present the banner to the Blues. 

January 20th, the charming little Lotta, one of Norfolk's favorite 
actresses, appeared at our Opera House in the beautiful character 
of " Musette," in the play of " The Secret of Guilde Court." 

On the same evening, our well known and popular old citizen, 
W. H. C. Lovitt, Esq., died at the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital, 
in the 63d year of his age. He was a noble man, and for many 
years was one of the leading business men in Tide- Water Virginia. 

January 24th, the Norfolk people contributed $1,139.12 to the 
Lee Monument Fund. [This fund is being raised for the purpose 
of erecting an Equestrian Statue to the memory of the lamented 
General Robert E. Lee]. 

January 30th, Sunday night, Mr. Lewis Salusbury, another old 
and prominent citizen, died suddenly. He had been an invalid 
for several years, but his friends did not believe him to be so 
seriously ill. 

February 7th and 8th, the Kellogg Opera Troupe appeared in 
Norfolk, much to the delight of the large audiences that attended 
the two Operas — Fra Diavolo and Faust. Miss Clara Louise 
Kellogg was ably supported by Madame Jennie Van Zandt and 
Mrs. Seguin, Messrs. William Castle and Joseph Maas — the latter 
displaying an unusually rich tenor voice. 

February 15th, the Norfolk Seamen's Friends' Society celebrated 
its semi-centennial anniversary at the Cumberland Street Baptist 
Church, where it was organized fifty years previous. Rev. E. N. 
Crane, Chaplain of the Seamen's Bethel, delivered an interesting 
address, in which he gave the history of this useful Society. 

February 18th, Maggie Mitchell, another very popular actress 
(not very young), delighted our play-goers with the play called 
"The Pearl of Savoy," in which she played the part of Marie. 
On the night of the 19th she played Fanchon to a large audience. 

February 26th, Mr. Charles Jordan died in the 79th year of his 
age. He was a well known and popular man, and left a large 
circle of friends to mourn his death. 

March 2d, was the day on which the "gay and festive" Mr. 
Oscar Baring left Norfolk with so many articles of value belonging 
to various citizens. This accomplished young thief came here a 
month or two previous to his sudden flight, and bargained for an 
interest in the Evening Times, a penny paper which was then being 
published by some enterprising and honest young men. By this 
business connection (upon a mere promise to pay) the cunning little 
Jew soon became well acquainted, and at once laid his plans for 
the wholesale robbery which he effected. Besides buying goods 



166 

which were to be paid for in advertising, and borrowing money 
from some of our most respectable Jews, he stole several gold watches, 
ran up a large hotel bill, made love to some "ladies fair/' and 
vanished like a sora. [This is one of the many results that accrue 
from placing confidence in people we know nothing about]. 

March 14, the news reached here that a bill of complaint had 
been filed in the United States Circuit Court at Richmond, against 
the Atlantic Mississippi and Ohio Railroad, by some of its New 
York trustees under mortgage, and that they asked for the appoint- 
ment of a Receiver for the road, and the foreclosure of the mort- 
gage, upon the grounds that the R.R, Co. had failed to pay the in- 
terest on its bonds, and to comply with other terms of said mortgage. 

March 21st, our young townsman, Charles A. Smith, Jr., departed 
this life— aged 29 years. During the late war he served gallantly 
in the Norfolk Blues' Battery, although he was a mere youth. He 
was buried by the Knights of Pythias, Odd Fellows, and the Blues' 
Memorial Association, from the Cumberland Street M. E. Church, 
Rev. E. M. Peterson pastor. 

On the same day our community was grieved to learn of the 
death of Mrs. Margaret K. Lamb, relict of the late Colonel Wm. 
W. Lamb, and a prominent Christian lady. 

March 29th, the City Council of Norfolk held a meeting to protest 
against the appointment of a Receiver of the Atlantic, Mississippi 
and Ohio Railroad (from Norfolk to Bristol, Tennessee,), but 
adopted resolutions to this effect, viz : " That if the honorable 
Court determines that a Receiver shall be appointed, the City of 
Norfolk respectfully asks,throughits Attorney and associate counsel, 
the appointment of General William Mahone as Receiver of said 
road." [This resolution was adopted with only one dissenting 
voice. The United States Court, however, (Judge H. L. Bond, 
presiding), ignored the wishes of the Virginia friends and stock- 
holders of the Road, and appointed two Receivers, viz : Mr. C. 
L. Perkins, of New York, on part of the bondholders, and Major 
Henry Fink, on part of the Railroad Company. The road is now 
under the management of these two gentlemeu], 

April 2d, the furjeral of the lamented Christian, Rev. A. Paul 
Repiton, took place from the Freemason Street Baptist Church, 
Rev. Dr. W. D. Thomas, officiating. His remains were taken to 
Wilmington, North Carolina, under an escort from Grice Com- 
mandery, Knights Templar, of which the deceased had been an 
exemplary member. 

April 5th, the Norfolk and Princess Anne Railroad Company 
was organized by the election of the following officers : President, 
Colonel W. B. Rogers; Vice-President, S. E. Fitch, Esq. ; direc- 
tors, Messrs. A. G. Tebault, John H. Overstreet, Bennett Land, 
Sr., Wm. Lamb, W. H. Burroughs, and Andrew S. Martin. 



167 

April 6th, L. H. Chandler, Esq., mysteriously disappeared from 
liis residence on York street, and on the 17th instant, his body was 
found in the river, near the West end of the city. He had pre- 
viously shown symptoms of insanity, and it is the general belief, 
well founded, that he committed suicide. Mr. Chandler was a very 
popular and prominent Whig politician before the war, but since, 
joined the Republican party and lost many of his former friends. 
He was, with all his fanlts, a kind, generous, polite and sociable 
gentlemen. At the time of his unfortunate death he was United 
States Pension Agent for this District, and during the last year of 
his residence in our midst, had regained the confidence and friend- 
ship of many former acquaintances who had been estranged from 
him through political influences and prejudices. In preceding 
pages of this volume we have frequently mentioned his name in 
connection with public meetings, enterprises, &c. ; consequently 
he will be no stranger to the reader at this time. He was a fluent 
speaker, an able rlawyer, and well informed man, and his death 
was deeply deplored by a large majority of our best citizens. 

April 11th, the Norfolk City Guard celebrated its fifth anni- 
versary by a parade through the pricipal streets of Norfolk and 
Portsmouth. ■* 

April 14th, the 'City Conservative Executive Committee met and 
elected Mr. A. Gordon Milhado, as City Superintendent. This 
selection was an admirable one, as subsequent events demonstrated. 

April 18th, the funeral of the late L. H. Chandler took place. - 
The burial service of the Episcopal Church was read by Rev. Dr. 
Okeson, and a prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. W. D. Thomas, of 
of the Baptist Church. Previous to the funeral, the Norfolk Bar 
held a meeting, with Judge George Blow in the chair, and adopted 
resolutions in honor of the memory and virtues of their deceased 
friend and brother. 

^ April 22d, our well beloved friend and fellow citizen, John W. 
Smith, departed this life in the 33d year of his age. He was a 
gallant Confederate soldier in the Norfolk Blues during the war, 
and was always ready for duty. He was a faithful friend, a kind 
and loving husband and father, a patriotic and useful citizen. 

April 26th, D. D. Simmons, Esq., one of our model merchants, 
and Yice President of the Norfolk and Portsmouth Cotton Ex- 
change, departed this life — aged 65 years. He was a native of 
Currituck County, N. C, but had been a resident of Norfolk long 
enough to endear himself to her citizens, and to receive their 
implicit confidence and highest esteem. The Cotton Exchange 
members held a meeting and adopted a series of resolutions expres- 
sive of their respect for the deceased, their regret at his death, and 
their sympathy for his bereaved family. 

April 30th, Miles K. Bell departed this life at the St. Vincent de 



168 

Paul Hospital. He was a well known veteran of the Mexican 
War — having served with Captain O. E. Edwards in Company B, 
1st Regiment of Voltigeurs, as a corporal, and was wounded at 
the battle of Cherubusco. During the late war he was a member 
of the United Artillery, Captain Thomas Kevill, and was noted 
for his coolness in action and faithful discharge of his duty. 

May 2d, the new steamer Florida, of the Old Bay Line, arrived 
here on her first trip, and was visited by a large number of citizens. 
This magnificent steamer is 265 feet long, and 38 feet broad ; she 
has 68 splendid state-rooms and 64 open berths, and is fitted up in 
the most splendid modern style. [The Florida is now commanded 
by Captain Darius J. Hill, one of the most popular gentlemen ever 
known to the traveling public]. 

May 19th, the 2d primary election of Conservatives nominees for 
the various city offices took place. For twenty-five offices there 
were exactly one hundred and twenty-nine candidates. 

May 25th, was the regular election day — 4th Thursday in May. 
According to the amended city charter all city officers are now 
elected by the people. The following Conservatives (or Democrats, 
more properly) were elected this date, for the ensuing two years, viz: 

Mayor, John S.Tucker; Treasurer, S. S. Dawes ; Collector of City Taxes, 
Charles H. Johnston ; Commissioner of Revenue, J. T. Branham ; City Attorney, 
W. B. Martin ; Commonwealth's Attorney, James E. Heath; Clerk oftheCourts, 
W. H. Hunter ; City Sergeant, W. H. Saunders ; Physician to Almshouse, W. H. 
Shepherd ; Inspector of Streets, William J. Butt ; Clerk of the Market, John 
Walters ; Keeper of the Almshouse, George T. Keefe; Ganger and Inspector of 
Liquors, Frank Wood ; Inspectors and Measurers of Wood, E. L. Winder, G. 
Fred. Clark, Charles Ramsay, Sr. ; Weigher of Hay, Charles H. Kennedy ; Sup- 
erintendent of City Cemeteries, Louis Bobee ; Sealer of Weights and Measures, 
A. F. Leggett ; Constables, John F. Evans, George H. Miller, M. Frank Powell, 
J. H. Pumphrey ; Justices of the Peace, J. D. Couper, C. W. Dozier, H. P. 
McPhail, John A. Rosson. 

June 2d, Colonel Richmond F. Dillard, a former citizen of Nor- 
folk, and one of our most popular merchants, died at Nottoway 
Courthouse. Previous to the war he lived in Sussex county, and 
at one time was the honored Representative of that county in the 
Legislature. He was about 63 years of age, and died from effects 
of a cancer, which had pained him for years. His many friends in 
Norfolk were deeply distressed upon hearing of his demise. 

June 8th, the "Rescue" Steam Fire Company, from Raleigh, 
North Carolina, Captain T. F. Lee, commanding, arrived in this 
city on a visit. They were escorted through town by our firemen, 
and afterwards entertained sumptuously at Brown's restaurant, 
where the parade was dismissed. Next day the visitors were escorted 
to Hampton and Fortress Monroe, on board the steamer Hampton, 
commanded by the courteous Captain George Schermerhorn. 

June 16th, the National Republican Convention, in session at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, nominated General Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio, 



169 

for the Presidency. The Norfolk Republicans were sorely disap- 
pointed when the news came ; they wanted James G. Blaine, of 
Maine. William A. Wheeler, of New York, was nominated for 
Vice-President. 

Sunday, June 25th, Rev. Dr. George D. Armstrong, the beloved 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, preached his quarto-Cen- 
tennial sermon — having been pastor of the aforesaid Church ever 
since June 25th, 1851. On the next evening the members of his 
congregation surprised the reverend gentleman with a handsome 
present in the shape of a magnificent set of solid siver-ware, con- 
sisting of a waiter, pitcher and two goblets, as a mark of their affec- 
tion and esteem. 

June 28th, the National Democratic Convention, in session in 
St. Louis, Mo., nominated Hon. Samuel J. Tilden, Governor of 
New York, for the office of President of the United States. On the 
next day, the Convention nominated Hon. Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Governor of Indiana, for the Vice-Presidency. The news was joy- 
fully received by the Norfolk Democrats. 

July 1st, the Norfolk Light Artillery Blues departed for Phil- 
adelphia, on board the Steamer Florida of the Old Bay Line, to 
fill the position assigned to " Old Virginia" in the Legion of 
Honor, during the Centennial parade which occurred on the 4th 
instant. The following is a list of the officers and privates of the 
Company who embarked upon this delightful Centennial trip to the 
" Quaker City :" 

Captain — Samuel Hodges. 

Junior First Lieutenant — Henry V. Moore. 

Second Lieutenant — H. G. Whitehead. 

Surgeon — Dr. H. M. Nash. 

Orderly Sergeant — J. A. Walton. 

First Sergeant — George W. Gordon. 

Second Sergeant — M. C. Keeling. 

Third Sergeant — B. H. Jones. 

Fourth Sergeant — S. S. Saunders. 

Quartermaster's Sergeant — H. L. Turner. 

Acting Paymaster — Nat. Burruss. 

Corporals— C. M. Ferguson, W. C. Dickson, E. C. M. Wingfield, John W. H. 
Porter, William A. Graves, Jr. 

Buglers — J. P. Grandy and J. C. Deming. 

Privates — Wm. H. Aborn, Wm. A. Boykin, E. H. Boykin, C. E. Brinkley, 
Charles H. Buskey, C. F. Brooks, J. C. Baker, S. S. Bradford, J. C. Beekman, D. 
Tucker Brooke, Wm. Camp, M. T. Cooke, S. J. Chamberlaine, C. A. Field, A. C. 
Freeman, E. H. Gwaltney, J. W. Hunter, John Hart, D. W. Jordan, John Jack, 
J. P. Kevill, J. B. Loughran, George Mcintosh, W. C.Nash, Patrick O'Connor, 
C. C. Eichardson, Julian Eussell, P. N. Sanderson,T . M. Saunders, John E. 
Shields, L. J. Savage, Henry Tuffts, Washington Taylor, F. S. Taylor, Wickham 
Taylor, H. S. Vaughan, E. H. Wright, B. W. Palmer. 

July 4th, a large number of bur citizens went to Fortress Monroe 
to witness the usual Fourth of July display of fireworks, which was 
by far the grandest entertainment of the kind ever witnessed, in the 
State. No accidents happened. 



170 

July 9th, 10th and 11th were the warmest days experienced in 
Norfolk for many years. Many persons were made very ill from 
sun stroke, four of whom died, viz : A. J. Dugger, W. H. White- 
hurst, Mr. Sartorius and Samuel R. Reeder. [The l as ^ named was 
an actor at Tooker's Varieties, well known by the name of Samuel 
Orme]. 

July 17th, our well known townsman, John C. Rogers, died at 
the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital. He was a high toned and 
patriotic gentleman, a gallant and faithful soldier. At the time of 
his death he was a partner in the well known crockery firm of 
Martin & Rogers, and was numbered amongst our best businessmen. 

July 27th, Mr. Thomas A. Hardy departed this life. He was 
one of Norfolk's best merchants and most respected citizens. He 
was born in Currituck County, N. C, in the year 1800, and when 
at the age of 21, he commenced the study of medicine, but aban- 
doned it for more active pursuits. In 1826 he came to Norfolk and 
entered business as a clerk ; in 1828 he was one of the firm of Hardy 
& Bros., and prospered in business. In 1861 he left Norfolk for 
Granville Co., N. C., w T here he remained until 1 866 , when he return- 
ed here and again entered into business. He lived an honorable and 
useful man, and died respected and esteemed by all who knew him. 

On same day (27th) the steamer Louise, Captain William Geog- 
hegan, of the Peoples' Line between here and Baltimore (since 
discontinued), made an excursion trip to Old Point and the Capes 
for the special benefit of the Norfolk County Grangers, who were 
invited to go. The trip was greatly enjoyed, and the party returned 
— nearly all sober. 

MAHONE'S BRIGADE. 

July 31st, (anniversary of the battle of the Crater), was a gala day 
in Norfolk. It was the occasion of the annual reunion of the veterans 
of " Mali one's Old Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia" — that 
gallant band of heroes who battled so nobly for the lost cause ! 
whose arms are stacked and banners furled, whose drums are still, 
whose muskets are dumb, but whose fame still lives in the hearts of 
their countrymen. 

" Like waving plume upon Bellona's crest, 

Or comet in red majesty arrayed — 
Like Persia' 's flame transported to the West, 

Shall shine the glory of Mahone's Brigade.'" 

" Not once in all those years so dark and grim, 

Its columns from the path of duty strayed — 
No craven act made its escutcheon dim, 

'Twas burnished with the blood of the Old Brigade.'" 

" Not once on post, or march, in camp or field, 
Was their brave Leader's trust in them betrayed ; 
And never yet has Old Virginia's shield 

Suffered dishonor through Mahone's Brigade." 



171 

The survivors of the command from Portsmouth/with those of 
this city, were escorted to the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Bail- 
road depot in the morning by the Norfolk Blues and the City 
Guard, and received the vast crowd that came on the train at 11 
o'clock. A procession was then formed and marched to the 
refreshment hall where a lunch had been prepared. From 
there the crowd marched to the Opera House, where the meeting 
was called to order and a beautiful address of welcome was 
delivered by Mayor John S. Tucker— after which, the Blues' 
band under Professor " Pony" Armistead, played " Hail to the 
Chief," when General Mahone arose amidst the wildest shouts of 
applause, and returned thanks to the Mayor and the people of Nor- 
folk for the generous welcome extended to his old command. 

He then proceeded to address the Brigade in a speech of great 
eloquence and feeling, and at each period was greeted with storms 
of applause. When concluding his remarks, he said : 

" My comrades, it is meet that we devoutly acknowledge our 
gratitude to God that we aie spared to this occasion. We come to 
celebrate the anniversary of an organization composed of the sur- 
vivors of a Brigade whose record history will brightly trace from 
our 'City by the Sea' to the end at Appomattox. 

"It was here upon ground already historic by the deadly 
presence of war that your service in the cause of your State 
began. It was here that your honeymoon as soldiers was spent. 
It was here you were the recipients of a generous hospitality and a 
tender consideration at the hands of the fairest of God's creation, 
which m your memories of joys past can never fade. 

"It was here that many of you had your patriotism put to that 
test beyond which it would be difficult to go. It was not the sep- 
aration of the soldier from family and fireside in discharge of his 
allegiance to the flag he had taken that you were called upon to 
make and to witness. It was to forego these, and to commit your 
household gods to the unknown mercies of the common foe, that 
many of you were called upon to suffer and to endure. 

" Nobly did you pass that trying ordeal, and only as patriots can 
otter all of life dear to man upon the altar of country's cause, did 
you accept and manfully bear the sacrifice. 

" It was then that they were encouraged, and you were inspired 
by that instinctive heroism of woman, whose love of courage and 
fidelity to honor, make no compromise with duty. 

"In tears and heart-burning sorrow many of those who are of 
earth no more, but of history forever, took here their final leave of 
those in life dearest to them — 

' For them to live or die.' 
It is in the history of your unsullied record of duty well per- 
formed, and of deeds of battle renown that your Newton and your 



172 

Williams, and the long list of heroes who fought and fell by their 
sides, now live — c who, with no dream of after life's reward, cared but 
to do his duty to the end, and, in the strength of duty, dared to die/ 

" It is to commemorate the historic estate which belongs to you 
and to their memories, to yours and to theirs, and to enter it of 
record, that constitutes now your duty and the sacred purpose of 
your organization. 

" To these ends let us address ourselves with a devotion which 
shall never weary. Let us maintain steadily that touch of the 
elbow in the line of this service, which made you invincible upon 
the field, and won for you the abiding confidence and admiration 
of our great Captain. 

" Let us move on in this holy work with that determination and 
solemn sense of duty which made this day conspicuous in the annals 
of the war, when, by your matchless charge and the bayonet, our 
lines at the Crater were redeemed, and the very safety of our army 
for the time restored. The cause, my comrades, which you conse- 
crated by your valor and the blood of a noble dead, is gone. The 
azure cross and silver stars which you bore are furled, and you are 
of one nation, a common country, and the same flag forever. But 
for them and their glorious memories you are solemnly charged to 
care, and by all the ties of battle, of hardships and of glory won, of 
your hero dead, you are bound to cherish a comrade's life recol- 
lection." 

When he concluded the band struck up " Dixie," which brought 
cheer after cheer. 

General Mahone then introduced Captain James Barron Hope, 
the editor of the Landmark, and the poet of the occasion. On 
Captain Hope's stepping to the front of the stage he was enthusias- 
tically greeted, and the delivery of his beautiful poem was received 
verse by verse with the sympathetic applause of his audience, and 
when at times the glorious deeds of " Mahone's Brigade " were 
related in the stirring, nervous eloquence of the poet, a great cheer 
would ring out an expression of irrepressible feeling. When the 
poem was concluded, the General introduced Colonel William E. 
Cameron, the orator of day, who delivered one of the most beauti- 
ful and appropriate orations a soldier ever listened to, and closed 
his remarks with the following thrilling and correct description of 
the last days of General Lee's retreat : 

" On the morning of the 2d of April Grant threw forward a 
strong column against the lines immediately west of Petersburg, and 
effecting an entrance, pressed vigorously towards the Southside 
Railroad. To resist his advance no troops were to be had. Ander- 
son had sacrificed the bulk of the army at Five Forks ; Heth's 
thin line had been pierced and thrown off upon the right, and the 
heroic Hill had lost his life in attempts to repair the disaster. 



173 

Harris' Brigade of Mahone's Division stayed for a time the tide^of 
ruin by the superb defence of an outlying post, in which the brave 
command was annihilated. But by noon the situation was seen to 
be irreparable ; the siege of Petersburg was over, and General Lee 
arranged for a retreat by night from the works no longer tenable. 
Then ensued a carnival of wreck and terror. 

" Occupying the lines at Bermuda Hundred, between the Appo- 
mattox and the James, Mahone's Brigade was spared the sights of 
shame and horror that surrounded and filled the two devoted cities. 
But while you stood in camp, waiting the signal to start upon your 
last campaign, the glare of rockets, the roar of artillery, the explo- 
sion of vast magazines — as fort and ship were given to the torch — • 
formed fit accompaniments to the preparations for retreat; and in 
the first gray light of dawn, the flames of burning Richmond lend- 
ing a sun-set brilliance to the scene, began the march to Appomat- 
tox; and to the westward sounded the musketry of the enemy's 
advance — the ominous death rattle of the ill-starred nation. 

" To abandon altar and fireside was no new sacrifice to some of 
those who now prepared to go, they knew not whither, at call of 
country. Scarce has the battle joined in earnest, ere this fair town 
was given over to the enemy, and sons of Norfolk, of Portsmouth, 
and of all this patriotic section, went forth in uncomplaining faith 
upon that pilgrimage from which so many ne'er returned. And 
now to those who still had household gods to guard, Gethsemane had 
come. Those were your homes that blazed to Heaven in that April 
morn, and you were leaving all that makes life dear to the mercies 
of a hostile horde. What help sustained you in that supreme hour ? 
only your God can know ; but this my throbbing heart attests, 
that never shown your soldier truth so brightly forth as in that 
time of trial and triumph. Full ranks turned out to answer sum- 
mons of a worse than funeral drum, and as your footsteps tended 
towards a future darker than the grave, the Flag, not home, ruled 
in your brave hearts, and marched your ranks as cheerily forth as 
though to hoped victory. 

" And so throughout that dreadful week the old Brigade held on 
its steady way. Nor would the truth be rightly told did I not 
speak of those stout comrades under Roy ster, o Saunders and Brevard 
who shared the dangers and should share the honor of all that 
toilsome way. 

" The roadside swarmed with drooping forms ; the signs of ruin 
strewed the weary path ; organizations melted away, and discipline 
gave way to license ; dismay and panic seized on headless masses, 
whole corps were routed ; whole divisions captured. High officers 
lost heart, and with it honor, and urged their troops to safety. The 
route grew fierce as the days went by ; at last there was no army. 
But through it all — through hunger, weariness and hopelessness— 



174 

through all the demoralizing evidences of defeat — in the face of the 
confident foe — this Brigade marched on as though the war were 
young, as firm as when it held the pass in Maryland, as self-reliant as 
when it rushed upon the flaming Crater, as ready to obey the words 
of Lee, as though he still had ninety thousand men to do his will, 
and still a Jackson on the flank. Presuming on the universal ruin 
of things, the enemy made one attempt to break your stern array 
and your last battle was a victory. Miles tried your steel at Cum- 
berland, and all day long Mahone's Division held an army back. 
But now the long attempt to avert the dread inevitable drew to a 
close. But two divisions of the Confederate force remained intact 
(Field's and your own,) and even the genius of Lee was powerless 
to long postpone the stroke of fate. "Ready for duty" you reported 
when the final trial came, ready to fight and fall with him, whose 
lightest wish had come to be your law, or ready to share with him 
a pang yet deeper than the sting of death. The verdict came. The 
flags you furled at Appomattox bore no prouder inscription than 
their presence there deserved and your paroles are passports sure to 
glory's roll of honor. Some day a worthy hand will draw the veil 
from all the tragic pathos that those days enclosed, and romance 
will awake to read the tale and blush to find its history." 

On the conclusion of the oration the band played the " Star- 
Spangled Banner," which drew forth the enthusiastic and respon- 
sive cheers of the audience. 

General Mahone then called the Association to order for busi- 
ness. 

Captain T. A. Williams presented and read the following letter 
from Capt. Robertson Taylor, the Adjutant General of Mahone's 
Brigade : 

Baltimore, July 29th, 1876. 
Greeting — To my Fellow-Citizens of Mahone's Brigade : 

I regret more than ] can express that my duties here absolutely prevent my 
leaving, and I am again deprived of the pleasure which I so earnestly desired, of 
greeting my old comrades. 

Attention to duty was one of the first lessons taught me by my military pre- 
cepter, Mahone, whose voice, if heard in your councils to-day, will be to the same 
effect. 

As I lookback to the years of our struggle I recall with pleasure the strict 
adherence to duty of officers and men, the perfect discipline in camp and on the 
march, the firm reliance of General Lee and his subordinates when "Mahone and 
his command" were in action, or given hot and hard work to do. So now in the 
pursuits of peace where can be found better citizens than those best soldiers whose 
companionship, friendship and confidence, I treasure among the most pleasant 
recollections of all my life. 

Keep on my comrades. Strive to do your whole duty and the verdict of your 
countrymen will be, " This is the way of Mahone's Brigade." 

Yours, EOBERTSON TAYLOR, 

Adjutant General Mahone's Brigade. 

The letter was greeted with cheers. 



175 

Captain W. A. S. Taylor moved that the rules be suspended and 
that the Association re-elect the present officers by acclamation. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted and the officers are as 
follows : 

President — General Wra. Mahone. 

Vice-Presidents— Colonel George T. Kogers, of the Sixth; Colonel E.M. Field, 
of the Twelfth ; Captain J. D. Gayle, of the Sixteenth ; Colonel Joseph P. Mine- 
tree,*of the°Forty-first, and Captain John T. West, of the Sixty-first Kegiments. 

Recording Secretary— Griffin F. Edwards. 

Corresponding Secretary — Leroy M. Edwards. 

Treasurer— T. A. Williams. 

The following officers constituted the Staff of the Memorial 

Association of the Brigade: 

General — William Mahone. 

General — D. A. Weisiger. 

Adjutants — W. E. Cameron, Drury A. Hinton, Alexander Tunstall, 

Surgeon— T. B. Ward. 

Quartermaster — Captain F. M. Ironmonger. 

Commissary — Captain William Sherwood. 

Ordnance Officer — W. A. Todd. 

Sergeant Major — James N. Bell. 

Quartermaster's Sergeant — H. A. Tarrall. 

The other members of this Association comprise all the survivors 
of the old Brigade. 

The business of the meeting being attended to, the procession was 
again formed,and "the boys" marched for the dinner table. On leaving 
the Opera House the Brigade was re-formed on Church street, and 
headed by the band, proceeded down Church to Main, down Main 
to Market Square, thence to the banquet hall. Here three 
immense tables were extended nearly the entire length of the 
spacious room, and another table at the head of the room for the 
field officers and invited guests. The hall was handsomely 
decorated with flags, and at the western end a large ban- 
ner was stretched across the room, wtih the inscription " Wel- 
come Mahone's Brigade," and on one corner of the same "Hello, 
Jack," and on the other "I'm no Doctor — Weed Grass — Weed 
Grass," both well known camp cries of the Brigade. Stretched 
across Roanoke avenue from the banqueting hall to Burruss & 
Rogers' block was a banner inscribed with the well known and 
historic cry of "This Way, Mahone's Brigade." The tables were 
loaded with all the substantial and creature comforts of life, well 
looked out for and provided by Mr. Charles Brown, and that well 
known caterer, Peter Pitts. Over five hundred were attended to, 
and all had plenty, with plenty to spare. 

When dinner was over the entire party took passage on the 
steamer Hampton, and paid a visit to Fortress Monroe, where they 
inspected the various objects of interest, and witnessed the dress 
parade of the troops stationed there. Upon an invitation kindly 
extended by Mr. H. Phoebus, proprietor of the famous Hygeia 



176 

Hotel, the visitors partook of an elegant supper, after which they 
returned to this city ; and thus ended the second reunion of the 
veterans of Mahone's Old Brigade. 

August 3d was issued the first number of The Pvblic Ledger, 
a sprightly afternoon penny paper, published by Colonel J. Rich'd 
Lewellen, Walter A. Edwards and Joseph G. Fiveash, Esqs., with 
Colonel Lewellen as Editor in Chief, and H. W. Burton as Local 
P^ditor. 

August 9th, Hon. John Goode was again nominated as the Dem- 
ocratic candidate for Congress from this District by the Convention 
which assembled in Portsmouth. Election November 7th. 

August 11th, a grand Tilden, Hendricks and Goode ratification 
meeting was held at 8 o'clock P. M., at the Norfolk Academy lot. 
Speeches were made by Hon. J. C. S. Blackburn, of Kentucky, 
Hon. John Randolph Tucker, of Virginia, "our own loved John 
Goode," and others. Colonel L. D. Starke presided over this grand 
and enthusiastic gathering. 

August 13th, Professor William B. Rodman died. He was a 
gentleman of fine learning and noble characteristics. During the 
terrible yellow fever epidemic here in 1855, he came from his home 
in Norfolk county to nurse the sick, and braved all the dangers of 
the fearful disease. This action endeared him to this people, and 
he died deeply regretted. 

August 22d, a game of base-ball was played at the old Fair 
Grounds, between the Olympic Club, of Richmond, and the Red 
Stockings, of Norfolk. The game was not finished on account of 
darkness overtaking the players — Richmond was ahead when the 
match was postponed. The Red Stockings gave their visitors a 
banquet that night at the Mansion House, which was gotten up in 
good taste by Mr. R. T. James, the proprietor. 

September 6th, the negro Republican Convention met here to 
nominate a candidate for Congress in opposition to Hon. John 
Goode, the Democratic nominee. After the most noisy and dis- 
graceful proceedings that ever characterized a deliberative (!) body 
in Norfolk, the darkies "settled" on Hon. Joseph Segar, a native 
white Republican, and nominated him as their candidate. [We 
call it a " negro Convention " because out of the 85 delegates, there 
were only seven real white men. All the officers were negroes 
except three, viz : C. W. Lassiter and R. G. Staples, Vice Presi- 
dents, and George E. Bowden, Secretary]. 

September 12th, a small negro boy named John Thorowgood, 
stabbed and killed one of his playmates named James Nash. The 
act however was not a malicious one, and Thorowgood was only 
slightly punished. 

September 15th, a meeting of citizens was held at the Court- 
house to adopt resolutions to the memory of that noble and devoted 



177 

s-on of Virginia, Ex-Governor Henry A. Wise, who died on the 
12th inst. Major W. T. Taliaferro called the meeting to order, 
and on his motion, Judge Geo. P. Scarburgh was chosen to preside, 
with Messrs. M. Glennan, C. E. Perkins and H. W Burton, as 
Secretaries. Captain James Barron Hope, offered appropriate reso- 
lutions,' and feeling addresses were made by Captain Jno. E.Doyle, 
Hon. John Goode and Judge Scarburgh. 

September 21st, the Councils met and appropriated one thousand 
dollars to the relief of the sufferers from Yellow Fever, in the city 
of Savannah, Ga. [The contributions of private citizens h -re, added 
to the above amount, aggregated several thousand dollars. The 
people of Norfolk will never fail to respond liberally to such a 
<eause, for they know well what it means, and cannot forget the aid 
extended to them when in the same sad condition]. 

October 14th, Frederick Wilson, Esq., an old resident of Nor- 
folk county, but who was intimately associated and indentified with 
Shis city for many years, departed this life in the 72d year of his 
age. He was a kind and generous man, a public spirited and 
patriotic citizen — -a man of genius, of extensive information, of 
great fondness for field sports, convivial and social gatherings, pro- 
gressive enterprises, &c. ; in short, a man of great usefulness and 
popularity. Every body in this section knew and liked Mr. Wil- 
son, and his death caused general regret and sadness. 

October 18th, the eighty-ninth annual session of the Presby- 
terian Synod of Virginia met at the 1st Presbyterian Church,and was 
in session four days. The opening sermon was preached by Rev. 
Dr. J. J. Bullock, of Alexandria. Rev. Dr. H. C. Alexander, of 
the Union Theological Seminary, was chosen Moderator. 

Sunday, October 22d, the whole city was excited by a report that 
an entire family had been poisoned on the previous day, and that 
some members had died from the effects. A great crowd gathered 
at the house of the family, No. 383 Church street, where the fol- 
lowing facts were ascertained : A Mrs. Berry, her three children, 
and two brothers, had partaken of poison, administered to them in 
their food on Saturday, and one of the children — a bright little girl 
named Nina Batten (a child of Mrs. Berry's first husband), died 
that night. Circumstances pointed to Jordan Berry, Mrs. B.'s 
husband, as the perpetrator of the horrible deed, and he was ar- 
rested, and in due time tried, found guilty, and sentenced to be 
hanged. [At this writing, Berry is still in jail, and his counsel are 
trying to get him pardoned by the Governor, on the grounds that 
he was convicted upon mere circumstantial evidence], 

October 31st, John Bonfanti, one of the most gallant and dutiful 
soldiers of " Mahone's old Brigade," departed this life. He was 
in all the battles with the 6th Virginia Regiment, until captured 
at Burgess' Mill, near Petersburg, October 27th, 1864, when he 



178 

was sent to Point Lookout, where he manfully endured a long and 
painful imprisonment. While confined in prison he contracted 
rheumatism in his limbs, from which he never recovered. The life of 
another brave man given to his country's cause. Let the memory 
of all such heroes be forever honored by Virginians. 

November 7th, the election for President and Vice-President of 
the United States occurred — also, of a member of Congress from this 
District. Norfolk city gave Hon. John Goode 691 majority, and 
Tilden and Hendricks 958. Mr. Goode's official majority in the 
District over his competitor, Hon. Joseph Segar, was 1,896. Tilden 
and Hendricks' majority in the State was more than forty thousand — 
[the largest Democratic majority ever given]. It is a well known 
fact that in this Presidential election, the vote throughout the 
country was close. Tilden and Hendricks honestly and fairly car- 
ried all the Southern States except South Carolina ; but Florida 
and Louisiana were stolen for Hayes and Wheeler, by the Radical 
Returning Boards of those States, in defiance of all law, honor or 
justice— and no one knows these facts better than the leading Re- 
publicans themselves. This being the case, a great National dispute 
arose, and the question of who was elected, was submitted to a selec- 
ted "tribunal of justice" (!) composed of ten Congressmen and five 
judges of the United States Supreme Court — who were to examine 
into the questions disputed and decide who had been elected. Now 
here comes the joke about that just tribunal : Eight of its members 
were Republicans, and only seven were Democrats ; and as eight 
was a majority, why, as a matter of course, Hayes was declared the 
President, by a majority of one electoral vote — the Republicans of 
the tribunal would gladly have given him more if they could have 
found them ; but they had given him all the States that were in 
dispute, and yet his majority was only one. The tribunal 
ignored, law, justice, honesty, and investigation, and boldly, sham- 
lessly and ignominiously decided in Hayes' favor upon every question 
brought before them — not caring what the evidence or the facts 
were — by the ever-to-be-remembered vote of eight to seven. This 
was the grandest and most outrageous political swindle ever known 
in the annals of our history — grand, because it was perpetrated upon 
the Democrats of Congress while they were in a majority — out- 
rageous, because it has robbed millions of freemen of the rights and 
privileges guaranteed them by the Constitution. 

November 8th, the funeral of Henry Cotton took place. Captain 
Cotton (as he was familiary known) was one of Norfolk's oldest and 
most useful policemen, and was a true Southern man. 

November 12th, " Commodore" M. M. R. Todd departed this 
life in the 76th year of his age. He was a well known and esteemed 
citizen, and by his superior business qualifications and prudent 
investments amassed a handsome fortune, upon which he lived in 



179 

ease and comfort. Mr. Todd was born in the village of Smithfield, 
Isle of Wight County, Va., October 17th, 1801 ; was married at 
the age of twenty ; went to the West in 1833 and settled in Cin- 
cinnati, where he became successful in the pork-packing business. 
He became a citizen of Norfolk in 1843, and purchased the property 
at the West end of Bute street, where he died. He was a most 
enthusiastic sportsman, being an eager huntsman, and an excel- 
lent yacthman — for both of which sports he retained a keen 
relish, until a year before his death, when he received a blow in the 
loss of his s wife, from which he never recovered — having been united 
to the partner of his bosom fifty-four years, and after her death, life 
seemed to have no further charm for him. He was the last of 
three devoted brothers, John R. Todd, of Isle of Wight County, 
and Mallory M. Todd, who died many years ago, being well remem- 
bered by many of our old citizens. 

During this month Morrissett's Hotel (on the European plan) 
was erected upon the property of Mr. A. G. Milhado, on Main 
street, next lot East of the Customhouse. It is a neat and hand- 
some building, and a great improvement to that portion of our 
principal thoroughfare. 

November 29th, Mr. Robert DeJarnette, formerly of Caroline 
County, but for several years an honored citizen of Norfolk, 
departed this life. He was a brother of Hon. D. C DeJarnette, 
and father of our beloved young townsman, Robert DeJarnette. 
His remains were taken to his native county for interment. 

December 8th, the body of Captain J. P. Fernandez, a well 
known Norfolk pilot, was found in the river at Rowland's wharf. 
It is supposed the old man was accidentally drowned. 

December 25th, Mr. F. A. Karn departed this life. He had 
been a resident of Norfolk for thirty years, and proved himself to 
be a worthy and useful citizen. He was buried with Masonic 
honors — having died as he had lived, a consistent and upright 
Mason. 

December 28th, Dr. W. J. Harris, our City Coroner, and one of 
the most pious,exemplary and young talented physicians in the State, 
died at the residence of his father in Nottoway County. He had 
been a resident of Norfolk for several years, and gained the friend- 
ship and esteem of our whole community. He was a real benefactor 
to the poor people, and was always ready to administer to them 
without hope of earthly reward. 

December 30th, the Baltimore and Richmond steamers were 
detained at their wharves on account of ice in the Bay and James 
River. [This freeze continued to obstruct travel between Balti- 
more and Richmond (by boats) for several weeks]. 



180 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-SEVEN. 

With the first part of this year, this record of events ceases. The 
author will give in the succeeding pages a brief description of the 
various secret orders, lodges, societies, institutions, etc. ; also, an 
interesting account of the courtesies extended to our Royal visitor? 
from Russia during the time they remained in Norfolk. 

On Saturday morning, January 13th, the frigate Swetlana, of the 
Imperial Russian Navy, arrived in our harbor. She was com- 
manded by Rear Admiral Boutakoff, with the Grand Duke Alexis 
as " ship's Captain," and Grand Duke Constantine (the youngpr) 
Lieutenant. There were also on board several Princes, Barons, 
and other members of Russia's royal family. Quite a number of 
persons gathered at Chamberlaine's wharf (West end of Main street) 
to see the landing of these " notables," but they did not come 
ashore until about four o'clock in the afternoon, when the two 
Grand Dukes and several other officers of the ship paid a visit to 
Rear Admiral Crown and Baron Shishkin, the Russian Minister, 
who were stopping at the Atlantic Hotel, having arrived there 
from Washington a few days previous. 

The arrival of His Imperial Highness, the Grand Duke Alexis, 
caused a ripple of excitement in society, and it was not long before, 
some of our prominent citizens called upon him, and were received 
with that courtesy and dignified cordiality which marks the perfect 
gentleman and true nobleman. There was no empty show, false 
pride, cold formality or stiff haughtiness about any of the Grand 
Duke's officers ; they were all courteous, pleasant, genteel and 
sociable, and were at once invited into the best of Norfolk society. 
During their two months visit they were treated with marked 
courtesy by this people, and by the officers of our Navy who were 
then on this Station. 

THE COMPLIMENTARY GERMAN. 

On Thursday night, January 25th, the Norfolk German Club, 
composed of our best young ladies and gentlemen, gave a compli- 
mentary German to Grand Duke Alexis, who honored the invita- 
tion by his presence, accompanied by the following officers from the 
.flagship Swetlana : Rear Admiral Boutakoff, Prince Obolinski, 
Prince Nicholas Stcherbatov, Prince Baritinsxy, Sub-Lieutenants 
Boutakoff, Schroeff and Ergomyschev, Baron Shilling, Flag Offi- 
cer Alexier, and other officers of the Grand Duke's staff. 

The following account of the very pleasant affair was written by 
this author, and appeared in the Norfolk Virginian the next day : 

"The ballroom floor and spectators' seats were thronged with the 
elite, beauty and fashion of our " ancient Borough," and the scene 
presented was of unusual splendor and brilliancy. The hall was 
decorated with Russian and American Flags, and the music was 
splendid. Beautiful belles, graceful and courtly gentlemen and 



181 

stately matrons were present to mingle in the social festivities of 
the evening, and never did Aphrodite, with her golden hair and 
voilet eyes of Heaven's reflected sheen, appear more beautiful than 
some of the dancers who "floated along like zephyrs" and whose 
<eyes glittered as jewels fashioned to shine in some rare diadem* 
Ne'er did valiant knight of olden time deport himself more man- 
fully — more acceptably to his ladylove than did our gallant beaux 
of last evening. 

u They bore themselves as heroes of old, 

When mail-clad they marched in the ranks of the bold.'* 

At 9 o'clock the band played aud the German was begun. Beaux 
and belles were paired as partners, places and positions were selected, 
the usual conventionalities exchanged — "eyes looked love to eyes 
that spake ag^in, and all went merry as marriage bell." 

The German was led by Mr. Eugene Harris in a masterly man- 
ner, and the following ladies were prominent upon the floor, hand- 
somrly attired : 

Miss Mary P , of Warreuton, Va., wore a blue silk, with 

handsome lace trimming. Her ornaments were of etruscan gold 
and diamonds. Miss H- , Delaware, blue silk with lace trim- 
mings and muslin flounces ; gold ornaments. Miss S. H~ — - — , of 
Delaware, wore a navy blue brocade silk, handsomely trimmed 

with white lace and flowers. Miss W ■ , of Erie, Pa., white 

tarlatan, beautifully trimmed with wreaths of " morning glories;" 
very handsome pearl ornaments. Miss Eliza S - , of Char- 
lottesville, Va., white tarlatan, trimmed with flowers; costly pearl 

ornaments. Miss H , ofOharlottesville, Va., white tarlatan 

with lace trimming ; pearl ornaments. Miss Verdie W ■ ■ ■■ ■ — , of 
Petersburg, Va , wore a very handsome brown silk of two shades, 
with white lace trimmings. Her ornaments were of diamonds and 

gold. Mrs. McG -, of Nashville, Tenn., handsome black silk 

with velvet trimmings ; gold ornaments. Miss N — *, of Ports- 
mouth, Va., black silk with velvet and white lace trimmings; gold 

ornaments. Miss Emma W , of Portsmouth, Va., blue silk, 

with white lace overdress ; ornaments of coral and gold. Miss E. 

M — — , of Portsmouth, Va., white tarlatan, with white satin 

body and trimmings; ornaments of gold. Mrs. James Y. 
L , of Norfolk, a handsome blue silk, with black lace trim- 
mings ; diamond and gold ornaments. Miss Maria L— -, white 

silk, with gauze overdress, blue satin stripes ; gold and diamonds. 
Mrs. Samuel G , white silk, trimmed with lace and car- 
dinal red ; diamond and gold ornaments. Mrs. W. D , pearl 

silk, with pink and white lace trimmings ; diamond ornaments. 

Miss Annie R — , light silk, crepe lace trimmings; pearl 

ornaments. Miss Sa.ilie N , pink ' silk, and white muslin 

overdress, with satin stripes — very handsome ; gold and diamonds. 



182 

Mrs. C. H , white silk dress, with illusion trimmings; 

pearl ornaments. Miss Hattie P , white tarlatan and feather 

flowers; silver ornaments. Miss Nellie H -, pink silk, with 

fringe trimmings. Miss Bettie W , blue and white berege 

with white flowers ; pearl ornaments. Miss Ellen JB , blue 

tarlatan dress, very prettily trimmed with daises ; gold and pearl 

ornaments. Mrs. W. G. E , black silk with illusion and 

cardinal red trimmings; gold ornaments. Miss Bettie T , 

blue tarlatan, lace trimmings ; gold ornaments. Miss Nellie B 

, blue silk with lace overskirt ; gold ornaments. Mrs. A. 

C. F , pearl silk, white lace trimmings; ornaments of dia- 
monds. Miss Mary McC , a gas-light green silk with 

wreaths and flowers ; pearl ornaments. Miss Jennie B f 

blue silk with white tarlatan overdress, trimmed with flowers; gold 

ornaments. Miss Sallie W , blue silk with cream colored 

overdress ; gold. Miss Belle T , white tarlatan with laven- 
der sash ; gold and diamonds. Mrs. Dr. B , light silk with 

cardinal red trimmings, gold. Miss Florence S , black 

silk with black lace trimmings and pink scarf; gold and coral. 
Mrs. G , black tarlatan, trimmed with buff of same mate- 
rial; gold ornaments. Miss Lulie W— , black silk with vel- 
vet trimmings and handsome Roman sash. 

THE ROYAL SET. 

"At 10 o'clock the Grand Duke and his staff entered the room 
and were formally introduced by Captain B. P. Loyall to many 
ladies and gentlemen. After a few minutes of pleasant conversa- 
tion, Les Landers claimed the attention of the dancers, and part- 
ners took their places. (Our Russian friends do not dance the 
German.) The following couples formed the "Royal Set:" 

Mrs. James Y. Leigh and the Grand Duke Alexis. 

Prince Obolinski (Lieutenant and Aide to the Grand Duke) and 
Miss Hattie Parks. 

Lieutenant Shaw (U. S. Navy) and Miss Emma Williamson, of 
Portsmouth. 

Lieutenant Russell (U. S. N.) and Miss Bettie Walke. 

After this set was danced His Imperial Highness promenaded 
the room, and was presented to a large majority of the members of 
the club. He entered into the fun and spirit of the occasion with a 
pleasing familiarity, and became a general favorite. 

Admiral Boukatoff and Baron Shilling did not participate in 
the dance, but made themselves very agreeable to the lady visitors 
present. The other officers of the flagship shared in the festivi- 
ties and greatly enjoyed themselves. 

Refreshments, prepared at Mr. Thomas W. Henderson's saloon, 
were served at 12 o'clock, and the company adjourned in the "wee 



183 

sma' hours" of morning, well pleased with the pleasures of the 
evening." 

The Grand Duke Constantine being somewhat indisposed, did 
not attend this German, He was sadly missed by several young 
ladies, who had already learned to like the "darling little fellow." 
January 22d, Max Strakosch, Esq., the well known Opera 
manager of New York, brought the beautiful actress Miss Adelaide 
Neilson to this city, and the citizens here were treated to a short 
season of Shaksperean pleasures. Of course the Grand Dukes 
were invited to the Opera Plouse, and were too kind and apprecia- 
tive not to accept the invitation. The first night (22d) Miss 
Neilson appeared as " Juliet," and this is what the Virginian said 
of the play: 

The largest and most fashionable audience of the season greeted Miss Adelaide 
Neilson last night upon her first appearance in Norfolk. Every seat in the house 
was occupied, and extra chairs were placed in all available places — even then 
standing room was in demand, and the walkway in rear of the dress circle was 
literally packed. 

The auditorium was very handsomely decorated with the flags of all nations — 
the front of the gallery being festooned with small foreign flags, and the private 
boxes tastefully draped with large American and Russian flags. This unusual 
display was in splendid contrast with the brilliant audience of ladies and gentle- 
men who thronged the dress circle and parquette, and the Russian noblemen, 
who, by special invitation, were seated in the private boxes. In the box to the 
right of the stage sat the Grand Dukes Alexis and Constantine, accompanied by 
Baron Shilling and others. In the opposite boxes were seated Admiral Bouta- 
koff, Sub- Lieutenants Schroeff, Sivers and Boutakoff, Prince Stcherbatov and 
other officers of the Imperial Russian Navy on board the ship Swetlana. These 
distinguished guests of Manager Strakosch were the cynosure of all eyes, when 
the curtain was down. The play was Shakspeare's sublime love tragedy of "Romeo 
and Juliet," that beautiful representation of undying love which dies but to live 
again, and which is so attractive to fair maidens' eyes, and touching to men's cold 
hearts. In the character of the pure and constant Juliet, Miss Neilson, fully 
sustained the reputation she had so justly won as the ideal of the immortal poet's 
beautiful conception. Her bewitching beauty, artless movements and splendid 
voice, combined with her perfect knowledge of the part she essayed, gained for 
her the admiration and plaudits of all who could appreciate true genius. 

Our Royal visitors were continually the recipients of courtesies 
and honors from the people of Norfolk, but the most conspicuous 
event that transpired while they were in our midst was the 

GRAND NAVAL BALL AT THE NAVY-YARD 

Thursday, February 8th, 1877, given in honor of the Grand Dukes 
and the officers of the Russian frigates Swetlana, and Bogatyr — the 
latter having just then arrived here. According to the Virginian's 
account of the ball (written by this author and republished here 
with many corrections and additions), it was not only the most fash- 
ionable gathering that Norfolk had for a long time boasted of, but 
it was most admirably and systematically conducted, and the pleas- 
ant, courteous and social intermingling of friends and newly-made 
acquaintances, of distinguished officers of the American and Russian 
nations, of Northern and Southern ladies, of the gallant men who 



184 

"ware the blue and the gray " in past bitter struggles upon bloody 
fields of battle, brought vividly to one's mind the great blessing of 
friendship and union, as expressed in the old adage — 

" Peace hath her victories no less renowned than W3r." 

In the brilliant scenes of that night it was pleasing to see the 
noble and chivalrous sons of old Virginia, with their wives, sisters 
and sweethearts clasping hands in friendship and social communion 
with those whom political strife, sectional antagonism and unfortu- 
nate circumstances had once brought together as enemies ; aye 'twas 
refreshing to witness such an happy reunion — and in the presence 
of distinguished guests from a foreign country, who, no doubt, if 
they once thought of our past domestic troubles, were fully impressed 
then with the truth that the people of this land were truly at peace 
with each other, and that the enmities of the past had in good faith 
been buried in oblivion to make room for the brotherly love which 
now pervades the heart of every jjatriotic American citizen. 

The arrangements and regulations for the ball were perfect and 
admirable in every respect, and reflected great credit upon the fol- 
lowing named officers of the Navy, who composed the Executive 
Committee: Captain W. VV. Queen, Captain W. T. Truxton, 
Chief Engineer Jackson McElwell, Lieutenant Commander F. E. 
Chadwick, Ensign J. C. Fremont, Jr., Paymaster Rufus Parks, 
Surgeon C. H. Burbank, Lieutenant R. T. Russell, Civil Engineer 
P. C. Asserson, Lieutenant C. P. Shaw, and Paymaster W. N. 
Watmough. Under the direction of this committee the dancing 
hall was most handsomely adorned with the flags of all nations — 
both sides and the ceiling being entirely covered with bunting of 
various national colors. The ends of the hall were decorated 
respectively with flags bearing the Russian and American coat of 
arms, while around the music and reception stages (opposite each 
other in the middle of the hall) pyramids were formed of muskets, 
the burnished steel of which glittered brightly in the gas-light, 
and looked beautiful. The walls in the rear of the aforesaid stages 
were hung with swords and cutlasses, and each corner of the room 
was occupied by a beautiful Gatling gun, mounted. 

A private banquet hall was very handsomely furnished and dec- 
orated with flowers and national colors, and set apart especially for 
the use of the Grand Dukes, the Rear Admiral of the Russian fleet 
(Boutakoft) and the senior officers of our Navy present. The gen- 
eral banquet hall contained eight long tables, which presented a 
beautiful appearance when ornamented with various delicacies, 
exquisitely gotten up and arranged. Comfortable, spacious and 
convenient dressing rooms were provided, and polite and attentive 
servants were employed to wait upon the guests. Two bands were 
in attendance, viz : the post band from Fortress Monroe and one 



185 

from the flagship Hartford — the music was simply enchanting. 
The invited guests were all in full dress, and the officers present 
from the two Navies and our Army were in full uniform, except 
swords. A majority of the guesis from Norfolk went over to the 
Yard on the steamer N. P. Banks (kindly loaned by the Old 
Dominion Steamship Company) at 9 o'clock, from Chamberlaine's 
wharf, although many went after that hour on the naval launches, 
which made regular trips during the night. 

The set cards for the dancers were most exquisitely gotten up, 
and were of double boards, gilt edged and handsomely printed. 
On the outside they contained beautiful engravings of the Russian 
and American ensigns, and were held by colored silk cords and 
tassels. The following was the dancing programme : 

GRAND OVERTURE AND MARCH. 



1. Quadrille. 


7 March. 


2. Waltz. 


8. Galop. 


3. Polka. 


9. Lanciers. 


4. Lanciers. 


10. Waltz. 


5. Waltz. 


11. Galop. 


6. Quadrille. 






INTERMISSION. 


12. Waltz. 


16. Galop. 


13. Quadrille. 


17. Polka. 


14. Waltz. 


18. Waltz. 


15. Waltz. 


19. Virginia 



At 10 o'clock the Grand Dukes Alexis and Constantine, Rear 
Admiral Boutakoff and other officers of the Russian Navy arrived, 
and were received by the Executive Committee, which also acted 
as a reception committee. After a short time spent in pleasant 
converse, the Grand March was played, partners for the first set 
promenaded the beautifully decorated and illuminated hall, and the 
scene was lovely beyond description. The march being over the 
dancing commenced, and the programme was carried out to the 
letter. The ladies' costumes were of the most costly and beautiful 
styles, of rich and rare fabrics. " Princesse dresses " prevailed with 
their trained underskirts made with deep yokes, and a Spanish 
flounce attached to a plain gored strip, so as to form a fan-shape 
at the back, like the dress. These skirts, trimmed with Smyrna 
insertion and lace, strictly follow the outline of the dress skirt. 
This smoothness of outline, only broken by a double plaiting, a 
row of buttons, a cascade of lace, and ruffled train at the back, dis- 
tinguishes all the later styles of evening and ball dresses, and 
separates them unmistakably from those which have done duty 
during previous seasons. Some of the toilets had very long trains, 
with bodices and sleeves anything but uniform. Some were made 
very high with soft plaitings and inside lace runs, in the Eliza- 



186 

bethian style. Others very low, and destitute of sleeves, a simple 
band over the shoulder leaving the arm entirely bare. Fashion, 
we know, runs to extremes, accepts no compromise, no half meas- 
ures, but insists upon its votaries doing and daring all. 

Among the dresses worn upon this grand occasion, we noticed a 
dainty one of pale lavender faille combined with cream, and 
and trimmed with pale jasamine flowers, and trails of autumn 
leaves. The bodice was very high, and improved a shape slender 
to fragility, by having puffs of the cream color arranged alternately 
and strapped with lavender. 

A handsome and appropriate dnss worn by a middle-aged 
lady, was of black and pale pink faille with postillion basque and 
trimming consisting of bands of black, corded with pink to repre- 
sent an overskirt. Below these bands and upon sleeves and neck 
were scant ruffles of beautiful black thread lace. 

Another pretty dress was of pink silk, with ivory damassr, ar- 
ranged in diagonal folds, three in a group, and fringed with daisies. 
A pale green dress was attractively arranged with white and trim- 
med with a profusion of roses. One elegant dress was of pale blue 
and lemon color, with white lace trimmings and long white lace 
sleeves. There were ivory silks trimmed with red, and many all- 
white toilets worn by young ladies ; many also of pale blue, cream, 
or pink, with lace overdresses; in fact, these last have become regula- 
tion costumes, and appear with as much regularity and certainty as 
the male dress coat. 

We here insert the names of many ladies who were present, just 
as they were published in the papers next day after the ball. All 
those who have no residence specified were from this city : 

Mrs. Arthur C. Freeman wore a pale green silk, en train, with 
white lace flounces and trimmings, and cream tinted roses. Orna- 
ments, diamond necklace and cross, ear-rings, and spray in her 
hair. Miss Jennie Blow, handsome black crepe, elaborately 
trimmed with pink flowers. Her hair was beautifully arranged, 
her ornaments were diamonds. Mrs. James Y. Leigh, black 
satin, point lace overskirt ; pearl ornaments. Mrs. Dr. Baylor, 
lavender silk, point lace trimmings; diamonds and opals. Mrs. 
Judge R. W. Hughes, black silk dress; point lace trimmings. 
Mrs. General V. D. Groner, light silk. Ornaments, cameo and 
pearls. Mrs. Robert P. Barry, Lavender silk, white lace over- 
dress ; pearls and diamonds. Miss Mary Minor, University of 
Virginia, Avhite muslin, cardinal trimmings ; gold ornaments. 
Miss Bettie Taylor, black velvet and white lace, powdered hair; 
silver ornaments. Miss Lilla Howard, white tarlatan, blue trim- 
mings; carbuncle ornaments. Mrs. W. C. Marrow, pale blue silk; 
diamonds, tea roses. Miss Aline Petty, blue silk and white lace 
overdress. Mrs. Campbell, of Old Point, white silk ; gold and 



187 

cameo. Miss Lucy Pegram, white silk ; pearls. Mrs. Calif, of 
Old Point, violet silk, lace trimmings. Miss Lula Blow, white 
Crepe with pink silk overdress, pink corsage and ornaments of 
pearl. Miss Isabel Holmes, of Winchester, Va., white embroi- 
dered tarlatan, white silk bodice, point lace trimmings ; pearls. 
Miss Lizzie Southall, of Albemarle county, blue and white silk ; 
pearls and diamonds. Miss Ve'rdie White, of Petersburg, white 
silk, flower trimmings ; diamonds. Miss Florence Sharp, pink 
silk, point lace trimmings. Mrs. Howard, of Old Point, blue 
silk; pearl ornaments. Miss Annie Reid, white silk, lace trim- 
mings; pearls. Miss Annie Branch, of Richmond, blue silk 
point lace trimmings ; diamonds. Mrs. A. A. McCullough, black 
velvet and lace ; diamonds Misses Ross, Washington, D. C, 
pink and blue tarlatan. Mrs. Commodore Stevens, rich black 
velvet ; diamond ornaments. Mrs. Captain Queen, mauve silk 
and real lace ; ornaments, diamonds. Mrs. Dr. Kennedy, hand- 
some blue silk and costly jewels to match. Mrs. Charles G. El- 
liott, mauve silk, and pearl ornaments. Miss Carrie Hatton, of 
Portsmouth, very handsomely dressed in white ; rich ornaments. 
Mrs. Dr. Walton, charming pink silk and lace ; coral jewelry. Mrs. 
W. T. Kilby, of Portsmouth, black silk velvet, lace overskirt; 
ornaments, pearls and diamonds. Miss Eva Wilson, blue silk 
dress, elaborately trimmed with white lace and illusion. Miss 
Hertie Bain, very handsomely dressed in white, trimmed with rich 
flowers ; ornaments, pearls and diamonds. Miss Mary Higgins, 
blue tarlatan and diamonds. Miss Belle Holmes, whitetarlatan and 
silk. Miss Ellen Camp, white silk and pearls. Mrs. W. W. Old, 
blue silk ; handsome ornaments. Mrs. Captain S. P. Franklin, 
very rich and stylish dress; elegant ornaments. Mrs. Commander 
O. H. Stanton, very elegant party toilet ; diamond ornaments. 
Miss Mary Goode, dress of peach blossom silk, trimmed with car- 
dinal velvet en train ; pearls and diamonds. Miss Mary McCul- 
lough, blue silk and diamonds. Miss Hattie Parks, blue silk ; 
pearls. Mrs. Alice Stevens, elegant in white and velvet ; pearl 
ornaments. Miss Wigg, black silk, orange blossoms ; pearl orna- 
ments. Mrs. James G. Bain, of Portsmouth, handsome black 
dress, elaborately trimmed with lace ; diamond and pearl orna- 
ments. Mrs. J. G. San key, Chinese gauze, over white satin, elabo- 
rately trimmed with cardinal satin ; diamond ornaments. Mrs. 
O. W. Farenholt, handsome black silk, trimmed with with a beau- 
tiful shade of pink and point-lace ; ornaments of diamonds. Miss 
Fannie Bain, Portsmouth, white French tarlatan, blue silk over- 
dress and diamond ornaments. Miss Jennie Camp, lilac silk, crepe 
overskirt ; handsome silver ornaments. Miss O. Jackson, pink 
silk waist, pink silk tarlatan skirt and pearl ornaments. Miss Nellie 
Hunt, pink silk ; gold and cameo ornaments. Miss Mary Dickson, 



188 

handsome blue silk, lace collar and pearl ornaments. Miss Maria 
Lamb, handsome white dress, blue striped silk overskirt ; pearls. 
Miss Minnie G. Hayes, of Gramarcy^ Park. New York, waist crepe 
dechene, de colte sleeves, white silk, with lace rushings, corsage 
bouquet of pink roses ; skirt en train, light blue crepe de chene over 
petticoat. Mrs. S. Forrest, Portsmouth, rich black silk, overdress 
black lace, collar and ruffles of white lace ; pearl and diamond orna- 
ments. Miss Eliiza Blow, a beautiful white illusion dress, with 
pink silk overskirt, tastefully trimmed; pearl ornaments. Miss 
Bohrer, of Washington, white talatan, satin bodice ; diamonds. 
Misses Downing, of Portsmouth, in whiteand pink tarlatan; looked 
exquisite. Miss Dudie Webb, white tarlatan, very handsomely 
trimmed. Miss Eulie Boush, white tarlatan, satin bodice; pearl 
and gold. Mrs. Ollendorf, Washington, D. C, very handsome 
white satin with point lace overdress ; very costly pearls — hand- 
somest in the room. MissSallie Newton, blue silk, with pearl silk 
overdress; diamond ornaments. Miss Emily Williamson, Ports- 
mouth, white silk, with white lace trimmings, satin bodice. Miss 
Lucy Spotswood, white illusion, white flowers in hair; gold orna- 
ments. Miss Jennie Parks, canary-colored tarlatan, handsomely 
ornamented with flowers. Mrs. George W. Johnston, black grena- 
dine silk, with pink silk trimmings ; ornaments of gold and 
diamonds. Mrs. W. G. Elliott, white tarlatan, with white satin 
bodice and overdress; very handsome. Mrs. H. L. Turner, hand- 
some black silk, trimmed with white lace, velvet bodice ; diamond 
ornaments. Miss Effie Boush, of Alexandria, black silk, white lace 
overdress ; ornaments, coral. Miss Lottie Hodges, lilac silk, white 
tarlatan overdress; pearls. Mrs. W. C. Dickson, turquoise blue 
silk, white lace trimmings; diamonds. Miss Ellen Boutelle, 
Boutelle, of South Carolina, white silk, with canary satin overdress ; 
diamonds. Miss Belle Tunstall, blue tarlatan, white lace over- 
dress ; pearl ornaments. Miss Lucy Blacknall, very handsome 
canton crepe dress ; diamonds and pearls. Mrs. C. Hardy, white 
silk, figured white satin overdress with heavy fringe, hair powdered ; 
pearl ornaments. Miss Polly Peters, of Portsmouth, maroon silk, 
black crepe and velvet trimming ; gold ornaments. Miss Florence 
Forrest, of Portsmouth, cardinal red satin, white tulle overdress ; 
diamonds and garnet. Mrs. Dr. A. M. Owen, white silk. Miss 
Sallie Jordan, of Portsmouth, white silk, tulle overdress ; coral 
ornaments. Miss Mary Bain, of Portsmouth, white silk, tulle over- 
dress ; amethyst ornaments. Miss Mamie Hodges, of Portsmouth, 
white silk, adorned with flowers; gold ornaments. Miss Mary 
Bilisoly, blue silk and tarlatan; pearls and garnet. Mrs. Captain 
Russell, lovely pink silk and diamonds. 

Miss Jennie Murdaugh, of Portsmouth, white tarlatan, blue silk 
overdress ; gold ornaments. Miss Lou Wheeler, of Erie, Pa., white 



189 

silk; pearls. Miss Annie Wheeler, of Erie, Pa., light silk, lace 
trimmings ; diamond ornaments. Mrs. Judge Watts, of Ports- 
mouth, white satin, point lace trimmings ; pearls and diamonds. 
Mrs. Chauncey Thomas, of Boston, Mass., very handsome and 
elegant white silk; pearls and diamonds. Mrs. C K. Curtis, white 
silk, lace trimmings; diamond ornaments. 

Mrs. A. B. Willitts, of Portsmouth, white silk with, tarlatan over- 
dress. Mrs. Fabins, of Boston, light blue silk, lace trimmings; dia- 
monds. MissChamberlaine, of Baltimore, blue silk; diamonds. Miss 
L. Wood, of Washington, white silk, plain. Miss Lizzie Quacken- 
bush, pink silk; diamonds. Miss Courtney Newton, elegant white 
silk, flower trimmings ; diamonds. Mrs. L. J. Guilick, white 
illusion, entrain, lace trimmings ; pearl ornaments. Miss Mamie 
Garnett, of Richmond, corn-colored silk ; pearl ornaments. Miss 
Jennie Pleasants, of Richmond, white tarlatan, flower trimmings ; 
gold ornaments. Miss Annie Gait, pink satin and tarlatan, flower 
trimmings ; pearls. Miss Nellie Bradford, yellow silk, lace over- 
skirt; pearls. Miss Blanche Baker, white silk and tarlatan ; gold 
ornaments. Miss Lizzie Moore, white silk and lace ; pearls. 
Misses Keeling, ashes of "roses, and pink and blue silk ; pearl orna- 
ments. Miss Lizzie Pleasants, of Richmond, yellow tarlatan, red 
flowers ; pearls. Mrs. Col. John S. Saunders, Baltimore, handsome 
blue silk, lace trimmings; diamonds. Miss Eva Hart, Portsmouth, 
black crape en train. Mrs. John Goode, light silk, en train ; 
diamonds. Mrs. Virginius Newton, Richmond, white silk, flower 
trimmings; diamonds. Mrs. W. N. Watmough, white silk, lace 
over dress ; gold ornaments. Miss Jennie Taylor, black grenadine, 
very handsomely trimmed ; diamonds. Misses Sallie, Bettie and 
Lulie Walke, handsomely dressed in white tarlatan, silk bodices, 
flower trimmings ; pearl and diamond ornaments. Miss Richards, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., handsomely attired in white tarlatan, with flower 
trimmings; diamonds and pearls. Mrs. L. T. Gwathmey, white 
silk, en train, lace trimmings ; diamonds. Miss Mamie Shields, 
white tarlatan over white silk; gold trimmings. 

The Grand Dukes Alexis and Constantine participated in nearly 
every set that was danced up to the hour of 2 o'clock A. M., at 
which time they departed for their ship. 

Among the gay and lively old men present, we noticed particu- 
larly Admiral Trenchard and Commodore Stevens, of our navy, 
who were general beaux among the girls, and enjoyed themselves 
hugely. The following officers from the different Government ships 
on the station were also present, viz : 

From the U. 8. Flagship Hartford. — Rear Admiral S. D. Trench- 
ard, commanding North Atlantic squadron ; . Captain S. B. Luce, 
commanding Hartford ; Flag Lieutenant C. P. Shaw ; Lieutenant 
Commander P. F. Harrington ; Lieutenants C. H. Black, B. F. 



190 

Tilly, W. T. Swinburne; Fleet Paymaster, Edward May ; Fleet 
Surgeon, R. C. Deane; Assistant Surgeon, Ernest Norfleet ; 
Masters, C H. Lyman and Chauncey Thomas ; Midshipmen, C. 
H. A.msden, J. C. Gillmore, J. A. Shearman, C. A. Corbin, T. B, 
Vinton and E. D. Bosticks. 

The Powhatan. — Captain, J. H. Russell; Lieutenant Com- 
mander, F. E. Chad wick ; Master, W. F. Bulkley; Master, H. 
Osterhaus ; Ensign, J. C. Fremont; Ensign, C. H. Miles; Chief 
Engineer, J. McElwell ; Surgeon, C. H. Bnrbank ; Assistant Sur- 
geon, R. A. Urquhart ; Passed Assistant Engineer, T. Cooke. 

The Worcester — Captain W. W. Queen, Lieutenant Commander 
Horace Elmer, Master Charles Clarke, Assistant Surgeon T. C. 
Walton, Assistant Paymaster W. N. Watmough, Passed Assistant 
Entrinver W. Gragg, Assistant Surgeon Alfred E. Owen, Lieutenant 
B. R. Russell, U. S. M. C. 

The Ranger — Commander DeHaven Manley, Lieutenant J. M. 
Grimes, Master H. F. Fickbohm, Master J. Allen Barbour, Passed 
Assistant Engineer W. A: Windsor, Assistant Paymaster Z. T. 
Brown, Pay Clerk W. J. Larkin, Cadet Engineer Robert J. Reid, 
Cadet Engineer H. H. Stevens. 

The Alliance — Commander T. F. Kane, Lieutenant Bradford, 
Executive Officer ; Lieutenants Edward H. Green, Charles Sey- 
mour, Ensign F. L. Cottman, Midshipmen F. J. Milligan and 
Robert C. Ray, Chief Engineer L. C. P. Ayres, Assistant Pay- 
master C. H. Bartlett, Lieutenant L. J. Guilick, U. S. M. C. 

The Monitors — Lieutenant William Goodwin, Lieutenant T. C. 
Terrill, Assistant Surgeon C. W. Deane, Assistant Paymaster 
Plunkett. 

The military arm of the service at Fortress Monroe was repre- 
sented by Brevet Major General William F. Barry, Mrs. Barry, 
Miss Barry, Miss Katie Barry ; Brevet Brigadier General Joseph 
Roberts, Colonel 4th Artillery, and lady ; Brevet Brigadier Gen- 
eral John C. Tidball, Major 2d Artillery, and lady ; Brevet Colonel 
R. Lodor, Captain 4th Artillery, and lady ; Brevet Colonel S. S. 
Elder, Captain 1st Artillery, and lady; Brevet Major Wallace 
Randolph, Captain 5th Artillery, and lady ; Brevet Major J. H. 
Calif, Captain 2d Artillery, and lady ; Lieutenants Verplank, 
O'Hara, Rodgers, Eastman, Baldwin, Jefferson, Bridgeman, Otis, 
Hunnicutt, Pashine, Wesser, Edgerton, Captain Mannix, United 
States Marines,and ladies ; Lieutenant Roberts, Dr. H. O. Perley, 
United States Army ; Lieutenant Cobb and lady, Lieutenant A. 
B. Dyer. 

The ball lasted until nearly daybreak, and everybody enjoyed it. 
The supper was prepared with great taste, and comprised all kinds 
of meats, game, fish, salads, fruits, sweets, wines and ices. Beauti- 
ful flowers were sent in profusion from the Horticultural Departs 



191 

ment at Washington by a thoughtful United States official, and 
added much to the splendor of the decorations. The long prome- 
nade halls were illuminated by locomotive head-lights, kindly 
loaned by the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad' authorities, 
and everything else was on hand to make the occasion a grand and 
brilliant one. That ball will never be forgotten by those who had 
the honor and pleasure of being present, and the courtesy and gal- 
lantry displayed by the officers who gave it is here recorded to their 
praise and lasting credit. 

THE GEAND DUKE'S MATINEE ON BOARD HIS SHIP. 

On the 13th day of February, (1877) the Grand Duke Alexis 
and his companions gave a Grand Matinee Dansante on board the 
Flagship Swetlana, of the Imperial Russian Navy, which was 
attended by a large number of invited friends, including the beauty 
and fashion of the "twin cities," the stationed officers of the United 
States Navy, and their ladies. His Imperial Highness had every 
arrangement perfected for the conveyance of his guests to the ship, 
and the company assembled promptly on board, at (or near) 1 
o'clock, P. M. — the genial host of the auspicious occasion, receiving 
his guests ou the "quarterdeck" with an old Virginia shake of the 
hand — (this author, " native here and to the manner born," can 
testify to the shake.) A glowing account of this elegant reception 
was written for the Norfolk Landmark, by Mr. C. E. Perkins, its 
excellent Local Editor, and we condense from the same the fol- 
lowing particulars, which will no doubt be read with interest: 

"The magnificent band, numbering forty pieces, under the leader- 
ship of Prof. Bayer, was discoursing the most exhilarating music, 
to w r hich the feet of scores of beautiful ladies and gallant gentlemen 
kept time as they whirled in the intoxicating mazes of the dance. 
The scene on board presented many novel as well as elegant 
features. The quarter-deck had been cleared of guns and all surplus 
material and was covered with canvass of snowy whiteness. A large 
space had been enclosed for danc-ng, the interior of which was 
adorned with the flags of all nations, the American colors predomi- 
nating. The music was partially concealed with evergreens, and 
the tropies of arms were elaborately and artistically arranged, 
representing, in a complete manner, the modern system of naval 
warfare — mitrailleuse, conical percussion shells, blocks, hawsers, 
&c, &c, all making a striking tout ensemble. The ceiling of the 
improvised ball-room was formed of many colored flags, radiating 
in all directions from a central point, crowned with a beautiful 
group of evergreens. Graceful festoons of evergreens were also 
suspended on all sides, and the mizzenmast was completely hidden 
in living green. A soft light pervaded the whole, making a scene 
which, for picturesque beauty, is seldom equaled. The grand 
reception room was covered with rich Brussels carpeting and magni- 



192 

ficently furnished with sofa?, divans, tables and numerous other 
elegant appointments. One could scarcely imagine, while survey- 
ing the gorgeous scene presented in this apartment, that he was not 
in the elegant drawing-room of a millionaire instead of onboard a 
vessel designed for naval warfare. This, like the ball-room, was 
handsomely decorated with flags and artistically trimmed with ever- 
greens. 

" The Grand Duke Alexis, as Captain of the Frigate, received 
the invited guests at the companion-way as they arrived, and the 
other officers vied with each other in extending to all every courtesy 
and attention. Scores of sailors, in neat uniforms, were stationed 
throughout all portions of the ship set apart for the accommodation 
of the visitors, and every want was attended to with alacrity. The 
veteran Admiral Boutakoff, the young Grand Duke Constantine 
and Baron Shilling also ably assisted the Grand Duke Alexis in 
dispensing a royal hospitality. 

" The officers of the United States Army present at this recep- 
tion were General W. F. Barry, Major Calif, and Lieutenant How- 
ard — all from Fortress Monroe. The officers of the Navy were 
Admiral Stephen D. Trenchard, Commodore Thomas H. Stevens, 
Captain S. P. Quackenbush, Captain William T. Truxton, Captain 
Samuel R. Franklin, Captain Stephen B. Luce, Captain John H. 
Russell, Captain Walter W. Queen, Fleet Surgeon Richard C. 
Dean, Surgeon Theo. Wolverton, Surgeon Alfred M. Owen, 
Surgeon Ashbridge, Lieutenant Commander Chadwick, Flag 
Lieutenant Charles P. Shaw, Lieutenant William T. Swinburne, 
Lieutenant Edward S. Jacob, Paymaster Z. T. Brown, Paymaster 
Joseph T. Addicks, Paymaster Thomas T. Caswell, Master Chaun- 
cey Thomas, Ensign John C. Freemoat, Jr., Ensign Charles R. 
Miles, Midshipman Mathew G. Reynolds, Chief Engineer ; Edward 
D. Iiobie, Civil Engineer Peter C. Asserson. 

" Among the citizens and temporary residents of Norfolk who 
were present we particularly noticed the following: Hon. John 
S. Tucker, Mayor of Norfolk; Judge George Blow, of our Circuit 
Court; Colonel William Lamb, Captain B. P. Loyal 1, and George 
R. Wilson, R. P. Barry, Richard Goode, W. Thompson Barron, 
Esqs. Also the following charming ladies: Mrs. Dr. William 
M. King, Mrs. Captain Bishop, Mrs. Dr. Richard C. Dean, Mrs. 
Lieutenant Swinburne, Mrs. Lieutenant Thomas, Mrs. General 
William F. Barry, the Misses Barry, Mrs. Lieutenant Howard, 
Mrs. Major Calif, Mrs. S. L. P. Avres, Mrs. B. P. Lovall, Mrs. 
Guillick, Mrs. R. P. Barry, Mrs. Captain W. T. Truxton, Mrs. Col. 
William Lamb, Mrs. Chamberlaine, Mrs. Commodore Stevens, 
Mrs. John Goode, Mrs. J. C. Baylor, Misses Verdie White of 
Petersburg, Bettie Walke, Lulie Walke, Sallie Walke, Mary Goode, 
Lulie Blow, Hattie Parks, Jennie Parks, Florence Sharp, Aunie 



1'9S 

-Reid, Nellie Hunt, Maria Lamb, Mattie Keeling, Pattie Keeling, 
Mary Higgins, Dora Schwartzkopf, Lizzie Quackenbush, Ella 
Brooke, Sallie Newton, Emily Williamson, Mary Milson, Eveline 
"ftyison, Belle Tunstall, Belle Loney, of Richmond, Miss Cham- 
feerlaine, Mrs. W. C. Dickson, Mrs. Paymaster Brown, Mrs. 
Stevens. 

When the dining hour arrived, the guests were ushered to the 
■elegantly prepared tables which were spread upon the gun-deck. 
The carte was highly artistic in its appearance. It consisted of a 
vignette representing a boat's mast, from which floated a Russian 
pennon. At the top of the card there was a glimpse of St. Peters- 
burg — appropriate devices surrounding the sides, with crossed oars 
at the bottom. Upon the sail was printed "H. I. H. Prince 
Alexis" — surmounted by a crown, beneath which appeared the 
following; 

DEJEUNER DTJ 2-13 FEVRIEK, 



Consomme de Volailles. 

Bouches aux Huitres, f Diables, 

Petits Pates Pusses, 1 Pouillos aux Fromage. 

f Sondaea la Provencales, 

| Janibon de Norfolk, 

j Eos Bif a I'Anglaise, 

j-, ■-, ) Selle de Mouton de Virginia, 
A voids. , D . nde Tru ^ eSj 

I Chaud Froid de Pluviers, 

j Pales de foi eras, de Strasbourg, 

l_ Terrin de Sarcelles de Norfolk, 

{Cotelettes Porjarski, 
Cotelettes de Mouton, 
Gelinottes rotis. 

Gelee aux Champagne. 
Pudding Diplomates. 

Glace, Chocalat — Varrille. 
Glace, Groseilles — Oranges, 

Compote Fruits de France. 

The collation was unique and elegantly arranged by the maitre 
d'hotel of the Grand Duke, in the accepted Russian style. It may 
not be generally understood that the modern fashionable style of 
serving dishes and courses is of Russian origin. The menu being 
generally printed in French has given rise to the idea that the 
elegant mode of dining par excellence is French, but such is not the 
case. Our Russian visitors have demonstrated that they are the 
possessors of the secret of seasoning and collating in the most dis- 
tinque and acceptable manner. 



194 

After the collation, which occupied nearly two hours, dancing 
was resumed and kept up until nearly six o'clock, when adieus 
were spoken and the guests took their departure, highly delighted 
with the magnificent reception and entertainment they had enjoyed. 



OUR SHIPPING. 

THE COASTWISE AND INLAND COASTING — STEAMBOAT TRADE OF 
NORFOLK — LIST OF STEAMERS ENGAGED, &C. 

Before giving other particulars concerning our harbor, we desire 
to publish a list of all the Steamboats and Steamships which are 
regularly engaged in the transportation business between .Norfolk 
and various other places at this time — February, 1877. The lines 
and boats mentioned do an immense business during the spring and 
fall seasons, but some of them have to suspend navigation in a great 
measure during the winter, on account of the ice in the rivers 
through which they run. The first company on our list is the well 
known Clyde Line, Wm. P. Clyde, of Philadelphia, President and 
principal owner, with Captain James W. McCarrick, as general 
agent of the Company in this city. The following is a list of the 
Clyde Steamers : 

The Vindicator, a wooden propeller, 1,200 tons burthen, Rogers 
master, plys between Norfolk, Philadelphia and Providence. The 
Everman, iron propeller, 696 tons burthen, Platte master, from 
Norfolk to Philadelphia. The Norfolk, wooden propeller, Ford 
master, Norfolk, Philadelphia and Fall River, Mass. The Fanita, 
iron propeller, Howe master, 600 tons burthen, Norfolk and Phil- 
adelphia. The Alliance, iron propeller, Carr master, Norfolk and 
Philadelphia. The Defiance, wooden propeller, 400 tons, Tunnell 
master, Norfolk, Philadelphia and Fall River. The Virginia, iron 
propeller, 750 tons burthen, Hunter master, Norfolk and Philadel- 
phia. The Stout, wooden propeller, 400 tons burthen, Pierce 
master, Norfolk, Newberne and Baltimore. The Experiment, 
wooden propeller; Pierce master, 300 tons burthen, Norfolk, New- 
berne and Baltimore. The Tuckahoe, wooden propeller, 200 tons 
burthen, Brown master, Norfolk, Newberne and Baltimore. The 
John S. Ide, iron propeller, 200 tons burthen, James master, Nor- 
folk, Edentou, Plymouth and Roanoke river. The Lamokin, iron [ 
propeller, 150 tons burthen, Jester master, Norfolk, Edenton, Mur 
freesboro, Franklin, Blackwater and Chowan rivers. 



195 



CONNECTING STEAMERS, 



The L. G. Cannon, wonden propeller, 2j0 tons, Minter master, 
Norfolk, Edenton, Plymouth and Roanoke river. The Isaac D„ 
Coleman, 150 tons, Williams master, -Norfolk, Edenton, Plymouth 
and Roanoke river. 

THE OLD DOMINION STEAMSHIP COMPANY. 

The officers of this Company are to-wit: President, N. L. 
McCready, Esq., of New York ; Vice-President, Isaac Bell, Esq., 
of New York. The Norfolk agent of the Company here is Colonel 
Thomas H. Webb, a well known citizen. Thesteamers of this line 
are as follows : 

v The Old Dominion, iron sidewheel steamship, for freight and 
passengers, 2,222 tons burthen, George M. Walker master, Win. 
W. Calwell, purser. She has 50 staterooms and can accommodate 
200 passengers. The Wyanoke, iron sidewheel steamship for freight 
and passengers, 2,068 tons burthen, Couch master, W. H. Meyer 
purser. She has 50 staterooms and accommodates 200 passengers. 
The Isaac Bell, wooden sidewheel steamship, freghtand passengers, 
1,612 tons burthen, Lawrence master, Thos. L. McCormick purser. 
She has 35 staterooms and accommodates 150 passengers. The 
Richmond, iron propeller, for freight and passengers, 1,436 tons 
burthen, Kelley master, T. A. Guillendeu purser. She has 30 
staterooms and can accommodate 135 passengers. The Hatteras, 
wooden sidewheel steamship, for freght, 868 tons, Mallett master. 
The Albemarle, wooden sidewheel steamship, for freight and pas- 
sengers, 871 tonsj Gibbs master, J. B. Lewellyn purser. All of the 
above steamers of this line ply between New York, Norfolk, City 
Point and Richmond. The N. P. Banks, wooden sidewheel steam- 
boat, for freight and passengers, 338 tons, McCarrick master, runs 
daily between Norfolk and Old Point, and tri-weekly between 
Norfolk and Cherrystone, Mathews, Yorktown and Gloucester 
Point. The Hampton, wooden sidewheel steamer, for freght and 
passengers, 624 tons, Schermerhorn master, runs daily between 
Norfolk, Old Point and Hampton, and four times a week to Smith- 
field, Ya. The Mystic, wooden sidewheel steamer, for freight and 
passengers, 196 tons, Wicks master ; runs between Norfolk and 
landings on Nansemond river. The Newberne, iron propeller, for 
freight and passengers, 400 tons, Southgate master ; runs between 
Norfolk and' Newberne and Washington, N. C, via Albemarle and 
Chesapeake Canal. The Pamlico, wooden propeller, for freight 
and passengers, 252 tons burthen, Pritchard master ; runs between 
Norfolk. Newberne and Washington, N. C. The next in order 
are the Norfolk and Baltimore steamers, familiarly known as the 
" Old Bay Line," but properly designated as. 



196 

THE BALTIMORE STEAM PACKET COMPANY. 

The President of this Company is Captain John M. Robinson, 
a native of Virginia, but now a resident of Baltimore. Major- 
William C. Smith, formerly of Richmond, Va., but now of Balti- 
more, is the general Superintendent. The Norfolk agent of the 
Company is Captain William A. Eldredge, a courteous and 
popular young citizen. The steamers of the line are as follows : 

The Florida, sidewheel passenger steamer, seventy-five state- 
rooms, capacity for 500 passengers ; Norfolk to Baltimore, D. J. 
Hill master. The George Leary, sidewheel passenger steamer,, 
sixty-three staterooms, capacity for 350 passengers ; Norfolk to 
Baltimore. The Adelaide, sidewheel steamer, W. C. Whittle 
master, fifty-five staterooms, capacity for 300 passengers ; Norfolk 
to Baltimore. The Petersburg, wooden propeller, Dawes master, 
runs from Norfolk to Baltimore, via York river, for freight and. 
passengers. Steamers Seaboard and Roanoke, iron propellers, 
Craille and Geoghegan masters, run between Norfolk and Balti- 
more, with freight for Philadelphia — connecting with the P., B. & 
W. Railroad at Canton, Md. Steamer Transit, wooden propeller, 
Dawes master, same as above (Canton Inside Line). The Shirley, 
iron propeller, Travers master, freight, between Baltimore, Peters- 
burg and Richmond, via Norfolk. The Westover, iron propeller, 
Skinner master, freight steamer; runs same as the Shirley. 



merchants' and miners' transportation company. 

This old and wealthy company has seven steamships, which ply 
between Norfolk, Providence and Boston, touching at Baltimore 
for freight and passengers on each trip. The officers are as follows : 
President, George D. Appold, Esq., of Baltimore ; Vice President, 
H. Austin Whitney, Esq., of Boston. The agent of the line in 
this city is General V. D. Groner, one of our most active and 
energetic business men. The boats of the line are : the William 
Crane, an iron propeller, 1416 tons burthen, commanded by Cap- 
tain Solomon Howes. The George Appold, a wooden propeller, 
1,456 tons burthen, commanded by Captain W. Loveland. The 
McClellan, a wooden sidewheel steamer, 954 tons burthen, com- 
manded by Captain J. C. Taylor. The William Kennedy, a 
wooden propeller, 974 tons burthen, commanded by Captain H. D. 
Foster. The Blackstone, a wooden propeller, 1,147 tons burthen, 
commanded by Captain J. S. March. The William Lawrence, an 
iron propeller, 1,049 tons burthen, commanded by Captain F. M. 
Howes. The Johns Hopkins, an iron propeller, and the largest 
ship of the line, 1,470 tons burthen, commanded by Captain Wil- 
liam A. Hallett. 



197 

THE WASHINGTON LINE. 

This line of boats belong to the Inland Seaboard Coasting Com- 
pany of Washington, D. C. — General V. D. Groner, Agent in 
Norfolk. The boats of the company are as follows : The Lady of 
the Lake, a sidewheel passenger steamer, with fifty-two staterooms, 
which accommodate 240 passengers. She is commanded by Captain 
Joseph White. The Jane Moseley, a sidewheel passenger boat, 
with forty-one staterooms, which accommodate 150 passengers. 
She is the extra boat of the line, and when running from here to 
Washington is also commanded by Captain White. 

BALTIMORE & ROANOKE STEAMBOAT COMPANY. 

These steamers ply between Baltimore, Norfolk and the landings 
on the Roanoke river — Captain Henry Roberts, agent in this city. 
The steamers are the Louisa, wooden propeller, 279 tons burthen, 
A. M. Walker, master ; the Commerce, wooden propeller, 200 
tons burthen, W. Walker, master. 

DISMAL SWAMP S. T. COMPANY. 

This is a tri-weekly line from Norfolk to Elizabeth City and all 
landings on the Dismal Swamp Canal. William B. Rogers, Esq., 
is President of the line, and Captain Henry Roberts agent. The 
following are the boats : The Helen Smith, wooden propeller, 
Conklin, master; the Elizabeth City, wooden propeller, 
and the Thomas Jefferson, wooden propeller. One of these 
steamers leaves the company's wharf, foot of Commerce street, every 
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 7 o'clock a. m., and arrives 
every Monday, Wednesday and Friday in the afternoon. 

MISCELLANEOUS STEAMERS. 

Under this head we class the lines or companies that have only 
one steamer on their routes, and also the steamers engaged in the 
towing business. The first on the list is the James River Steam- 
boat Company's steamer John Sylvester, Captain J. A. Post, with 
our esteemed fellow-citizen, A. I. Hume, Esq., as the Norfolk agent 
and purser. The Sylvester is a copper-bottomed, sidewheel freight 
and excursion steamer, running between Norfolk and Richmond, 
touching at the various landings on James river, delivering and 
receiving freight, mail and passengers. She leaves Norfolk Mon- 
days, Wednesdays and Fridays at 6:30 A. m., and returns Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays at 5 p. m. 

The Cygnet, a wooden sidewheel steamer, for passengers and 
freight, Cain, master, runs between Norfolk and Currituck. She 
leaves here Mondays and Thursdays A. m., and arrives Tuesdays 
and Fridays p. m. 

Steamer Keystone, wooden 'propeller, 250 tons, Mills, master, 
runs between Norfolk, Baltimore and Philadelphia and other 
points, for Messrs. Baird & Roper, owners and shippers. 



198 

The Mary E. Roberts, wooden propeller, 150 tons burthen, W. 
W. Walker master, Captain Henry Roberts agent, runs between 
Norfolk, Hertford and points on the Scuppernong river. Leaves 
Norfolk every Thursday, and arrives here every Wednesday. 

The Lucy, iron propeller, for freight purposes, 116 tons burthen, 
Taylor master. Runs between Norfolk and the landings on the 
Roanoke river as far as Bridges' Ferry, N. C; she is owned by 
Biggs, Taylor & Hardy. 

The Rotary, wooden ^propeller, for freight and passengers, 186 
tons burthen, Johnson master. She runs between Norfolk and 
Fairfield, N. C, touching at Hertford and points on the Scupper- 
nong river. 

Captain Ed. Pickup owns four steam towboats — the Ben Minder, 
the Chowan, the Croatan and Virginia, which are used for towing 
barges, vessels, &c, through the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal. 

Messrs. Baird & Roper, lumber dealers, manufacturers, &c, have 
several large steamtugs which are constantly used in towing vessels, 
barges, &c, from their mills at Deep Creek to Boston, Baltimore, 
Philadelphia, &c, laden with all kinds of dressed timber. 

Messrs. B. & J. Baker & Co., wreckers, have several steamtugs 
which are daily engaged in towing and assisting vessels in distress. 

There are also many other steamtugs belonging to our harbor 
which are not mentioned in this list, but which are very important 
auxiliaries to our shipping interests and inland trade. Nearly all 
of these boats land freight and passengers for Portsmouth as well as 
Norfolk. 



COTTON- 

THE ASTONISHING GROWTH OF OUR TRADE — FACTS AND FIGURES 
FROM TRADE STATISTICS, &C. 

A sketch of the commercial history of Norfolk, with its strange 
vicissitudes, would require more space than we can devote to it; but 
it is proper, as a preliminary to a notice of our Cotton Trade, to 
make a brief reference, at least, to the former condition of the city. 

As far back as 1728 Norfolk was possessed of a valuable com- 
merce, and had a brilliant destiny before her. At the date of the 
Revolution she was rich and opulent ; but that barbarous incen- 
diary, Lord Dunmore, whose act of vandalism is elsewhere described 
in this volume, left the greater part of the Borough in ashes. Then, 



199 

the expulsion of the Scotch merchants by the intemperate zeal of the 
" patriots," struck another blow at her prosperity, and this was suc- 
ceeded by the troubles with France. The Non-importation Act 
and the Embargo were measures of policy peculiarly destructive to 
the interests of Norfolk ; but the supreme cause of her first decay 
was found in the Navigation Laws of the TJnited States, which 
threw the coastwise and carrying trade into the hands of the Mari- 
time States to the North of us. But this topic is too extended to be 
discussed here. Finally, the Yellow Fever in 1855 and the four 
years War between the North and South, beginning in 1861, in- 
flicted losses upon the city which appeared to be almost irreparable ; 
but it will be seen by the following facts that the native energy of 
our people has again put Norfolk in an attitude to command the 
respect of the commercial public. 

At the end of the late war our trade was at zero, and the cotton 
trade of the port did not then exist; but the tables we subjoin show 
with what astonishing rapidity this has been developed. Before 
examining these facts it is necessary to explain to the uninformed 
reader the nature of our lines of connection with the fields of pro- 
duction : 

I. We have the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad, which, 
consolidated by the genius and labors of General Mahone, gives us 
a base of supply in the Southwest. 

II. The Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad, which, under the sa- 
gacious management of Captain John M. Robinson, penetrates by 
its connections the Cotton States of the South Atlantic and Gulf, 
from which large quantities of the staple reach our market. 

III. The Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal, managed by Mar- 
shall Parks, Esq., one of the most experienced canal engineers in 
the country, puts us in connection with all the tidewater regions of 
North Carolina. 

IV. And finally, the Dismal Swamp Canal, under the manage- 
ment of Colonel William B. Rogers, its indefatigable President, 
which, with that just mentioned, penetrates Eastern Carolina. 

Thus it will be' seen that two extensive systems of railways that, 
by their connections, reach nearly every portion of the Cotton- 
growing country, and having " their termini on the wharves of Nor- 
folk and Portsmouth, furnish ample facilities for the collection at 
this market of a large share of the annual cotton crop. The Atlan- 
tic, Mississippi and Ohio Road is a part of the great trunk line 
from here to Memphis — passing through some three hundred miles 
of the Cotton-belt in Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi, and 
terminating as before stated, at the inland depot of half the Cotton 
product; this road and its feeders, therefore, reach all of the West- 
ern and Southwestern cotton fields. 

"The Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad is a portion of the At- 



200 

lantic Coast lines of railway that penetrate every portion of the 
Atlantic and Gulf Cotton States, and reach, as previously stated ? 
fully 15-36ths of the annual cotton crop. The two ship canals 
join the waters of this port with those of the Sounds of North Car- 
olina, that branch into a productive cotton region. These lines of 
internal improvements furnish communication by the shortest and 
cheapest routes of inland transit between the gin-houses of the 
planters and the warehouses and wharves of the factors and ship- 
pers — and at a port where full provision is made for storing, com- 
pressing, shipping or selling cotton. [The 1874 report to the U. 
S. Senate on transportation routes (page 242) says : " The rates of 
transit for cotton to Norfolk from the interior must continue to be 
cheaper than to other ports, because the distances are shorter and 
the lines of transportation diverging, as they do, rannot combine to 
raise rates; at the same time, the facilities for traffic are ample."] 

The requirements for the reception and distribution of Cotton 
at this port are fully provided. Railway cars run out upon our 
wharves, alongside of which the largest of merchant vessels may 
lay and receive the bales into their holds — thereby obviating the 
unnecessary handling, hauling;, &c, incident to many other ports 
(particularly North of us); and thus great expense, waste and dam- 
age is saved to the owner. We also have powerful hydraulic 
presses at the wharves to compress the bales so that ships can carry 
more than their registered tonnage. Large warehouses are pro- 
vided for the storage of cotton at small cost, to await the orders of 
owners. 

That the enormous foreign cotton exportation of the country can 
be best conducted through the port of Norfolk, hardly admits of 
a doubt, in the light of the following statements (and figures). It 
is of the first importance to a foreign consumer, like England, that 
manufactures nine-tenths of the world's cotton goods and imports 
all of its raw cotton, to obtain the raw material as cheaply as pos- 
sible. To do that, it must employ the largest vessels ; load them 
to their utmost capacity, and have them make the speediest of voy- 
ages, after having obtained their cargoes from the port where the pro- 
ducer can place them for the least money. It is clear that these de- 
mands of the foreign cotton trade can be more fully met here than 
elsewhere: 

" What market can offer greater advantages to the cotton plant- 
ers of Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and 
Tennessee, than Norfolk, occupying, as she does, a central position 
on the Atlantic coast, and the starting point for the ships on the 
high road across the ocean, as the voyage from America to Europe, 
even if clearing from Northern or more Southern ports, is deflected 
by the ocean currents, so as to pass closely by the gates of our har- 
bor, which is open the whole year, accessible in all prevail- 



201 



Sng winds, is sheltered, safe and tranquil, and sufficiently 
deep and ample to float the navies of the world, and for ihese causes 
is the natural entrepot and clearing point of the commercial marine 
between Europe and this country? Ships can enter this harbor 
drawing 30 feet water. (New York 27 feet, Baltimore 22 feet, Sa- 
vannah 17 feet, New Orleans 15 feet, Charleston 15 feet, Mobile 21 
feet, in the bay, where all cotton is loaded, having to be lightered 
from Mobile out to the ships). Twenty -one (21) feet at low water 
can be carried to the anchorage, and wharf at Norfolk, (Superin- 
tendent United States Coast Survey) free from bars and other ob- 
structions, and accessible, at all seasons of the year. From the 
work, " Physical Survey of Virginia," by the gifted and world-re- 
nowned Mathew F. Maury, we copy the following: "Norfolk, 
with Hampton Roads at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay as its 
harbor, and San Francisco, inside the Golden Gate in California, 
occupy the most important maritime positions that lie within the 
domains of the United States. ****** 
Geographically considered, the harbor of Norfolk or Hampton 
Roads, occupies the most commanding position on the Atlantic 
coast. ***** ***** 

The Chesapeake Bay is a * King's chamber in the basin of Virginia.' 
* * Norfolk, be it remembered, with its deep waters, spa- 
cious harbor, and free outlet through the capes of Virginia to the 
sea, occupies, geographically, what the early discoverers thought 
would be, and what physical geography claims is, the most com- 
manding position along the whole Atlantic Seaboard of the United 
States." 

" And especially are the advantages and success of our port of 
paramount importance and interest to the larger success and pros- 
perity of North Carolina ; and if she were to consult her own self- 
interest by giving the benefit of her entire shipments to this market, 
which would not only return to her (as now) a larger net value for 
her cotton, but, by the increased patronage of her planters in their 
consignments would enable this port to enlarge and increase her 
facilities for direct shipments to Liverpool and the Continent, and 
thus build up a great mart here for her cotton and other produce, 
and thereby have the effect of bringing English manufacturers, as 
it were, to the very doors of her planters ; for Norfolk is nearer the 
doors of her planters than any other port accessible to large ocean 
steamers, and one hundred miles nearer to Liverpool than New York 
is." 

Operating by the valuable roads and canals mentioned, we find 
that Norfolk has steadily increased in her cotton trade (from zero 
in 1865) until its growth (we speak of our foreign bound cotton) 
may be expressed in the following table : 



202 



Exports of Cotton to Europe Direct from 1865 to 1876, inclusive: 

1865 None. 

1866 733 bales. 

1867 14,168 " 

1868 8,278 " 

1869 7,527 " 

1870 4,745 " 

1871 5,142 •« 

1872 '. 4,687 " 

1873 8,282 " 

1874 47,342 " 

1875 87,753 " 

1876... 106,421 " 

Total 295,078 " 

It appears from the above that in ten years our exports to Europe 
direct increased in an unprecedented manner — some notion of which 
can be formed from the fact that in 1865 we did not send a bale 
"across the waters;" while in 1876 the money value of cotton 
exported from Norfolk was $7,330,035 as is shown by the returns 
of the Customhouse. In order still further to show the pro- 
digious growth of this trade, we give the following additional 
tables of receipts for the fiscal year 1876. In doing this our illus- 
tration is made more forcible by a comparison with 1875, and our 
analysis of the figures will speak more eloquently upon this subject 
than the most adroit rhetoric. The tables to which we refer show 
the following : 

Receipts of Cotton from January 1st to December 2 1st, 1876. 
Route. Bales to Order. Bales Local. Total. 

A. M. & O. K. R 257,707 88,594 346,301 

,S. &R. K.R 283,771 130,569 414,340 

Canals and otherwise 33,772 37,064 70,836 

Total 575,250 256,227 831,477 

Receipts from January 1st to December 31st, 1875. 

Route. Bales to Order. Bales Local. Total. 

A., M. &0. R. R 141,806 36,370 178,176 

S. &R. R. R 152,492 71,811 224,303 

Canals and otherwise 18,710 21,148 39,b58 

Total 313,008 129,329 442,337 

In favor of 1876 : Bales to order, 262,242 ; bales local, 126,898; 
total, 389,140. 

What an effect the cotton trade has had on Norfolk may be gath- 
ered from the following : 

Yearly Statement of Value of Exports from 1865 to 1876, inclusive, with Total Value 
for the Eleven Years : 

1865 $11,538 00 

1866 411,450 72 

1867 2,494,161 00 

1868 ; 1,718,157 00 

1869 1,173,095 38 

1870 894,614 50 



203 

1871 723,298 00 

1872 958,312 60 

1873 1,256,730 00 

1874 3,701,008 00 

1875 .. 9,243,971 00 

1876 7,825,112 00 



Total value of exports in 11 years $27,411,438 20 

About four-fifths of the total value of our exports for the years 
given here was for cotton alone. 

The effect on theshipping interest has been one of steady improve- 
ment. The coastwise movement of cotton employs large and 
splendid fleets of steamers which run to Baltimore, Philadelphia, 
New York, Boston and Providence, while the foreign bound vessels 
represented enormous tonnage capacity for the years accounted for 
in the table of exports. 

The following local item, written for the Norfolk Virginian, by 
this author, December 3d, 1875, will give some idea of the kind of 
vessels engaged in our foreign trade : " On the 2d of December the 
ship H. S. Gregory, drawing 21 7-12ths feet, was cleared by Messrs, 
Reynolds Brothers from this port for Liverpool, England, with a 
cargo consisting of 7,176 bales of cotton, weighing 3,221,971 ft***-«J 
pounds ; 10,000 trenails and 3,000 staves. This was the largest 
cargo of cotton that ever left Norfolk, and is thought to be the 
largest ever shipped from any United States port. The tonnage of 
the ship was 2,207 tons, and it had not the slightest difficulty in 
clearing its moorings. On the same day Messrs. Ricks <fe Milhado 
cleared the brig R. B. Grove, for Havre, with 1,817 bales of cot- 
ton, weighing 830,898 pounds. The registered tonnage of this 
vessel was only 463 tons ; the cargo, therefore, was the largest — 
compared with tonnage — that ever left Norfolk. On a voyage from 
New Orleans, two years previous, this same brig carried 1,545 bales, 
weighing 707,316 pounds — 272 bales and 23,572 pounds less than, 
she carried from Norfolk." 

In addition to advantages mentioned, we have three powerful 
cotton presses constantly at work in cotton season, which increase 
the carrying capacity of vessels at least forty per cent, beyond their 
ordinary tonnage for cotton, and the facts all show that Norfolk^'n 
an inconceivably short time (commercially speaking), has risen to 
be one of the chief cotton ports of the Union. There is ample 
room on this topic for rhetorical display and pardonable hyperbole ■ 
but we have preferred to present the facts as they exist, in their 
naked simplicity rather than to indulge in what might be regarded 
as extravagance of assertion. The facts we have given are per- 
fectly authentic, and we leave them to speak for themselves. It 
may be pardonable in us, however, to admonish our business men 
and merchants, our property owners and mechanics, that this un- 
paralleled growth of our trade renders it necessary for them to look 



204 

as far as they can to the integrity of their lines of communication 
and aid the State, as far as possible, in keeping alien, or unfriendly 
hands, from interrupting this traffic, which, although in its infancy ? 
reached the magnificent total of $7,330,035.00. 

MORE INTERESTING TRADE FACTS. 

A recent publication, speaking of Norfolk, says : " The grand 
current of the Elizabeth (opposite Fort Norfolk) is so broad and 
deep that the largest ship that floats can swing around there. * * 
The trains of the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad discharge 
their freights of cotton and grain directly upon wharves at the 
steamers' sides, and the unusual facilities are yearly increased and 
improved. * * The importance of Norfolk as a port for the 
future is certainly indisputable ; and it is not at all improbable 
that in a few years it will have direct communication with Euro- 
pean ports by means of ocean steamers owned and controlled in this 
country. * * The Elizabeth river is not so lively now as when 
at the beginning of this century the river could not be seen, so thick 
was the shipping between the Norfolk and Portsmouth shores. In 
the financial crash which came at that time sixty Norfolk firms 
interested in maritime commerce failed. * * The eastern and 
southern branches of the Elizabeth are superior in depth to the 
Thames at London, or the Mersey at Liverpool. The depth of 
water in the harbor of Norfolk is twenty-eight feet, or nearly twice 
that regularly maintained at New Orleans, and the harbor is spa- 
cious enough to admit the commercial marine of the whole country. 
It has been estimated that thirty miles of excellent water-front for 
wharfage can readily be afforded. * * Norfolk lies within 
thirty two miles of the Atlantic, by the regular water course. 
Northward stretch the Chesapeake and its tributaries, navigable 
nearly a thousand miles ; westward is the James, giving com- 
munication with Richmond, and five hundred miles of water 
way ; southward runs the canals to Currituck, Albemarle 
and Pamplico Sounds, communicating with two thousand miles 
of river channel. She affords naturally the best seaport for 
most of North Carolina and Tennessee, besides large sections of 
Northern Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and the Southwest. A 
thorough system of internal improvements in Virginia, giving lines 
leading from tidewater in that State to the Northwest, would 
enable Norfolk almost to usurp the commercial pre-eminence of 
New York. Pittsburg, Wheeling and Toledo are geographically 
nearer to the Capes of Virginia than to Sandy Hook ; and it is 
almost certain that in the future many of the highways to the sea 
from the West will run through Virginia, and the ports furnishing 
outlets to the Western cities will be along the beautiful and capa- 
cious Chesapeake Bay." 

Lines of railways, canals, steamships and vessels of all kinds 



205 

connect our port with all portions of the country. Its commercial 
advantages — the results of its position — can hardly be overestimated, 
and the growth of its cotton trade, already described, shows that it 
may aspire to the first rank not only in this, but in all the export 
and import trade of the country. 

Hampton Roads, on account of its nearness to the sea, its acces- 
sibility, the depth and expansion of its waters, the thoroughly 
land-locked character of its situation, the condition of the surround- 
ing land and its ample security in troublous times, may justly be 
called the "The Harbor" of the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United 
States. When the storm signals are up all the shipping at sea 
along the Middle coast of the Union flies to Hampton Roads for 
refuge, and it is no uncommon sight to see hundreds of vessels of 
every class riding here at ease without a strain upon their anchor 
chains, while in sight, without the Capes, a furious storm is raging. 
Again, ships freighted with the precious cargoes of the tropics, but 
cleared for other ports where the climate is damp and uncongenial 
to their sensitive lading, come here to await orders and a favorable 
season. 

Norfolk has unrivaled advantages for doing a large portion of 
the immense grocery trade of the country, so favorably is it situ- 
ated fin reference to the ocean highways that lead to and from the 
lands where sugar, molasses, spices, coffee, tropical fruits, &c, &c, 
are the staple products, and being so much nearer to the centre of 
population, and therefore of consumption in the United States, 
than any other seaport can lay claim to, being in the " offing " for 
this trade. 

THE ALBEMARLE AND CHESAPEAKE CANAL, 

with two cuts — first, the Virginia, eight miles long, connects the 
Southern Branch of Elizabeth river (the harbor of the United 
States Navy Yard, Gosport, a part of the harbor of Norfolk, deep 
enough for any vessel afloat) with the North Landing river that runs 
into Albemarle sound ; and second, the North Carolina cut, a ship 
canal, from Norfolk to Albemarle sound, and all the tidal waters of 
North Carolina. The last is a great work, in complete order : it 
has but one lock, 220 feet long and 40 feet wide, and seven feet 
deep, through which vessels of 400 to 600 tons burden pass ; it has 
a capacity for more than thirty millions tons a year. Steam is the 
motive power used. The freight brought to Norfolk by this canal 
embraces large quantities of cotton, salt fish, turpentine, lumber, 
shingles, staves, railroad ties, wood, juniper logs, bacon, peas and 
beans, wheat, fresh shad, watermelons, &c. The forest products of 
timber annually brought through the canal amounts to over sixty 
million feet of board measure. 






206 

THE DISMAL SWAMP CANAL 

connects the same waters by another route, penetrating more of the 
swamp region of the Norfolk peninsula, but having the same kind 
of through trade. The receipts by this canal for 1872 will not only 
give a good idea of the business of these ship canals, but also of 
the trade and products of the " low country " : 1,365 bales cotton, 
8,606 barrels fish, 204,470 bushels of corn, 61,298 cubic feet of tim- 
ber, 3,708,980 shingles, 179,975 staves, 166 bushels flaxseed, 13,128 
bushels potatoes, 257,200 railroad ties, 5,111 cords of wood, 4,994 
bushels of beans, 6,419 bushels of wheat, 7,108 cords of logs, 117,- 
134 fresh shad, 127,120 planks, 14,058 posts, 1 13 cords of reeds for 
paper, 264,650 rails for fences, 604 head of cattle, 22,133 chickens, 
53,523 dozen eggs. 

By these canals there is a through route from North Carolina to 
Norfolk, then up Chesapeake Bay to the Chesapeake and Delaware 
canal, eight feet deep and fourteen miles long, to Delaware Bay ; 
then by the Delaware and Raritan canal, seven feet deep and forty 
three miles long, to Raritan river, and by that to New York har- 
bor. Our State Board of Immigration says : " It is hardly pos- 
sible to overestimate the importance of such a system of canals, 
and the effect the cheap transportation they can offer must have upon 
the coastwise trade of nearly all the Atlantic States. An example 
of what may be done shows the probabilities of the near future. 
Barges on the James River and Kanawha Canal may be loaded 
with iron or coal in Appalachia, and without break of bulk be de- 
livered in Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Albany, and many 
towns on the Great Lakes," &c. 



OUR TRUCKING BUSINESS. 

A large number of our people are engaged in the " trucking bus- 
iness," which, with fair seasons, proves to be very profitable. The 
soil in this vicinity is rich and moist, and all kinds of vegetables, 
apples, pears, peaches, quinces, plums, cherries, nectarines, grapes, 
figs, strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, currants, and other 
fruits, thrive and produce abundantly, the quality of the products 
being unsurpassed, as the awards of the American Pomological 
Society attest. 

The market gardens of tidewater shipped from Norfolk alone, to 
other markets, in the spring of 1870, a million baskets of straw- 
berries, 50,000 barrels of Irish potatoes, 40,000 barrels of green 
peas, 10,000 barrels of snap beans, 650,000 heads of cabbage, 20,- 
000 barrels of cucumbers, 160,000 barrels of tomatoes, 5,000 bar- 
rels of squashes, 2,000 barrels of beets, 40,000 bunches of radishes, 



207 

100,000 cantefoupe melons, and 100,000 watermelons, valued at 
$1,043,000. This does not include $25,000 worth of apples, pears, 
peaches, &c, shipped during the same season. The shipments of 
1872 were valued at $1,500,000, and are steadily increasing every 
year. The products of the " truck patches," or market gardens, are 
mostly marketed from March to August. 

No country can be better situated for market gardening than this 
section of Virginia : — it is from 14 to 36 hours, by water, from 
Baltimore, Washington, Philadelphia, New York and Boston, the 
centres of population of the Atlantic slope of the United States ; 
at the ?ame time its seasons are from one to two months earlier, 
giving an advantage of fully a double price for its garden products 
over the country in the vicinity of those cities. 



MARINERS' DIRECTIONS. 

From an old but very reliable edition of the "American Coast 
Pilot" the following information concerning entry into Norfolk 
and Hampton Roads is taken ; and we will state that it has been 
endorsed as reliable by the Virginia Pilots' Association : 

" A ship from sea falling into the Northward ought not to go 
nearer than seven fathoms on the shore until she is well up with 
the middle of Smith's Island, when she may stand into five fathoms 
without danger. 

" If the Light on Cape Henry is to be seen, keep no further to 
the Northward than for the Light to bear W.S. W. by the compass, 
which course, after crossing the Middle in four or four and a half 
fathoms, will lead you to the Channel- Way in 7, 8, and 9 or 10 
fathoms, sticky bottom ; from thence a West course will lead you 
to the tail of the Horse-Shoe, in five fathoms hard sand, the Light 
bearing S.E. by E. If bound to Hampton Roads, in order to gain 
with certainty the Southern shore, on which it is right to take 
soundings, steer West or W. by S. until the Light bears E.S.E., 
then, being in five fathoms or a quarter less five, a W.N. W. course 
leads you up clear of Willoughby's Point — this being passed and 
the water deepened into 9 or 10 fathoms, it is necessary to haul up 
W.S. W., observing to come no nearer than 9 fathoms to the South 
shore, least the bar off Se well's Point hook you in. Should you 
(after passing Willoughby's Point) fall into 14 or 15 fathoms, Old 
Point Comfort bearing W.N.W., steer up S.W. by W., but go no 
nearer to Hampton Bar on the North side than 10 fathoms, it 
being steep, until you pass Sewell's Point, when Old Point Com- 
fort bearing N.E. you fall into 7, 8 and 9 fathoms good anchoring. 

" As the setting of the tide varies much at different stages thereof, 
attention should be paid as well to the bearing of the Light as the 



208 

soundings when running up from the Cape to Willoughby's 
least you cross the Channel and run on a lump of the Horse-Shoe 
called the Thimble, which has only eight feet water on it, and is 
also steep — say seven fathoms. This lump lies a little below Wil- 
loughby's Point, on the opposite side. [The " Thimble " is now 
(1877) designated by a lighthouse, with a revolving red light]. 
To avoid the Thimble is the reason why it is necessary to take the 
soundings, as the South side of the Channel is in general sticky 
bottom, and on the Shoe it is hard sand. From Hampton Roads 
to this place the Channel is too intricate for strangers to approach 
without a pilot. 

" The greatest depth of water that can be easily carried to Nor- 
folk is 21 feet ; but if a ship should touch the mud, it being so very 
soft she will not be subject to injury, and no sea runs where the 
shoal water lies. A ship approaching from the Southward is to 
keep in seven fathoms water and no nearer, her course varying 
between N. JE. and JW., which will bring her up with the Cape, 
when falling into 8 or 9 fathoms water, sticky ground, will show 
her to be in the Channel-way." 

The following table of distances from Norfolk to points on the 
Chesapeake Bay and Potomac River is nearly if not quite accurate : 

To miles. 

Craney Island 5 

Old Point Comfort 16 

Back River Light 39 

York Spit Light 41 

Wolf Trap 56 

Rappahannock 84 

Smith's Point Lightship 92 

Point Lookout Light 106 

St. Mary's River 121 

Piney Point 124 

Blackstone Island Light 134 

Great Wicomico Bay 143 

Monroe's Creek 150 

Rosier's Creek 152 

Lower Cedar Light 154 

Persimmon Point , 157 

Matthias Point 161 

Kedar Point Light ; ..164 

Maryland Point 173 

Acquia Creek 179 

Smith's Point 181 

Liverpool Point 183 

Sandy Point 185 

Qnantico Creek 187 

Glymonfc , '.. 198 

Mount Vernon 206 

Fort Washington 209 

Broad Creek 212 

Rozier's Bluff. 213 

Alexandria «•• -215 

Washington City 220 



209 

From Miles. 

Hampton Roads to New York, via ocean 293 

Hampton Roads to New York, via inland route 343 

Hampton Roads to Philadelphia, via ocean and Delaware Bay 300 

Hampton Roads to Philadelphia, via inland route 223 

Hampton Roads to Baltimore, via Chesapeake Bay 200 

Seventy miles of the length of Chesapeake bay, where its width 
is from 14 to 30 miles, lies wholly within the territory of Virginia ; 
it is not subject to violent storms, there are commodious harbors all 
along its shores, its waters are deep and generally free from obstruc- 
tions. A vessel bound up it, when once fairly within the " Vir- 
ginia Capes," and following the "sailing directions," runs on an air 
line of N. \° E. for over fifty miles. The exit and entrance can 
always be easily made, and without any delay, through a deep and 
clear channel, into this broad-armed bay, that drains more than 
50,000 square miles of country. 



OUR TEMPERATURE. 

its remarkable uniformity — interesting facts and fig- 
ures — statistics from 1856 to 1860, and 
from 1872 to 1876. 

The following article, published in the Virginian in February, 
187 7 , will be found interesting : 

" The atmosphere has its mountain ranges, peaks, tableaux, 
slopes, valleys and plains, as well as the solid earth. The force of 
gravity that causes water to run down hill also causes currents of 
air or winds from the mountain regions of high barometer to the 
valleys and plains of low barometer. The shifting conditions of 
the fickle air are simultaneously found at all stations of observation 
and transmitted by telegraph to the central station, where the serial 
elevations and depressions are marked out by their defining and 
dividing isobars or lines of equal pressure, and as a consequence 
the gradients or slopes are evident. The wind always blows from 
high to low pressure areas. Local causes and the earth's rotation 
modify the direction of the wind, as expressed by the generaliza- 
tions of Profs. Ferrel, of America, and Ballot, of Holland. 

The general direction of winds in the northern hemisphere is the 
reverse of that in the southern, for the same reason that a rifle ball 
fired in the direction of meridian lines tends toward the right, 
North, and towards the left, South of the equator. There is a re- 
markable uniformity in the winds, rains and temperature of any 
given place when one series of consecutive years is compared with 
another. 



210 

As an illustration we append results of observations carefully 
taken at the Collegiate Institute in Portsmouth, Va., for the Smith- 
sonian Institution during the years 1856, 1857, 1858, 1859 and 
1860, and the results of the Signal Bureau observations in Norfolk, 
Va., for the five years— 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875 and 1876. From 
the well known accuracy of the instruments, skill in placing them, 
and the fidelity and intelligence of the trained observers, the signal 
results may be depended on. 

It appears that during the five years of Professor N. B. Web- 
ster's observations in Portsmouth the total rainfall was 260.92 
inches, the annual average being 52.18 inches. The rainfall in 
Norfolk during the five years of Signal Service observations was 
261.36 inches, or an annual average of 52.27 inches, the difference 
being only nine-hundredths of an inch. In both cases the snow 
was estimated at its equivalent of water and included. The uni- 
formity of average temperature during the five years from 1856 to 
1860 inclusive, and from 1872 to 1876, at Portsmouth and Nor- 
folk is most interesting. 

In Portsmouth the average for five years was 58.61 degrees. In 
Norfolk for five years, beginning sixteen years later, it was 58.26 
•degrees. About one-half the difference of .35 of a degree is ac- 
counted for by a difference of one minute and a half nearly in the 
latitude of the points t»f observation. The coincidence indicates the 
great care with which the more than 10,000 'observations were made. 
The mean temperature at Old Point Comfort for thirty years 
from 1825 to 1854, as reported by the Post Surgeon, was 59.9 
degrees. Probably local causes influenced the mercury, for there 
could hardly be 1.64 difference between the mean temperature at 
Old Point and at Norfolk. The great care taken in fairly locating 
the most accurate instruments, and in observing and recording 
results, renders the Signal Officer's reports worthy of full con- 
fidence. 

The hottest month in the year is July. The hottest month 
recorded in Norfolk or Portsmouth was July, 1876, the mean tem- 
perature being 82.01 degrees, and the coldest month was January, 
1857, the mean temperature being 27.13 degrees. The coldest day 
was the 23d January, 1857, which started at 5 degrees below zero 
at 7 a. m., and averaged 6.33 degrees above zero all day. On that 
day the Elizabeth river, which for some days had been frozen over, 
was so solid that more than 3,000 people crossed and recrossed on 
the ice. For more than a week Norfolk was supplied with wood 
hauled over the river, her railroad not being completed. Professor 
Webster, with his surveying class, made several measurements with 
the chain on the ice between prominent points on opposite sides of 
the river. On the 8th of February, 1835, when the river was 
frozen over, the extreme cold was four degrees above zero. 



211 

The observations kept at Fort Monroe by order of the Medical 
Department of the Array for nineteen years, from 1836 to 1854,, 
give an annual average of rainfall of 45.18 inches. The extremes 
were 74.16 inches in 1840, and only 19.32 inches in 1854. As 
this latter result is less than half that obtained in Portsmouth, 
there must be some error in the report. So evident is this error 
that a note in Blodgett's Climatology of the United States says it 
is not to be relied on. According to the Surgeon's report the 
month of least rain in nineteen years was October, 1854, when* 
half an inch fell, and the greatest precipitation was over eighteen 
inches in July, 1840. By a diary kept in Portsmouth, Va., it 
appears that it rained every day more or less during forty days of 
the Spring of 1842. Over ten inches of rain fell in Portsmouth in 
June, 1856, and in Norfolk in August, 1875. 

In July, 1858, there were in Portsmouth, Va., seventeen rainy 
days, generally showery, and in one shower on the 22d over three 
inches of water fell in about two hours. The total rain of the month 
exceeded 17 inches. In Octob< r, 1874, only a twenty-fifth of an 
inch of rain fell in Norfolk. There were 23 rainy days in Norfolk 
in August, 1875. 

The meteorological conditions of a city are so important in a 
sanitary aspect that we publish the following summaries of records 
made in our cities by the sea. Persons who will compare these 
notes with the pnblished tables of other cities and towns will find 
that among those having an average temperature within one degree 
of that of Norfolk, are Nashville, Tenn., Huntsville, Ala., Sacra- 
mento, Cal., Marseilles, France, Madrid, Spain, Lisbon, Portugal, 
Florence, Italy, Constantinople, Turkey, and Trebizond, on the 
Black Sea. 

Rainfall and Temperature in Portsmouth, Va„ by Professor N. B. Webster, and in 
Norfolk, Va., by United States Signal Officers : 

Year. PORTSMOUTH. Temp. Rain. 

1856 59.38 55.08 

1857 57.35 54.41 

1858 59.26 44.45 

1859 58.42 53.59 

1860 58.67 53.39 

Summary .293.08 260.92 

Average 58.61. 52.18 

Tear. NORFOLK. Temp. Rain. 

1872 57.30 56.93 

1873 58.19 55.77 

1874 57.90 50.16 

1875 57.60 50.97 

1876 60.30 47.5S 

Summary .291.29 261.36 

Average 58.26 52.67 



212 

The healthfullness of Norfolk will compare favorably with that 
of any other city. The mortality for 1875, as taken from the 
published report of the Norfolk Board of Health, was only 20 
deaths to 1,000 population, in the aggregate. Of this mortality the 
proportion was, for the whites, only 16 to 1,000, and for the blacks, 
it was 25 to 1,000. For the last five years the mortality has been 
between 25 to 26 to 1,000. In New York the deaths average over 
29 to 1,000 annually ; in Berlin over 29 to 1,000 ; in Vienna over 
31 to 1,000 ; in Philadelphia for five years the average has been 23| 
to 1,000. The search has been in vain to find a city with a death 
rate for the white population as low as 16 to 1,000. 



OYSTERS. 

THE PACKING BUSINESS OF NORFOLK THE GROWTH OF THE 

TRADE — OYSTER PLANTING AND CATCHING THE 

ENEMIES OF THE POPULAR BIVALVE. 

In our general review of the business affairs of Norfolk we can- 
not treat of a subject which is more rapidly becoming important to 
our trade than the oyster business. It is a fact well known and, 
acknowledged that Norfolk oysters (so called on account of the 
shipments from this point) are the best and most popular of all 
that are caught in the world; and in all parts of the country where 
they are received they command higher prices than those of any 
other section, and of this growing branch of our trade we propose 
to give a brief account, which embraces important facts and figures, 
and which will be read with interest by persons unacquainted with 
the oyster's importance in the land, as well as by those who are en- 
gaged in this particular line of business here and elsewhere. 

The waters of Virginia furnish vast supplies to the oyster pack- 
ing houses of Norfolk, and many very large firms, employing im- 
mense capital, are now engaged in the packing business. In Balti- 
more, the opened oysters, packed in tin cans and shipped to various 
parts of the country, greatly exceed the amount shipped in the 
same way from our city ; but those shipped by our packers are 
better flavored, fatter and command higher prices. And then in 
addition to those shipped from here in cans, a large business is done 
in the barrel packing line. The oyster sellers in the cities of Bos- 
ton, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Providence, Pittsburgh, 
Harrisburg, Newark, Brooklyn and other cities having direct com- 
munication with this city, send us large orders for oysters in the 
shell, which are selected and shipped in barrels, to suit the trade 
of those cities. Opened oysters, packed in pork barrels, are also 
shipped to extensive dealers in the places above named. 



213 

Oyster cans are made to hold quarts and half-gallons — quart cans 
being mostly used, packed four dozen in a wooden case. The bulk 
of the Norfolk canning business is done with the cities of Boston, 
Providence, New York, New Orleans, Mobile, Memphis, Little 
Rock, Nashville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, St. Louis, Chicago and 
Cincinnati, but some shipments are also made to Liverpool, Lon- 
don, and other foreign places. A shipment of the bivalves in the 
shell was made to San Francisco, California, in December, 1876, by 
one of our large firms. It consisted of 1,800 barrels, the freight on 
the same- being $16,000. This lot brought the shippers the nice 
little sum of $25,000. Being contiguous to the finest and, most 
prolific oyster beds in the country, and having superior facilities for 
direct shipments, Norfolk possesses many advantages over other 
markets in this particular line of business, and the rapid growth of 
her shipments is abundant evidence that these facts are appreciated. 

It would be a difficult task for us to give just now the entire 
number of persons engaged in the packing business of Norfolk ; 
but there are nine large firms in operation here, who employ nearly 
if not quite 600 openers, or " shuckers," as they are familiarly 
called. Ten years ago there were only two, of any importance. At 
the close of the late war, the estimated quantity of oysters packed 
here for shipment, was just about one hundred thousand bushels ; 
a safe and reasonable estimate now fixes the quantity at between 
five hundred thousand and six hundred thousand bushels, and if 
the business continues to improve as it has during the past two 
years, this quantity will be more than doubled before 1885. The 
number of schooners, sloops and other vessels engaged in the oys- 
ter trade of Norfolk is estimated (carefully) at 545. Schooners 
carrying from 1,500 to 2,500 bushels, and sloops from 200 to 800 
bushels each. Thousands 'of men are engaged in the " catching 
business," and although their work is hard it is profitable. They 
only pay to the State fifty cents tax upon $100 worth of oysters 
caught, and give in their own figures, generally. 

A majority of the oystermen in our section catch with tongs, be- 
cause there are so many shallow streams near us containing rich 
beds, in which these instruments can be used. But those who are 
largely engaged in the catching business use dredges with which 
they make large hauls in deep water. The " best oysters in the 
world " are caught in the Lynnhaven river, a few miles from Nor- 
folk. They are common called " Lynnhaven Bay" oysters, but 
this is a misnomer ; there are no oysters in Lynnhaven bay — they 
are taken from the river of that name. The next best, in the esti- 
mation of people who are judges, are the Horn Harbor, York 
River, Sleepy Hole and Back Creek oysters, each kind having its 
special champions. The packers are mostly supplied with those from 
Chesapeake bay and Hampton Eoads ; the Elizabeth, York, Nan- 



214 

semond, Pocosin, Ohuckatuck, Weir, East, Lynuhaven, Pianki- 
tank and Rappahannock rivers, and Mason's, Tanner's and Back 
creeks. There is an immense natural growth of oysters extending; 
from Pool's island to Cape Henry, (at the mouth of th • Atlantic) 
which may he considered inexhaustible, but they are not of a very 
superior quality. 

Planting grounds range from one acre upward in size, and are bought 
and sold as any other real estate. A good ground consists of three 
requisites for the successful growth of the spawn planted, viz : 
shallow water, so that they may be easily taken, a free tide to afford 
sustenance, and a firm bottom to prevent smothering. If oysters 
are planted in still water they may live, but will never grow fat. 
Four hundred bushels are generally planted to an acre, by being- 
shoveled from boats. Any man has the privilege of "staking out" 
and planting upon ground not already occupied ; the Chesapeake 
Bay and its Virginia tributaries aiford splendid chances for energy 
and enterprise in this line. There are thousands of persons in 
Tidewater Virginia who could better their pecuniary condition by 
engaging in the oyster- plan ting and catching business. Some men 
have small beds of not more than half an acre, from which they 
make a comfortable living for themselves, wives and numerous little 
oyster eaters. Of course they catch other fish in the Spring and 
Summer seasons. 

In addition to the nine large packing firms mentioned, there are 
many other persons who carry on the business in a small way. 
They ship to the restaurants of Richmond, Petersburg, Lynchburg, 
Abingdon, Bristol, Wilmington, Raleigh and other places which 
can be quickly reached by rail. They also supply the bulk of the 
family ti'ade in Norfolk, and with such patronage do a considerable 
business. Our leading restaurants are 1 constantly buying "choice 
stock" from the river planters with which to supply their daily cus- 
tomers — some of whom are the fashionable caterers of New York, 
Baltimore, Philadelphia and Washington. [No city inthecountry 
can boast of better restaurants than are to be found in this city, and 
this is the verdict of strangers who travel all over the land]. If we 
should add the quantity of oysters sold by these small dealers to 
that already given, it would probably swell our regular trade to the 
enormous amount of at least eight hundred thousand bushels. 

Oysters have their enemies as well as men. There are certain 
monsters of the vasty deep of the fish kind that live upon them 
and destroy many beds of private planting. The drum fish is one 
of these destroying enemies, and an old sea captain who has weath- 
ered many a storm says : " the drum is the wickedest and most 
audacious of all. He is a big, coarse fish, sometimes weighing as 
much as fifty pounds. His teeth are very large, and mash up 
whole oysters without the least difficulty. Drum fish travel in 



215 

schools, and frequent all the oyster grounds along the Chesapeake 
Bay. Fortunately, however, they do not visit one locality regu- 
larly, but come and go like an epidemic, generally appearing in 
the autumn months. They get their name from the noise they 
make, which sounds like a heavy muffled drum." Old oystermeu 
say they can be heard sometimes beating a regular tattoo under the 
bottom of a vessel. After destroying an oyster bed they have been 
known to make an attempt to masticate the barnacles on the 
schooners. They are very destructive in their depredations, and 
have caused the loss of thousands of dollars. Another virulent 
antagonist of the unoffending oyster is the lively crab, who "goes 
for 'em" tooth and nail. He watches his opportunity, and when 
the object of his desire commences to feed, begins the onset by 
throwing sand in his mouth. While the oyster is vainly striving 
to escape the discomfiture caused by this novel mode of warfare, 
the crab seizes each half of the shell and pulls it apart as nimbly 
as would a dexterous "shucker." 

The star fish is another oyster enemy, but is seldom found in 
Virginia waters. They are of a reddish color, and look somewhat 
like a sea spicier. Their modus operandi is as follows : A school 
will settle down upon a bed, each fish getting on an oyster and sur- 
rounding it with his feelers. Then he will wait patiently until the 
oyster commences to feed, when he quietly reaches in with his 
fingers and pulls him out. He then mounts on top of another, and 
as patiently bides his time for a fresh pull. It is very rare that an 
oyster bed is found without one or two star fish in it, but a large 
school will frequently sail in, destroy a bed, and leave one near to 
it untouched. Their depredations are committed in the winter, but 
as stated before, they are rarely found in the Chesapeake or its 
tributaries. But of all the enemies an oyster has, man is the worst 
— Captain Henry Josephs to the contrary, notwithstanding 

The sum and substance of the above article was written by this 
author for the Norfolk Virginian in January, (1877) and was en- 
dorsed as being substantially correct by persons well posted in the 
oyster business. We should have stated in connection with that 
subject that many of our oystermen deal very largely in other shell 
fish — clams and crabs, principally, which are caught in large quan- 
tities all around Norfolk, and shipped in all directions. 

In January (1877) last we wrote for the Virginian the following 
account of our gas works, known as 

THE CITY GAS LIGHT COMPANY. 

This company was first incorporated by the Legislature January 
11th, 1840. The charter was granted to the following well known 
citizens : Tazewell Taylor, Fred. W. Southgate, A. T. M. Cooke, 



216 

Thomas Newton, Richard Dickson, Cincinnatus W. Newton, and 
Walter H. Taylor, Sr. — Messrs. C. W. Newton and Richard Dick- 
son being the only incorporators now alive. The gas works were 
originally built on Briggs' Point, at the intersection of Walke and 
Mariner streets, and the gas was manufactured from rosin, and was 
sold at $7 per thousand feet. 

The city was first lighted with gas in the fall of 1849, Walter 
H. Taylor, Sr„ Esq., being President of the company, and Finley 
F. Ferguson, Esq., Secretary, at that time. The company was then 
known as the Sylvic Gas Light Company of South Boston, but was 
incorporated the following year under its present title. The sales 
of gas the first month, under present name, amounted to 39,500 cu- 
bic feet. Amount used at the works and lost by leakage was 18-,- 
930 feet; this, with 12,000 feet on hand in gas metres, made 70,430 
feet manufactured during the month. 

During the spring of 1850 the gas company was prosecuted by 
sundry citizens in the neighborhood of the works, for creating a 
nuisance with smoke, soot, &c. This suit was in court for more 
than a year. The complainants failed to get a verdict, but upon 
threatening another suit the matter was settled by arbitration — the 
company purchasing the property of complainants at valuation. W. 
W. Sharp, Esq., was counsel for plaintiffs, and Messrs. John S. 
Millson and Mordecai Cook for defendants. 

From the use of rosin the gas works were burned down three 
times — twice in 1852. The managers then decided to use coal, 
and in March, 1853, the works being moved to the present loca- 
tion, the manufacture of coal gas was first begun, and the company 
re-organized with Captain A. T. M. Cooke as President. Gas $4 
per 1,000 feet. 

The first dividend (4 per cent.) was declared in 1854. The yellow 
fever then came and greatly prostrated the company's finances, but 
they struggled on and have continued to pay annual dividends 
ranging from 8 to 12 per cent, up to the present time. 

In 1852, when the new works were about being built, the stock- 
holders met and Dr. Cooke offered a resolution soliciting the City 
Councils to take $20,000 worth of stock in the company, as it was 
a public as well as private enterprise. The Councils declined to 
invest. Failing to get subscriptions to the stock, the additional 
amount required had to be subscribed by those who had already 
invested — much to the chagrin of some of them. When Gen. B. 
F. Butler (the beast) took charge of Norfolk, he refused to allow 
the company to bring coal to the city because the president and di- 
rectors refused to take the oath of allegiance. He then declared 
gas to be a military necessity, seized the works and put his friends 
from Lowell, Mass., in possession of them to make gas on govern- 
ment (!) account. In August, 1865, the works were turned over to 



217 

the company, which was reorganized under the following Board of 
Directors : C. W. Newton, Richard Dickson, John B. Whitehead, 
Samuel Hodges, Tazewell Taylor, John D. Gordan. The military 
price for gas ($6) was retained by the company until November 1st, 
1866, when it was reduced to $5 per thousand feet, 10 per cent. off. 

It then became necessary to build a new gas holder at an expense 
of $40,000, and the Councils were again asked to subscribe $20,- 
000 or $30,000 to the stock, and they again refused. 

December 1st, 1868, gas was reduced to $4.50 per thousand — 
fifty cents off for prompt payment. January, 1872, it was reduced 
to $4 — 10 percent, off; and in December, 1875, the price was placed 
at $3.20 net, which is the present price. 

The present officers of the company are: Charles S. Allmand, 
President ; J. H. Dawson, Secretary ; J. A. Thompson, Superin- 
tendent. 

Directors. — C. W. Newton, John D. Gordan, John B. White- 
head, Richard Dickson, William S. Camp, F. S. Taylor. 

The company now consists of sixty-four stockholders, all of 
Norfolk and Norfolk county, embracing lawyers, doctors, preachers, 
merchants, farmers, mechanics, widows and orphans* The annual 
dividends since 1865 have been 12 percent.; gas manufactured 
during the year of 1876, 23,154,700 cubic feet, as shown by the 
stationed metre at the gas works; number of public lamps, 347. 
The city pays to the company $30 per year for each lamp, which 
includes the gas, lighting and cleaning. The company has had 
many ups and downs since its organization and has suffered from 
many very heavy losses; but it is now on a firm foundation 
and its stock is very valuable — none on the market for sale. The 
coal used at the works comes from the mines of Western Vir- 
ginia, via Baltimore, and is the best gas coal that can be obtained. 
The gas made will com pare favorably with any made in this country. 
The light from a five-foot gas-burner is equal to that obtained from 
seventeen sperm candles — this being the average of daily tests at 
the office on Bank street during the past three months by an Eng- 
lish jet photometre. 

OUR POSTOFFICE 

is very systematically conducted under Postmaster H. B. Nicholls, 
and his popular assistant, Samuel E. Shipp, Esq. The following 
is the official report of the business transacted in the office during 
the year 1876 : 

Number of money orders issued 6,550 

Number of money orders paid 11,500 

Amount of domestic money orders issued 21,500 

Amount of domestic money orders paid 213,000 



218 

Amount of foreign orders paid and issued, which included England, 

Scotland, Ireland, Canada and Switzerland 113,200 

Number of registered letters mailed at this office 8,000 

Number of registered letters received for city delivery 7,600 

Number of registered letters received for other offices 3,121 

Number of registered package envelopes received and used 2,150 

Amount of deposit received on money order account from other post- 
offices 255,000 

Numbers of letters, postal cards, newspapers, packages, &c, delivered 

by carriers 1,859,000 

Number of letters, postal cards, newspapers, packages, collected by car- 
riers 1,021,000 

Number of postal cards used 500,000 

Number of three cent stamps sold 1,400,000 

Since the population of Norfolk was ascertained to be over 
twenty thousand (which was in 1873), we have had the " Letter 
Carriers' system," which is very convenient, when honest carriers 
are employed to deliver the letters. 



OUR WATER WORKS. 

The most judicious investment of money that the city of Norfolk 
ever made was the building of our City Water Works, which are 
located in the connty of Princess Anne, about five miles from the 
city [the nearest accessible point to fresh water]. The expense of 
erecting these works was enormous ; and as the money had to be 
raised by taxation, the enterprise was vigorously opposed by a large 
number of citizens — many of whom are now ashamed to acknow- 
ledge that they did oppose such a valuable institution. However, 
a large majority of the people voted "for the works," and the 
scheme to build them was successfully carried out. The machinery 
is of the Holly system, and works admirably. The water was 
regularly introduced into the city in 1873, and up to the 1st of 
January, 1874, the number of " taps" in use (connections with the 
main pipes for family use) was 185; January 1st, 1875, there were 
535 ; January 1st, 1876, 771 ; and on the 1st of January this year 
(1877) there were over one thousand families taking the city water — 
955 " taps " being in use. This shows how steadily the list of 
water- takers has increased. It is also a well known fact that since 
the Water Works have been in successful operation we have had 
but few (if any) disastrous fires in the city — (but strange to say, the 
rates of fire insurance have not been reduced). 

The number of persons engaged in the conduct of our Water 
Department is thirteen, to- wit : George K. Goodridge, W. W. 
Chamberlaine and William J. Baker, Water Commissioners; 
Charles H. Rowland, Superintendent ; John R. Todd, Registrar ; 
William Wright, Chief Engineer; William Luck, First Assistant 
Engineer; James Wright, Second Assistant Engineer; James F. 



219 

Parker, Hue man and Inspector; John Armand, Chief fireman, and 

two colored assistants ; also, one office boy. 

The number of gallons of water pumped into the city each 

month during 1876 is as follows: 

January 15,278,889 

February 14,143,494 

March 15,263,446 

April 14,449,602 

May 16,016,730 

June 17,388,862 

Julv 19,407,182 

August 18,053,874 

September 17,155,752 

October 16,560,646 

November . 15,946,756 

December 19,564,678 

Total for year 199,229,401 

Fire-plugs are stationed all through the city, and with 90 pounds 
of steam pressure at the works (nearly five miles distant) a stream 
of water, one inch in diameter, can be forced through 300 feet of 
hose over any building in the city. (Our steam fire engines are 
seldom used now.) 



OUR PAID FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

The present list of officers and men of the Norfolk City Fire 
Department, is as follows : 

Thomas Kevill, Chief Engineer; Robert W. Rhea, Assistant 
Engineer ; Thomas Rowland, W. A. Mehegan, A. Gordon Milhado, 
Fire Commissioners. 

Steam Engine No. 1. — Frank Wood, foreman ; John S. Web- 
ber, driver; P. A. Mannix, driver; John Anderson, engineer. 
Extra men : W. H Rustic, William Hitchings, D. Cameron, J. 
Bryant, R. L. Rolt, W. H. Kinch, James Lawrence, T. L. R. 
Baker and W. Barret. Total amount of monthly pay roll, $325. 

Steam Engine No. 2. — Wm. Britzel, foreman ; Geo. G. Grant, 
fireman ; D. Hickey, driver. Extra men : H. L. Whitehurst, J. 
F. Parker, Charles Davis, W. H. Wiles, C. Merton, A. Heckle, 
W. Triford, W. H. Allen, James Carlan. Total amount monthly 
pay roll, $240. 

Steam Engine No. 3. — E. Vance, foreman ; W. White, driver. 
Extra men : M. Costin, Benj. Watson, John Gillis, H. Rose, Ed. 
Church, George Laylor, W. H. Wood, J. Robbins, Ed. Braith- 
waite. Monthly pay roll, $180. 

The salary of the Chief Engineer is $60 per month, and that oi 
the Assistant Engineer, $30 per month. Foremen get $20, drivers 
), engineers J>75, and extra men, $10 each per month, making 



220 

a total monthly salary account of $835 — money faithfully earned. 
The property of the Department is as follows : Four splendid 
horses, three steam engines, three improved hose reels, one hook and 
ladder truck, 5,000 feet of serviceable hose, four sets harness, &c. 

FIRES IN NORFOLK IN 1876. 

The following is the list of fires in the city during last year, 
which required the use of the City Water Works : 

January 2 — Christ Church, Freemason street, 12 o'clock m. 

January 6 — Frame house of Miss Hayes, Washington street, 4 
o'clock A.M. 

January 15 — Frame house, occupied by negroes, on Smith street, 
11:30 A.M. 

January 27 — W. T. Morrisett's brick building, Woodside's lane, 
6.15 A.M. 

January 30 — Brick store of P. Dougherty, Main street, (two 
alarms) at 5:40 A.M. and 8:10 a.m. 

February 12 — Brick store, Slade & Stevens, Commerce street, 
6:50 A.M. 

February 14 — Brick bakery, C. T. Cabler, corner Bank and 
William streets, 5 A.M. 

February 16 — M.W.Cobb's frame building just outside city 
limits, 8.30 p.m. 

March 6 — Brick stores of Epes & Polk and J. R. Briggs, Mar- 
ket square, 9:50 p.m. 

March 9 — Frame building on Hawk street, occupied by negroes, 
4:10 p.m. 

March 1 1 — Louis Balm's frame building, on Church street, 9 p.m. 

March 21 — Brick building, occupied by negroes, Arcade lane, 
7:45 P.M. 

April 3 — Steamboat, Captain Dalton, 7:45 p.m. 

April 7 — M. Holmes' frame building, Church street extension, 
3:45 p.m. 

April 10 — Mrs. Jones' brick house, Mayfield, 8:10 p.m. 

April 12 — E. Leithardt's frame shoe-shop, midnight. 

April 13 — Mrs. Miller's frame house, Mosely street, 2 p.m.; and 
F. UnderhilFs frame building on Granby street, 5:10 p.m. 

April 23 — William Stevens' frame building on Queen street, 
1:45 a.m. 

May 4 — John Corbitt's frame building on Bermuda street, 9:15 
P.M. 

May 24 — St. Luke's frame hall on comer Jefferson street, 5:30 

P.M. 

May 26 — Frame house, estate of John Leigh, 257 Main street, 
2:15 a.m. 

June 18 — Frame building occupied by negroes, No. 18 North 
street, 1 a.m. 



221 

June 20 — W. T. Harrison's frame house, Brown street, 1:05 a.m. 

July 1 — William Shields' frame building, Washington street, 
2:45 a.m. 

August 8 — Frame building, Rudd's bakery, Church street — 
alarm at 1:15 P.M. and at 6:20 p.m. 

August 9 — Frame building, Banks, on Wilson avenue, 1:45 a.m. 

August 12 — Miss Rowland's frame house on Granby street, 4 p.m. 

August 13 — Mrs. R. T. James' brick house, No. 9 Union street, 
3 A.M. 

August 30 — Godfrey's frame building on Nicholson street, 2 a.m. 

September 3 — William Stevens' brick store on Main street 5:30 

A.M. 

September 10 — Frame building (colored Masonic Lodge) on 
Lodge street, 12:30 a.m. 

September 26 — Turner and Whitehead's frame house, Nebraska 
street, 12:30 p.m. 

October 7 — Henry James' frame building on Church street, 
12:30 a.m. 

October 18 — James McDermitts' frame house, outside city limits, 
11:30 a.m. 

November 15 — Frame house on Hawk street occupied by 
negroes, 1:20 A. m. 

December — John Gamage's brick building on Elizabeth street, 
3:42 A.M. 

December 9 — English ship at Reynold's wharf, 3:45 a.m., and 
W. H. Hunter's brick building in Allyn's court, 12:15 a.m. 

December 17 — Wood's coal office, Chamberlain's wharf, 1:45 

A.M. 

December 19 — Robert Searl's brick stable, York street, 11:20 

A.M. 

Only two or three of the above mentioned buildings were de- 
stroyed — most of them being saved with but little damage. Our 
L^ire Department is considered to be as efficient as that of any city 
in the Union. 



OUR POLICE FORCE. 

In Norfolk, as in all other seaport towns, the police have their 
hands always full. Drunken and disorderly sailors and strangers, 
from all parts of the world, are frequently arrested for violating 
the laws and disturbing the peace. This class of our " floating 
population," however, is confined to a certain part of the city, be- 
yond which they are seldom seen, especially when drunk and dis- 
orderly. They are nevertheless a great source of trouble and annoy- 
ance to the policemen. 



222 

The following is a list of the police corps, which is regulated by 
the Board of Police Commissioners, consisting of Mayor John S. 
Tucker, Chairman ex-officio ; General V. D. Groner, President of 
the Common Council, and Dr. E. C. Robinson, President of the 
Select Council : 

Officers — C. C. Benson, Chief; E. M. Gray, Assistant Chief; 
Joseoh A. Rolland, First Sergeant ; John E. Scribner, Second Ser- 
geant. 

Privates — From First Ward — George Pumphrey, Henry 
Thompson, John D. Simms, John Clark, J. T. Cornell, Henry 
Frasier, William Blanks, William Frost, George Graham, Henry 
Brown. Total, 10. 

From Second Ward — Frank Hatton, Joseph T. Evans, Thomas 
Dalton, James Farren, John Lawrence, William F. Wood, J. F. 
Talbot, John Lester, Peter Dixon. Total, 9. 

From Third Ward — Henry Butt, George Sculfatus, Luther Deer, 
J. R. Pettis, John Grook, Joseph A. Wright, A. J. Balsom, R. J. 
Barrett, Jesse T. Ewell/fhos. C. Joynes, W. J. Hozier. Total, 11. 

From Fourth Ward — R. M. Alley, E. P. Anderson, Thomas T. 
Jones, Jacob R. Mowle, R. O. Walker, George W. Wise, Win. E. 
Durfey, James T. Titmus, W. H. Crosby. Total, 9. 

Grand Total — Four officers and thirty-nine privates. The pay 
of the Chief is $3 per day ; pay of Assistant Chief is $2.75 per 
day; pay of Sergeants $2.50 per day; pay of privates $2 per day. 
The force is very efficient and systematically organized. 



THE VALUE OF PROPERTY. 

Below we give the value of real estate and personal property in 
the city (exclusive of the property owned by the corporation, and 
of that upon which no tax is assessed) according to the Commis- 
sioner's assessment for the past five years. We also give the rate 
of taxation on the same, which includes the special tax levied upon 
property owners for the water works and known as the " water tax," 
which, during the past five years, has ranged from 25 to 40 cents 
on each $100. Here is the statement : 

1872— Value of real estate, $10,392,843; value of personal 
property, $1,606,549 ; total amount, $11,999,392. Total city tax- 
ation, $2.05 on each $100. 

1873— Value of real estate, $10,431,586; value of personal 
property, $1,567,765 ; total amount, $11,999,351. Total city tax- 
ation, $2.25 on each $100. 

1874— Value of real estate, $10,600,424; value of personal 
property, $1,567,765 ; total amount, $12,168,189. Total city tax- 
ation, $1.85 on each $100. 



223 

1875 — Value of real estate, $10,751,151 ; value of personal 
property, $2,697,270 ; total amount, 13,448,421. Total city tax- 
ation, $1.85 on each $100. 

1876 — Value of real estate, $8,400,207; value of personal 
property, $1,728,756; total amount, $10,128,963. Total city tax- 
ation, $2 on each $100. 

It will be seen that the assessment of real estate for the last year 
was about two million dollars less than each previous year named. 
This was caused by a new assessment which reduced the taxable 
valuable of property in accordance with its general depreciation 
throughout the country on account of the " hard times." The dif- 
ference in the assessment of personal property for 1875 and 1876 
was partly caused by general depreciation of value, and partly by a 
different mode of taxing merchants and manufacturers. 



THE ORPHAN ASYLUMS OF NORFOLK. 

BRIEF HISTORY OF THEIR ORGANIZATION THOSE WHO CARE FOR 

THE HELPLESS LITTLE ONES. 

Probably there are no institutions in the country that effect as 
much good as orphan asylums. They save many a helpless child 
from idleness, want, disgrace, shame, misery and death, and make 
the characters of many useful men and women. Without such 
asylums society would suffer, prisons and workhouses would be 
fuller, vice and immorality would increase, and hundreds of Jives 
would be spent in wickedness and wretchedness ! Reader, when 
asked to contribute your mite towards this great and good cause, 
pause and consider a moment before you say no, and think of how 
much good you may aid in accomplishing by a simple act of liber- 
ality. Think of it. 

THE NORFOLK FEMALE ORPHAN ASYLUM. 

First upon our list of the asylums in this city is the institution 
bearing the above title. It was organized in 1804 through the 
instrumentality of Bishop Francis Asbury, who will be remembered 
as " the pioneer Bishop of Methodism in America." It was incor- 
porated by the Legislature in 1811. Between the period of its 
organization and the year 1861 it was kept up and sustained by 
contributions from the various Protestant churches of the city, and 
annual appropriations by the City Councils. In 1856 the Episco- 
palians, for reasons satisfactory to themselves, withdrew their sup- 
port from the asylum, and organized one for their own denomination. 
In 1855, during the yellow fever scourge, the Howard Association 
established an asylum here, which was supported by said Association 
until 1861, when it was discontinued, and the inmates of it, 29 in 



224 

number, were turned over to the Norfolk Female Asylum to be 
supported there until each arrived at the age of 18 years, or was 
provided with a comfortable home, &c. — the Howard Association 
agreeing and solemnly contracting to pay to this asylum the sum of 
$2,500 per annum for its maintainance ?md support, and this 
money, which is paid quarterly, is all that the institution receives, 
except from private sources. The asylum owns its building and lot, 
situated corner Holt and Walke streets. The house is admirably 
suited to the purpose, being large and well fitted up with suitable 
furniture, gas and water. The children have a good play ground 
in the rear, and a nice flower garden on the western side of the 
building. The girls are taught the rudiments of the English lan- 
guage, and are carefully instructed in various household and 
domestic duties. Number of inmates at present, 28 ; provided 
with homes in 1876, 4 ; average number on hand during past five 
years, 30 ; total cared for since foundation, 310. 

The Asylum Officers — Mrs. M. F. Mallory, first directress; Mrs. 
George D. Armstrong, second directress ; Mrs. John Peters, Secre- 
tary ; Mrs. E. A. Hallett, Treasurer ; Mrs. Ogden, matron ; Miss 
Virginia Fiveash, teacher. 

Howard Association Representatives — ¥m. T.Harrison, George 
Drummond, Wm. H. Turner and Wm. D. Reynolds, Esqs. 

[financial Advisers — John Peters, Wm. H. Morris and George 
K. Goodridge, Esqs. 

Board of Managers — Mrs. Jane Broughton, Mrs. Kader Biggs, 
Mrs. Fayette Jones, Mrs. Theo. Rogers, Mrs. C. E. Jenkins, Mrs. 
P. Hammill, Mrs. Ryland Capps, Mrs. Alpheus White, Mrs. 
Thomas H. Webb, Mrs. I. O. Gardner, Mrs. Greaves, Miss Lizzie 
Cralle, Miss Lizzie Moore. 

Orphans are admitted into the asylum between the ages of one 
and twelve years, regardless of the creed or religious belief of their 
relatives or friends. 

THE JACKSON ORPHAN ASYLUM. 

This institution, managed by representatives of the various Epis- 
copal churches of the city, was organized and incorporated in the year 
1856. It had its origin in the mind, and was named in honor of 
that truly noble, heroic man of God, the Rev. Wm. M. Jackson, 
a former rector of St. Paul's Church, who fell a martyr to his 
religious duties, while ministering to the wants, spiritual and. 
temporal, of his flock and of the community at large, during the 
fatal fever epidemic in 1 855. The act of incorporation provides 
that the institution shall be under the control and direction of a 
president and seven managers, to be elected by the trustees and sub- 
scribers to the fund of the said corporation, in general meeting 
assembled, and who shall continue in office until their successors are 
appointed . 



225 

A committee of twelve or more ladies are elected by the man- 
agers as aboard of visitors; and the immediate care of the asylum 
is confided to the matron appointed by the managers. The children 
are taught in the elementary branches of an English education, 
and the female inmates in such industrial arts as may be prosecuted 
within the asylum. 

The payment of $50 or more at any one time, or of $10 an- 
nually, constitutes the subscriber a member of the asylum, and 
entitles him or her to participate in all annual meetings of the 
managers and trustees. Children will be received into this institu- 
tion upon the recommendation of any two members of the Board 
of ^ isitors, (with consent of the managers) or that of either of the 
rectors of the Protestant Episcopal Churches of Norfolk. 

The building is located on Bute street, opposite Granby street — a 
comfortable house, well arranged and fitted up, and which belongs 
to the asylum. 

Present number of inmates — 16 

Total cared for since foundation 49 

Number of deaths since foundation 1 

Officers and Managers — Richard Dickson, President; Captain 
B. P. Loyall, Secretary and Treasurer ; Dr. R. B. Tunstall, Sur- 
geon ; Mrs. Mary Smith, matron. 

B ..■> i d of Managers and Trustees — From Christ Church, Rev. O. S. 
Barten, Richard Dickson and R. L. Page, Esqs. From St. Paul's 
Church, Rev. N. A. Okeson, R. H. Baker, and Wm. Lamb, Esqs. 
From St. Luke's Church, Rev. John B. Newton, and Walter H. 
Taylor, Esq. 

Board of Visitors — Mrs. James Cornick, Mrs. Marshall Parks, 
Miss Martha Rowland, Mrs. E. Rose, Mrs. Robert E. Taylor, Mrs. 
S. W. Sheffield, Mrs. J. S. Millson, Mrs. V. D. Groner, Mrs. Kate 
McClean, Mrs. Charles Drummond, Mrs. John Goode, Mrs. M. W. 
Jarvis, Miss Carrie Tunstall, Mrs. C. W. Grandy. 

Committees selected from the above list of visitors keep strict 
watch over the condition and welfare of the children, with the as- 
sistance of the matron. The institution is well sustained by the 
Episcopalians of the city, and they deserve great credit for the 
good they are doing in this great cause. 

st. mary's orphan asylum 
is located on the southwest corner of Mariner and Chapel streets, 
with a front of one hundred and twenty-eight feet and running 
back seven hundred feet. This property, formerly owned by the 
late J. Marsden Smith, was purchased by the Sisters of Charity 
during the war in 1864, with funds raised at a fair which was held 
for that purpose. It is now the home of the orphans — the house 
on Fenchurch street, formerly their dwelling, being used exclusive- 
ly as a select school, under charge of the sisters. 



226 

The St. Mary's Asylum was established in the year 1837, through 
the munificence, chiefly, of Mrs. Ann Herron, and of Mr. Thomas 
Moran. At a later period, 1845, Miss Ann P. B. Herron, niece 
of Mrs. Herron, became its principal benefactor. Since that time 
the asylum has been supported solely by the revenue derived from 
St. Mary's Select School, and the annual private contributions of a 
few kind-hearted and benevolent subscribers. It is managed and 
controlled by the Sisters of Charity, six in number. During the 
past four decades of years this institution has received and reared 
hundreds of helpless little ones belonging to our city. Of the 
orphans made by the yellow fever alone in 1855, it received and 
educated from fifteen to twenty. During the past five years the 
average number of orphans has been thirty-five. Eight were placed 
out, and twelve received into the asylum during the year 1876. 
At present the number of orphans in the institution is thirty. Sis- 
ter Mary Alice, the Sister Superior in charge, has faithfully 
devoted herself to the care of these orphans, and has, as the princi- 
pal directress of the institution, ably and successfully managed it. 

We know of no cause that is more worthy of support than that 
of caring for the orphans. It commends itself to every thinking man 
and woman in the land, particularly to those who are the followers of 
Him who said : " Suffer little children to come unto me, and for- 
bid them not: for of such is the Kingdom of Heaven." 



ST. VINCENT DE PAUL HOSPITAL. 

AN IMPORTANT AND USEFUL INSTITUTION. 

This hospital is located on Wood street, extending from Church, 
nearly to Chapel street. The lot occupies about two acres of 
ground, beautifully laid off. This property was formerly the 
residence of Mr. Walter Herron, a native of Ireland,who bequeathed 
the property to his niece and adopted daughter, Miss Ann Herron 
Behan, known as Ann Herron. 

Miss Herron died in 1855, and left her entire estates to her 
brother, James Herron Behan, who came to Norfolk from Ireland 
in 1829, and lived here with his uncle until 1861, when he went 
to England, on account of the war. Previous to his departure for 
Europe he made his will (one of the most remarkable documents 
ever recorded in this State) and appointed Archbishop Hughes, of 
New York, and Right Rev. Bishop McGill, of Richmond, as the 
executors of the same. In that will this property was left to the 
St. Vincent de Paul Hospital, which was then in existence as a 
charity home. The will was dated April 10th, 1860, and Mr. 
Behan died in Liverpool April 22d, 1864. After the war the will 



227 

was admitted to record in our clerk's office, and the hospital 
trustees received the title to the property, which they now hold. 

This excellent institution is managed by the Sisters of Charity, 
usually about fifteen in number, under the direct control of 

SISTER ISADORE, 

the Sister Superior in charge, who devotes the best energy of 
her nature and the rare talents which God has given her, to the 
good cause for which the hospital was instituted. The building 
contains twenty first-class private rooms, three large wards for white 
males, and one for females. A separate house in the rear of the 
main building is comfortably fitted up for the reception of colored 
patients and contains four wards. 

Private patients are furnished with rooms at prices ranging from 
$10 to $20 per week, which includes all medicines, special nourish- 
ments, &c. Dr. Thomas B. Ward is the physician in charge, but 
private patients can employ any physician they may desire. The 
number of patients in the hospital January 1st, 1876, to- wit : Pri- 
vate patients, 14; ward patients, 51 ; charity patients, 23 ; total, 88. 
Admitted during 1876 : Private patients, 161 ; ward patients, 413; 
charity, 72; total, 646. Number treated during 1876, 734. Died 
during the year, 23 ; discharged during the year, 635 ; total, 658. 
In hospital January 1st, 1877, 76. 

Since 1866, the Sisters have added a beautful wing and a Man- 
sard roof to the orginal building, and have so improved the entire 
premises as to make it one of the handsomest places of the kind in 
the State. It is acknowledged to be a very useful and important 
institution, and is liberally supported by the patronage of the com- 
munity at large. 



MARRIAGES IN 1876. 

The following is a list of the number of marriage licenses issued 
from the Clerk's office in this city during the year 1876. Persons 
interested in matrimony can see in what month the most marrying 
was done and can govern themselves accordingly : 

White. Colored. Total. 

January 9 5 14 

February 17 5 22 

March 7 4 11 

April 11 11 22 

May 9 5 14 

June.. 9 7 16 

July ;.:.,. 8 5 13 

August 6 5 11 



228 

September 5 5 10 

October 8 6 14 

November 9 9 18 

December 15 12 27 

Totals 113 79 192 

The youngest bride's age, 15 years; oldest, QQ years; youngest 

groom's age, 17 years ; oldest, 74 years. 

[The above is not important, but we insert it to give variety to 

the contents of this volume. It will be interesting an hundred 

years hence]. 



THE MAYORS OF NORFOLK. 

THEIR NAMES, TIME OF ELECTION AND TERMS OF SERVICE. 

It may prove interesting to preserve the following list of the 
Mayors of Norfolk, from the date of the original charter of the 
Borough to the present time — 1877: 

First Mayor was Samuel Boush, appointed by the charter of the 
Borough under date of September 15th, 1736, in the tenth year of 
the reign of King George II. Mayor Boush died in less than two 
months after his appointment to the office. 

Second Mayor was Geo. Newton, elected by the Council Novem- 
ber 18th, 1736, and served seven months. 

Third Mayor was John Hutchings, Esq., elected by the Council 
June 24th, 1737, and served one year. 

Fourth Mayor was Robert Tucker, elected June 24th, 1738, and 
served one year. 

Fifth Mayor was John Taylor, elected June 25th, 1739, and 
served one year. 

Sixth Mayor was Samuel Smith, elected June 24th, 1740, and 
served one year. 

Seventh Mayor was Josiah Smith, elected June 21st, 1741, and 
served one year. 

Eighth Mayor was Geo. Newton (second term), elected June 24th, 
1742, and served one year. 

Ninth Mayor was John Hutchings (second term), elected June 
24th, 1743, and served one year. 

Tenth Mayor was John Taylor (second term), elected June 25th, 
1744, and served about five months. 

Eleventh Mayor was John Phripp, elected November 14th, 1744, 
and served nineteen months. 

Twelfth Mayor was Edward Pugh, elected June 24th, 1746, and 
served one year. 



229 

Thirteenth Mayor was Thomas Newton, elected June 24th, 1747, 
and served one year. 

Fourteenth Mayor was John Tucker, elected June 24th, 1748, 
and served one year. 

Fifteenth Mayor was Robert Tucker (second term), elected June, 
1749, and served one year. 

Sixteenth Mayor was Durham Hall, elected June, 1750, and 
served seven months. 

Seventeenth Mayor was Wilson Newton, elected January, 1751, 
and served seventeen months. 

Eighteenth Mayor was Christopher Perkins, elected June, 1752, 
and served nine months. 

Nineteenth Mayor was Josiah Smith (second term), elected 
March, 1753, and served fifteen months. 

Twentieth Mayor was George A by von, elected June 24th, 1754, 
and served eight months. 

Twenty-first Mayor was John Hutchings (third term), elected 
February, 1755, and served four months. 

Twenty-second Mayor was Richard Kelsick, elected June, 1755, 
and served one year. 

Twenty-third Mayor was Josiah Smith (third term), elected 
June, 1756, and served one year. 

Twenty-fourth Mayor was John Phripp (second lerm), elected 
June, 1757, and served one year. 

Twenty-fifth Mayor was John Tucker (second term), elected 
June, 1758, and served one year. 

Twenty-sixth Mayor was Robert Tucker (third term), elected 
June, 1759, and served one year. 

Twenty-seventh Mayor was Wilson Newton (second term) elected 
June, 1760, and served one year. 

Twenty-eighth Mayor was Christopher Perkins (second term), 
elected June, 1761, and served one year. 

Twenty-ninth Mayor was Paul Loyall, elected June, 1762 ; 
served one year. 

Thirtieth Mayor was Archibald Campbell, elected June, 1763; 
served one year. 

Thirty-first Mayor was Lewis Hansford, elected June, 1764 ; 
served one year. 

Thirty-second Mayor was Maximillian Calvert, elected June, 
1765 ; served one year. 

Thirty-third Mayor was James Taylor, elected June, 1766 ; 
served one year. 

Thirty-fourth Mayor was Geo. Abyvon, (second term), elected 
June, 1767 ; served one year. 

Thirty-fifth Mayor was Cornelius Calvert, elected June, 1768 ; 
served one year. 



230 

Thirty-sixth Mayor was Maximillian Calvert, (second term), 
elected June, 1769 ; served one year. 

Thirty-seventh Mayor was Charles Thomas, elected June, 1770; 
served one year. 

Thirty-eighth Mayor was Geo. Abyvon, (third term),elected June, 
1771 ; served one year. 

Thirty-ninth Mayor was Paul Loyall, (second term), elected 
June, 1772 ; served one year. 

Fortieth Mayor* was Charles Thomas, (second term), elected 
June, 1773; served one year. 

Forty-first Mayor was George Abyvon (fourth term), elected 
June, 1774 ; served one year. 

Forty-second Mayor was Paul Loyall (third term), elected June, 
1775. The records do not show how long Mayor Loyall served ; 
they show, however, that the 

Forty -third Mayor was James Taylor (second term), whose term 
expired June, 1778. 

Forty-fourth Mayor was Cornelius Calveit (second term) elected 
June, 1778 ; served one year. 

Forty-fifth Mayor was George Abyvon (fifth term), elected June, 
1779 ; served one year. 

Forty-sixth Mayor was Thomas Newton, Jr., elected June, 1780. 
On account of invasion he served seventeen months. 

Forty-seventh Mayor was Paul Loyall (fourth term), elected 
November, 1781 ; served seven months. 

Forty-eighth Mayor was Janes Taylor (third term), elected 
June, 1782 ; served one year. 

Forth-ninth Mayor was George Kelly, elected June, 1783; 
served one year. 

Fiftieth Mayor was Robert Taylor, elected June, 1784; served 
one year. 

Fifty-first Mayor was Cary H. Hansford (the first Mayor that 
had a middle name), elected June, 1785 ; served one year. 

Fifty-secor.d Mayor was Thomas Newton Jr. (second term), 
elected June, 1786 ; served one year. 

Fifty-third Mayor was Benjamin Pollard, elected June, 1787; 
served one year. 

Fifty-fourth Mayor was George Kelly (second term), elected June 
1788. Served one year, and was the last Mayor that presided over 
the Common Council. On the 9th of August, 1788, the Common 
Council was presided over for the first time by its first President, 
Richard E. Lee, Esq. A court of aldermen was then established 
and the Mayor presided over it, and was thereafter elected by the 
aldermen. 

Fifty-fifth Mayor was Robert Taylor (second term), elected June, 
1789 ; served one year. 



231 

Fifty-sixth Mayor was James Taylor (fourth term), elected June, 
1790 ; served one year. 

Fifty-seventh Mayor was John Boush, elected June, 1791 ; served 
four months. 

Fifty-eighth Mayor was Gary H. Hansford (second term), elect- 
ed October, 1791 ; served eight months. 

Fifty-ninth Mayor was Thomas Newton, Jr., (third term), elect- 
ed June, 1792; served ten months. 

Sixtieth Mayor was Robert Taylor (third lerm), elected April, 
1793; served one year. 

Sixty-first Mayor was Thomas Newton, Jr., (fourth term), elect- 
ed April, 1794; served two months. 

Sixty-second Mayor was James Ramsay, elected June, 1794 ; 
served one year. 

Sixty-third Mayor was Seth Foster, elected June, 1795; served 
one year. 4 

Sixty-fourth Mayor was Samuel Moseley, elected June, 1796 ; 
served one year. 

Sixty-fifth Mayor was Geo. Loyall, elected June, 1797 ; served 
one year. 

Sixty-sixth Mayor was Baylor Hill, elected June, 1798 ; served 
one year. 

Sixty-seventh Mayor was John K. Read, elected June, 1799 ; 
served one year. 

Sixty-eighth Mayor was Seth Foster (second term), elected June, 
1800; served eleven months. 

Sixty-ninth Mayor was John Cowper, elected May, 1801 ; served 
thirteen months. 

Seventieth Mayor was Wm. Vaughan, elected June, 1802 ; served 
one year. 

Seventy-first Mayor was Thomas H. Parker, elected June, 1803 
served one year. 

Seventy-second Mayor was Miles King, elected June, 1804 
served one year. 

Seventy-third Mayor was Luke Wheeler, elected June, 1805 
served one year. 

Seventy -fourth Mayor was Thos. H. Parker, (second term) 
elected June, 1 806 ; served one year. 

Seventy-fifth Mayor was Richard E. Lee, elected June, 1807 
served one year. 

Seventy-sixth Mayor was John E. Holt, elected June, 1808 
served one year. 

Seventh-seventh Mayor was Miles King (second term), elected 
June, 1809 ; served one year. 

Seventy-eighth Mayor was Wm. B. Lamb, elected June, 1810 ; 
served one year. 



232 

Seventy-ninth Mayor was Miles King, Jr., elected June, 1811 ; 
served one year. 

Eightieth Mayor was Win. B. Lamb (second term), elected June, 
1812 ; served one year. 

Eighty-first Mayor was Miles King, Jr., (second term), elected 
June, 1813 ; served eleven months and then died. 

Eighty-second Mayor was Win. B. Lamb (third term), elected 
June, 1814 ; served one year. 

Eighty-third Mayor was John E. Holt (second term), elected 
June, 1815; served one year. 

Eighty-fourth Mayor was Wm. B. Lamb (fourth term), elected 
June, 1816 ; served eight months. 

Eighty-fifth Mayor was John E. Holt (third term), elected Feb- 
ruary, 1817 ; served four months, less one day, and resigned. 

Eighty-sixth Mayor was James Taylor, elected 23d day of June, 
1817 , served one day and resigned. (The resignation of Mayor 
Holt one day before his term expired, made him eligible to the of- 
fice for the succeeding term.) 

Eighty-seventh Mayor was John E. Holt (fourth term), elected 
June 24th (regular election day), 1817; served one year less one day. 

Eighty-eighth Mayor was John Tabb, elected June 23d, 1818 ; 
served one day. 

Eighty-ninth Mayor was John E. Holt (fifth term), elected June 
24th, 1818 ; served one year less one day. 

Ninetieth Mayor was Wright Southgate, elected June 23d, 1819, 
and served one day. 

Ninety-first Mayor was John E. Holt (sixth term), elected June 
24th, 1819 ; served one year. 

Ninety-second Mayor was Wright Southgate (second term), 
elected June, 1820; served two days and resigned. 

Ninety-third Mayor was John E. Holt (seventh term), elected 
June 26th, 1820; served one year. 

Ninety-fourth Mayor was George W. Camp, elected June, 1821 ; 
served three days and resigned. 

Ninety-fifth Mayor was John E. Holt (eighth term), elected June 
27th, 1821 ; served one year. 

Ninety-sixth Mayor was John Tabb (second term), elected June, 
1822; served four days. 

Ninety-seventh Mayor was John E. Holt (ninth term), elected 
June 1822 ; served one year. 

Ninety-eighth Mayor, was Wm. B. Lamb (fifth term), elected 
June, 1823 ; served a few days and resigned. 

Ninety-ninth Mayor was John E. Holt, (tenth term), elected 
June, 1823; served one year. 

. One hundredth Mayor was Wm. A. Armistead, elected June, 
1824 ; served a few days and resigned. 



233 

One hundred and first Mayor was John E. Holt, (eleventh term), 
elected June, 1824; served one year. 

One hundred and second Mayor was John Tabb (third term), 
elected June, 1825 ; served three days and resigned. 

One hundred and third Mayor was John E. Holt (twelfth term), 
elected June, 1825 ; served one year. 

One hundred and fourth Mayor was Isaac Talbot, elected June, 
1826 ; served five days. 

One hundred and fifth Mayor was John E. Holt (thirteenth 
term), elected June, J 826 ; served one year. 

One hundred and sixth Mayor was Daniel C. Barraud, elected 
June, 1827; served three days. 

One hundred and seventh Mayor was John E. Holt (fourteenth 
term), elected June, 1827; served one year. 

One hundred and eighth Mayor was George T. Kennon, elected 
June, 1828 ; served four days. 

One hundred and ninth Mayor was John E. Holt, (fifteenth 
term), elected June, 1828 ; served one year. 

One hundred and tenth Mayor was Thomas Williamson, elected 
June, 1829 ; served two days. 

One hundred and eleventh Mayor was John E. Holt (sixteenth 
term), elected June, 1829 ; served one year. 

One hundred and twelfth Mayor was Giles B. Cook, elected 
June, 1830 ; served ten days. 

One hundred and thirteenth Mayor was John E. Holt (seven- 
teenth term), elected July, 1830; served eleven months. 

One hundred and fourteenth Mayor was Wright Southgate (third 
term), elected June, 1831 ; served ten days. 

One hundred fifteenth Mayor was John E. Holt (eighteenth term) 
elected July, 1831 : ssrved eleven months. 

One hundred and sixteenth Mayor was also John E. Holt (nine- 
teenth term). No record of any intervening election. He died in 
office October 12th, 1832. 

One hundred and seventeenth Mayor was Miles King (third 
term), elected October, 1832 ; served till June, 1843 (charter amend- 
ed), at which time he was defeated before the people 

One hundred and eighteenth Mayor was W. D. Delaney, elected 
June, 1843; served till June, 1851. 

One hundred and nineteenth Mayor was Simon S. Stubbs, elected 
June, 1851 ; served two years. 

One hundred and twentieth Mayor was Hunter Woodis, elected 
June, 1853 ; served one year. 

One hundred and twenty-first Mayor was Simon S. Stubbs 
(second term), elected June, 1854; served one year. 

One hundred and twenty-second Mayor was Hunter Woodis 
(second term), elected June, 1855, and died in office in the fall of 
same year, a victim of the yellow fever. 



234 

One hundred and twenty-third Mayor was Ezra T. Summers, 
who was elected and qualified November 26th, 1855, and served 
seven months. 

One hundred and twenty-fourth Mayor was Finley F. Ferguson, 
elected June, 1856 ; served two years. 

One hundred and twenty-fifth Mayor was Wm. W. Lamb, 
elected June, 1858, also* in 1860 and 1862, and was serving as 
Mayor when the United States military authorities entered Norfolk 
in 1863. He surrendered the city to Gen. Wool, United States 
Military Commander ; was afterwards removed by the military ; 
was imprisoned in Fort Monroe, and subsequently released andsent 
back home. 

One hundred and twenty-sixth Mayor was Wm. H. Brooks, 
who served from June, 1863, to a period in 1864, but there is no 
record of the date when he was superceded. 

One hundred and twenty-seventh Mayor was James L. Belote, 
who appears on the records as Mayor in 1864, but there is nothing 
to show how or when he became Mayor or how long he served as 
such. It is supposed that he was appointed by the military 
authorities, who then had charge of the city affairs. 

One hundred and twenty-eighth Mayor was Thomas C. Tabb, 
elected June, 1865 ; was appointed judge and resigned the mayor- 
alty May 8th, J 866. 

One hundred and twenty-ninth Mayor was Wm. W. Lamb 
(fourth term), elected by the Councils in May, 1866, and served 
out Mayor Tabb's unexpired term. 

One hundred and thirtieth Mayor was John R. Ludlow, elected 
June, 1866, and served until March, 1868, when he was removed 
by the military authorities. 

One hundred and thirty-first Mayor was Francis DeCordy, ap- 
pointed by the United States military in 1868, vice John R. Lud- 
low, removed, and served until the " Walker Council " was ap- 
pointed. He was then elected by the said Council to fill out the 
unexpired term to July 1st, 1870. 

One hundred and thirty-second Mayor was John B. Whitehead, 
who served from July, 1870, to July, 1872. 

One hundred and thirty-third Mayor was John R. Ludlow, who 
served from July, 1872, to July, 1874. 

One hundred and thirty-fourth Mayor was John B. Whitehead, 
who served from July, 1874, to July, 1876. 

The one hundred and thirty-fifth Mayor, John S. Tucker, Esq., 
is our present efficient chief magistrate, who succeeded to the office, 
July 1st, 1876, having been elected by the people in May, 1876 
to serve for two years. 



!23§ 
MASONRY. 

THE MASONIC LODGES OF NORFOLK — A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 

OLDEST LODGE IN THE UNITED STATES LIST 

OF PRESENT OFFICERS. 

Nations pass away, empires decay, monuments of antiquity 
crumble into dust; the bat wings its drowsy flight in the palace of 
kings ; the spider weaves its web in the council chamber of Sena- 
tors, and the owl hoots in the august temple of the Gods. Fallen 
mountains sleep upon the bosom of the plains, green islands sink 
into the embrace of mighty waters; the comet is lost in the wilder- 
ness of worlds, and the sweet Pleiad leaves the arms of her dear 
sisters to wander as an outcast in the boundless blue depths of ether. 

But amidst these revolutions, Masonry still survives, and as the 
dark ocean of oblivion sweeps along and engulfs passing events in 
its inky waves, this time-honored Order, standing boldly upon her 
watch towers with lamps trimmed and lights burning on her sacred 
altars, unfolds her snowy banners to the breeze and shouts amidst 
the gloom—-" All is well ! Glory to God in the highest! on earth, 
peace, good will to men." 

" Time writes no wrinkle on her spotless brow. 
As creation's dawn beheld her, thus she is now." 

"The Masonic fraternity is an old and honored institution. Its 
history, so beautiful, striking, and replete with interest, takes us 
back through the ages of the past, almost to the "time whereof the 
memory of man runneth not to the contrary," and establishes for 
it a just claim to great antiquity. Masonry — operative and specu- 
lative — affords us many lessons of wisdom and instruction — from 
the time of the building of Solomon's Temple, down to the present 
period in its history, the members of the mystic tie have been bound 
together by the strong cement of brotherly love and charity. With- 
out making any parade of its charitable deeds, it has relieved the 
disttess and assuaged the sorrows of scores and hundreds of the 
needy, poor, and afflicted ones on earth. Fidelity to the true prin- 
ciples of Masonry, and a strict regard for and adherence to its tenets 
which are worthy of all commendation and praise, will guarantee to 
the Order not only the respect and love .of all good people, but 
great success in its efforts for the accomplishment of good." 

The Masons of Norfolk have ever been zealous and active. The 
* zeal and energy with which they grappled with adverse circum- 
stances in the building of the magnificent Temple which they now 
occupy in this city, was the admiration of their brethren through- 
out the country. .During the raging of the fever herein 1855, they 
dispensed charity in a truly commendable manner, and the soup - 
house, which last winter appeased the hunger of hundreds of our 



236 

suffering poor people, will be remembered by the community as an 
honor to this ancient craft, whose charity established it. 

There are in the city, at present, four Blue Lodges, one Chapter, 
one Commandery and one Lodge of Perfection. They all meet at 
the Temple, corner Freemason and Brewer streets. There is noth- 
ing of special interest connected with the history of any of them 
except 

NORFOLK LODGE, NO. 1, 

which is believed to be the oldest Lodge in this country, and thus 
explained : 

In the list of regular Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Scot- 
land, printed in Edinburgh in 1765, is found St. John's Lodge No. 
117, chartered for Norfolk, in Virginia, June 1st, 1741. The 
early history of Masonry in Virginia is involved in obscurity from 
the paucity of records and the destruction of important documents 
during the Colonial wars; but it is established beyond all doubt 
that St. John's Lodge was first to receive its charter. Other 
Lodges were subsequently organized at different periods under 
charters derived from the Grand Lodges of England, Scotland and 
Ireland ; and accordingly, at the beginning of the Revolution in 
1776, we find certainly not less than eight legal working Lodges. 
After the declaration of war by the Colonies it became necessary 
for their mutual benefit and protection to organize a Grand Lodge 
of Virginia, and accordingly, after due notice, the representatives 
of five of the eight Lodges met in the town of Williamsburg, 
May 6th, 17 7 7. Mathew Phripp, Esq., a bright Mason and 
devoted patriot, was the Deputy from Norfolk, and was com- 
plimented in being elected President of the Convention. Owing 
to the unsettled condition of the country, the Grand Lodge was not 
formally instituted until the Kith of October, 1778, at which time 
John Blair, Master of the Williamsburg Lodge, was duly installed 
in that town Grand Master of Virginia. For reasons now unknown 
an interval of twelve years elapsed before the committee appointed 
to ascertain the ages and settle and regulate the rank of the res- 
pective Lodges, reported, when the palm was awarded to Norfolk. 
Accordingly, St. John's Lodge, No. 117, surrendered its charter to 
the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and received in its place one from the 
Grand Lodge of Virginia, under the date and title of Norfolk 
Lodge, No. 1, October 29, 1790, signed by Thomas Mathews, 
Grand Master • John R. Read, Deputy Grand Master ; B. Ward, 
Grand Secretary. 

" This ancient and honored charter is still in her possession, a 
precious heir-loom, mildewed and dusty, but fragrant with memo- 
ries of the past. Although more than a century and a quarter have 
passed over her head, her eye has not lost its fire nor her arm its 
strength. Born during a stormy period, and sprung from a vigor- 



237 

©us, earnest, and virtuous Scotch stock, she has witnessed the rise 
and fall of Empires abroad, and survived the shock of three great 
wars at home. Lafayette has been the guest of this Lodge, and its 
seal and diplomas are respected in all foreign lands." 

Present Officers— Isaac Moritz, W. M; R. W. Moreland, 8. Wj 
R. G. Turner, J. W ; Geo. B. Jenkins, Secretary ; Henry Jordan, 
Treasurer; E. J. Mann, S. D; J. E. Dunbar, J. D;C. B. Johnson, 
S. L. Pullen, Stewards ; M. Engleberg, Tiler. Number of mem- 
bers, 130. 

ATLANTIC LODGE NO. 2. 

This Lodge was chartered December 13th, 1854, upon the appli- 
cation of Dr. George T. Upshur, W. M; James Y. Leigh, S. W; 
and Wm. A. Graves, J. W. James C. Leitch was Grand Master of 
the State at that time, and the lamented Dr. John Dove was Grand 
Secretary. Being an offspring of No. 1, its history is wrapped up 
in that of its " old mother." 

Present Officers — W. N. Rogers, W. M ; John L. Roper, S. W ; 
Charles H. Hey, J. W ; J. J. Sturdivant, Secretary ; M. H. 
Stevens, Treasurer; Samuel W. Weaver, S. D; Fred. Greenwood, 
J. D ; S. A. Stevens, Chaplain ; Frank B. Smith, Organist ; W. 
F. Dann, George W. Black, Stewards ; James E. Wright, Tiler. 
Number of members, 102. 

OWENS LODGE NO. 164. 

This Lodge was chartered December 11th, 1867, upon the peti- 
tion of Thomas F. Owens, W. M ; Samuel P. Moore, S. W ; and 
Walter H. Taylor, J. W. At that time General Wm. Terry, was 
Grand Master of the State, and Dr. John Dove, Grand Secretary. 
Although the Lodge is a young one, it is in a flourishing condition 
and its w"ork is systematically and beautifully conducted. Upon its 
roll of members may be found the names of Ex-Governor Gilbert 
C. Walker, Ex-Mayor John B. Whitehead, Colonel Walter H. 
Taylor, Colonel L. D. Starke, Captain James Barron Hope, Hon. 
John Goode, Wm. R. Gait, Esq., Major Charles B. Duffielcl, and 
other well known citizens who took a deep interest in its original 
organization. 

Present Officers— R. A. Dobie, W. M ; Norman Bell, S. W ; A. 
C. Gale, J. W ; S. P. Moore, Secretary ; Wm. S. Wilkinson, 
Treasurer; Fred. S. Taylor, S. D ; Adam Tredwell, J. D j 
Revs. O. S. Barten and W. E. Edwards, Chaplains ; James E. 
Wright, Tiler. Number of members, 60. 

RUTH LODGE NO. 89. 

This Lodge was organized and worked under a dispensation 
December 7th, 1869, and was chartered December 15th of the same 
year upon petition of James B. Blanks, W. M.; J. Albert Yancey, 
S. W.; and W. B. Seal, J. W. It was solemnly constituted March 
19, 1870. Colonel Thomas F. Owens, was Grand Master of the 



238 

State when the charter was granted. The Lodge started with 
only seven members, but its Master, James B. Blanks (now of 
Petersburg), being one of the most active and zealous Masons in 
the State, worked faithfully with his brethren, and its membership 
soon increased to 50. It is the youngest Lodge in Norfolk, but 
compares favorably with any other in its workings and devotion 
to the tenets of the ancient Order. 

Present Officers — Joseph G. Fiveash, W. M.; Samuel Veale, S. 
W.; H. S. Upshur, J. W.; J. A. Nicolson, Secretary ; D. S. Bur- 
well, Treasurer ; Virginius Morris, S. D.; Joseph Pugh, J. D.; 
Frank L. Blade and J. C. Beekman, Stewards ; Newton Fitz, 
Organist; Rev. R. M. Saunders, Chaplain; James E. Wright, 
Tiler. Number of members, 64. 

NORFOLK UNITED ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER NO. 1 

was organized and chartered March 10th, 1820, upon the petition 
of Richard Jeffrey, H. P.; Robert Archer, King ; and Thomas L. 
Robertson, Scribe. At that time Samuel Francis was Grand High 
Priest of the State,and Thomas B. Griffin, Grand King. It is now 
in a prosperous condition, and numbers about 125 members. 

Present Officers— George S. Oldfield, H. P.; E. E. Guy, King ; 
A. C. Gale, Scribe ; John Walters, Secretary ; Henry Jordan, 
Treasurer; H. L. Turner, C. of H.; Walter A. Edwards, P. S.; 
D. Husted, R. A. C; Babel Taylor, John O'Connor, E. Black, 
Veil Masters ; James E. Wright, Janitor. 

GRICE COMMA NDERY NO. 16 

was chartered December 13th, 1866, upon petition of John G. 
Smith, E. C.j John R. Todd, Generalissimo; and K. Cook, 
Captain General. E. H. Gill was the. Grand Commander of the 
State then, and William B. Isaacs, Grand Generalissimo. This 
Commandery is extensively and favorably known among the 
Knights Templar of the country, having been well represented at 
all the regular meetings of the Graud Commandery of the United 
States held during the past ten years ; it is particularly well known 
to the Sir Knights of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and New 
Orleans. 

Present Officers. — John L. Roper, Eminent Commander ; H. C. 
Whitehead, Generalissimo ; A. C. Gale, Captain General ; Fred. 
Greenwood, Prelate ; Henry Jordan, Treasurer ; W. R. Russell, 
Recorder ; John Walters, Senior Warden ; E. E. Guy, Junior 
Warden ; R. A . Dobie, Sword Bearer ; M. T. Cooke, Standard 
Bearer ; D. Husted, Warder ; James E. Wright, Captain of 
Guard. Number of members, 75. 

m'daniel lodge of perefction no. 3 
is of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Grand Consistory of the State of Virginia. It was 
organized September 9th, 1874, and was chartered by the Most 



239 

Puissant Grand Consistory of Sublfrae Prince of the Royal Secret, 
33d degree of the A. and A. Rite, in and for this State. The or- 
ganization of this Lodge was superintended in person by General 
Albert Pike, and Colonel John Robin McDaniel, who are at the 
head of the Grand Consistory of the World. 

Present Officers. — John L. Roper, T. P. G. M.; E. E. Guy, G. 
S. W.; M. H. Stevens, G. J. W.; John Walters, Grand Orator ; 
D. Husted, Grand Almoner; H. S.Upshur, Grand Secretary; 
Henry Jordan, Grand Treasurer ; F. Greenwood, Master of Cere- 
monies ; A. Myers, Grand Senior Expert ; O. M. Etheredge, 
Grand Junior Expert; T. W. Henderson, G. C. of H.; John T. 
Heclmond and J. C. Rowe, Grand Sentinels; James E. Wright, 
Grand Tiler. Number of members, 30 

In addition to the Lodges named, our Masons have organized 
the following permanent associations, to-wit : 

THE MASONIC CHARITABLE ASSOCIATION 

is for the relief of strange brethren who may need assistance while 
in the city. Its officers are : George S. Oldfield, President ; S. P. 
Moore, Secretary ; D. Husted, Treasurer, and three members from 
each Lodge in Norfolk and Berkley. 

THE MASONIC MUTUAL LIFE ASSURANCE ASSOCIATION 

is conducted upon the most simple and economical plan of the or- 
dinary life insurance business. Its officers are: John L. Roper, 
President ; M. H. Stevens, Secretary ; F. Greenwood, Treasurer, 
and a Board of Directors. 

TRUSTEES OF THE TEMPLE. 

The following gentlemen are the Trustees of the Masonic Tem- 
ple, which belongs to the fraternity in Norfolk, and is entirely free 
from any debt or other pecuniary incumbrances : John L. Roper, 
President; D. Husted, Vice-President ; M. H. Stevens, Secretary 
and Treasurer; L. D. Starke, S. V. Turner, W. H. Holmes and 
James Y. Leigh. 



THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS. 

CHIEF POINTS OF THE ORDER THE LODGES AND ORGANIZA- 
TIONS IN NORFOLK. 

The Odd Fellows is a charitable and benevolent Order, adapted 
to the circumstances and conditions of men generally. It is of 
ancient origin compared with many secret organizations of the 
present century, and commands respect in most parts of the civilized 
world. It is an order calculated to awaken those friendly feelings 
which else might slumber in the human bosom. By it, men are 
brought together as brethren, and rude emotions occasioned by the 
vicissitudes of time are calmed, and thus are softened the asperities 



240 

of life. Its members are bounfl together by ties too sacred to be 
broken except by individual vices. 

It emboldens its patrons to a persevering course of virtuous con- 
duct — disheartened and discouraged as they may be at times by 
the uncertainties of fortune; and the afflicted widow and fatherless 
child, by the solemn obligations under which every Odd Fellow 
acts, are not to be forgotten, although they are left desolate and 
alone. 

" Once on a time when earth was new, 

I wandered forth in Eden's bowers; 
And sought for emblems of the true, 

Amid it varied sweets and flowers. 

Quick from among the petals rare, 
Appeared an Angel, pure and fair; 
She plucked two flowers — Pink and White — 
And vanished suddenly from sight. 

Another came to cheer the scene, 
And chose two others — Blue and Green ; 
When she' had gone a third appeared, 
And the bright Cardiualis reared ; 
She plucked the Purple dahlia too, 
And spread them all before my view. 

Then all appeared, as pure as air — 
Twined a bright chap let, rich and fair, 
Bound it upon the brow of youth, 
And called it Friendship, Love and Truth." 

We present here a brief review of the Order in this city, which 
will prove interesting to all who read it. 

ODD FELOWS' HALL. 

This building is situated on Church street, near the corner of 
Cove, and is built of brick. The corner-stone was formally laid by 
the Masonic fraternity (the Odd Fellows participating in the cere- 
mony) July 4th, 1854, but on account of the yellow fever epidemic 
in 1855, the house was not completed until the fall of 1856. The 
first floor contains three large stores, and under the main entrance 
to the upper stories there is a splendid cistern which holds about 
50,000 gallons of water. The second is used as the Norfjlk Opera 
House, so well known to our lovers of amusement — the stage of 
which is of the following dimensions: Height from floor to 
grooves, 14 feet ; height from floor to ceiling, 25 feet ; width from 
groove to groove, 23 feet; width from wall to wall, 58 feet; depth 
from front to back, 60 feet. The seating capacity of the auditorium 
is as follows : Dress circle, 401 seats; parquette, 108 seats ; orches- 
tra chairs, 78 seats ; galleries, 350 seats. Total, 937 ; besides four 
private boxes which will accommodate twenty- two persons. The 
third story is used by the Lodges, and contains three large meeting 



241 

rooms. Under the stage of the Opera Honse there are nine dress- 
ing rooms, one " green room/' and one wardrobe room. 

THE ODD FELLOWS' LIBRARY 

is also located in the building, and contains 1,259 volumes of read- 
ing matter, besides various. papers, pamphlets and monthly periodi- 
cals. The library is managed by an Association consisting of three 
trustees from each of the three subordinate Lodges, who are ap- 
pointed annually. Mr. John T. Redmond, the Treasurer of the 
Building Association, is also the business agent of the Opera 
House, and attends to the renting of the same. 

The following is a complete list of the different Lodges in the 
city, elate of organization, present officers, &c. Also of the Build- 
ing Association, which was duly chartered by the State Legislature 
previous to the erection of the hall. 

WASHINGTON LODGE NO. 2. 

This is the oldest Odd Fellows' Lodge in Virginia — No. 1 being 
in West Virginia. It was chartered by the Grand Lodge of the 
United States, September 3, 1833, and as soon as seven Lodges 
were organized in the State a subordinate Grand Lodge was formed, 
and Washington Lodge received its charter from this Grand Lodge 
of Virginia July 14, 1837. The petitioners for the first charter 
were John W. Wolf, John Spalding, Smith Rockwell, T. W. 
Hayes, William P. Dunston and John Wilson. The petitioners 
for the last charter were Dr. E. C. Robinson, John Odenhall, John 
Carson, William Diggs and Jeffries Wilkinson. John D. Graff 
was the M. W. Grand Master *of the State at the time. 

Present Officers — James L. Winston, N. G ; Theo. Stroman, V. 
G.; Joel C. White, Secretary ; J. T. Redmond, Treasurer ; John 
T. Griffin, Chaplain. Number of members, 94. 

LAFAYETTE LODGE NO. 9 

was chartered January 8, 1838, and instituted February 6th of the 
same year. The original petitioners for the charter were L. W. 
Tazewell, Jr., T. M. Martin, M. Gregory, James Watters, Griffin 
Barnes and William C. Nash. The by-laws were revised and 
adopted February 19th, 1869, and approved by the Grand Lodge 
on the 15th day of the following April. 

Present Officers— B. F. Ward, N. G.; C. J. Colona, V. G.; 
William Erxleben, Secretary ; E. Godwin, Treasurer ; John Pur- 
nell, Chaplain. Number of members, 92. 

HARMONY LODGE NO. 19 

was chartered March 7th, 1840, upon the petition of John Morris, 
William Ashley, Walter P'earce, James L. Hathaway, R. D. Bur- 
russ, Thomas F. Constable, J. M. Freeman, William B. Thomas, 
John N. Hall, James Jackson and Charles Burruss. Its by-laws 
were revised and adopted in October, 1873. 

Present Officers — Thomas W. Godfrey, N. G. ; Frank L. Slade, 



242 

V. G. ; James E. McCoy, Recording Secretary ; Thomas C. Gale, 
Financial Secretary ; R. W. Mooreland, Treasurer ; Wm. S. Copes, 
Chaplain. Number of members, 170. 

JERUSALEM ENCAMPMENT, NO. 4, 

was chartered in October, 1837, upon the petition of Jacob Hull, 
E. C. Robinson, Elias Guy, Thomas M. Martin and James L. 
Belote, by the Grand Lodge of the United States, and was adopted 
by the Grand Lodge of Virginia, in 1842. 

Present Officers — Francis DeCordy, C. P. ; George E. Bowden, 
H. P.; F. L Siade, S. W. ; John T. Redmond, Scribe; George 
Groner, Treasurer ; George S. Old field, J. W. Number of mem- 
bers, 78. 

Of the above Lodges, Washington Lodge, No. 2, was the only 
one which kept up its regular meetings during the entire period of 
the war. As soon as the war ended, the other Lodges resumed 
work and have been in successful operation ever since. 

THE ODD FELLOWS 1 BUILDING ASSOCIATION 

is composed of a President and eight Directors, who are charged 
with the management and control of the Odd Fellows' Hall. The 
present officers are: Wm. H. Turner, President; A. L. Hill, 
Secretary; J. T. Redmond, Treasurer; Joel C. White, C. Borum, 
Wm.' Erxleben, A. Jakeman, L. T. Blick, ami G. T. Williams. 
The election of these officers occurs annually. 

THE HEPT*ASOPHS 

OR SEVEN WISE MEN — A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND 
OBJECTS OF THE ORDER. 

This Secret Order is one of the most flourishing in ourcity, con- 
sidering the fact that it is new in this country. The first Conclave or 
Lodge in the United States was organized in New Orleans, in 
April, 1852, and as soon as three Conclaves were formed, they 
organized a Grand Conclave for the State of Louisiana, from which 
sprung all the Lodges now in existence in the Union. In 1856 the 
Grand Conclaves of the various States formed what is now known 
as the Supreme Conclave of the World, and to that body was given 
jurisdiction over all other Conclaves, both Grand and Subordinate. 
The Supreme Conclave was virtually broken up during the late 
unhappy war, but was reorganized in May, 1869, in the city of 
Philadelphia, Pa., and resumed its supreme jurisdiction. The Order 
is very popular among the Germans, and Germany is the only 
country, except the United States, where it is now kept up ; but 
from its rapid growth there, as well as in this country, we may con- 
fidently expect and anticipate its universal spread in all parts of the 
world. 



243 

The present officers of the Supreme Conclave are the following : 
Major Win. E. Foster, Norfolk, Va., Supreme Archon ; Dr. 
Heidensfelder, New Orleans, Supreme Chancellor; O. E. Dudley, 
Esq., Brooklyn, N. Y., Supreme Provost; Dr. S. B. Wolf, Balti- 
more, Supreme Secretary ; George S. Hubbard, Esq., Norfolk, Va., 
Supreme Treasurer. 

OEIGIK OF THE ORDER. 

Almost every secret order has its traditional or historical origin, 
and so has this one. They are called Heptasophs, or Seven Wise 
Men of Greece. Heptasoph is a compound of two Greek words, 
Ilepta, seven, and Sophos, wise. The Greeks were a nation whose 
fame will never die, and whose deeds will ever shine upon the pages 
of ancient history. The language of Greece holds the treasure of 
Divine Truth. Her poets still sing in all climes of the earth. The 
work of her sculptors still lives to show the genius of master hands. 
Her philosophers preside in many important institutions of learn- 
ing in the world. Her statesmen still excite the admiration of 
nations, and the history of her warriors and orators will be read 
with interest by thousands yet unborn. 

The Seven Wise Men from whom the Order derives its name 
were to- wit : Thales, of Miletus; Solon, of Athens; Bias, of 
Priene ; Chilo, of Sparta ; Pitticus, of Mitylene ; Cleobulus, of 
Rhodes ; and Epimenides, of Crete. Thales was considered to be the 
wisest of them all, for he was a great philosopher who studied the 
heavenly bodies and the elementary principles of nature. He 
traveled in Egypt and taught its people how to measure the height 
of their pyramids by the shadows they cast upon the ground at a 
certain time of the day. He gave many other evidences of much 
wisdom, which won for him great renown among his people and 
brethren. He used to thank God for three things : first, he was a 
human and not a brute; second, he was a man and not a woman; 
third, he was a Greek and not a barbarian. 'Twas he who wisely 
said : " The most difficult thing is to know thyself; the easiest 
thing, to give advice to others." He also said that "friends absent 
should be remembered as well as when present." 

Solon was an Athenian philosopher and law-maker. He de- 
scended from the King of Athens, but in his day was poor but not 
obscure. He was also a poet, and it was through the inspiring 
effect of one of his patriotic psalms that the Athenians captured the 
Island of Salamis, after having been repeatedly repulsed by a neigh- 
boring nation, in terrific battle. It was he who advised another 
war in which the Athenians were successful, and by which their 
wrongs were rectified and their people were satisfied. 

Of Chilo but little is recorded, except that he lived to be very 
old, and died for joy in the arms of his son when he returned vic- 
torious from the Olympic games. 



244 

Bias was noted not only for his wisdom, but for his great gen- 
erosity and noble spirit. He died in the arras of a grandson while 
pleading the cause of a friend. He left some wise maxims for his 
people, among them the following : "Never desire impossibilties ;. 
endure' misfortune with patience ; great mind's alone can properly 
bear sudden reverse of fortune ; if you are handsome do handsome 
things ; praise not a worthless man for the sake of his wealth ; do 
all the good you can and give the glory to God." 

Pitticus was the patriotic Greek who, when the Athenians were 
about to attack his city, (Mitylene) challenged their General to 
single combat, with the understanding that the result should decide 
the war, and much bloodshed be thereby avoided. The challenge 
was accepted, and he killed his enemy with a broad sword. He was 
then chosen ruler of his city and governed for ten years, during 
which time he made laws in poetry — one of which was to this 
effect : " A crime committed by a person when drunk should 
receive double the punishment which it would merit if the offender 
were sober." His great motto was this : " Whatever you do, do 
it .well." 

Of Cleobulus very little is known, except that he was very wise. 

Epimenides, the last of the Seven Wise Men, had a great reputa- 
tion for sanctity, and was often called upon to perform some sacred 
rite. The Cretians were superstitious enough to be believe that he 
had communication with the gods. From the characters and 
teachings of these Wise Men, it will be seen that justice and the 
general welfare of the people were the subjects nearest their hearts, 
and from the history of these sages originated this Order. 

" OBJECTS OF THE ORDER. 

The objects of the Order are to benefit mankind, to elevate the 
moral standard, and to bring men into a closer relationship with 
each other. The Heptasophs inculcate no special religious views 
beyond the acknowledgment of Deity. They invade no sanctuary 
of worship, and meddle with no sects, creeds, modes of faith, nor 
politics. They strive to cultivate the moral and intellectual facul- 
ties of their brethren, and increase in knowledge and virtue. The 
perversity of human nature leads on to selfishness and distrust, but 
this Order teaches charity, benevolence, confidence, true friendship 
and brotherly love. The Grand Conclave of Virginia was organized 
bv the Subordinate Conclaves, in March, 1869, and now has 
specialjurisdictionover the following Lodges in this city to-wit : 

VIRGINIA CONCLAVE NO. 1 

was chartered by the Supreme Conclave, May 16th, 1868, upon 
the petition of E. D. Langley, E. E. Hathaway, Geo. W. Walker, 
Thomas H. Tucker, H. M. Hill, C. Lloyd, H. O. Hill, Robert 
Steele, Herbert Hope and others. It was then organized with 
thirty three members. 



245 

Present Officers — F. DeCordy, Arehon ; D. D. Hitchings, C. ; 
James Vickhouse, Provost; J. W Purnell, Prelate; Wm. Raw- 
lins, Treasurer ; C. T. Davis, Recording Scribe; Wm, F. Britzell, 
Financial Scribe; James F. Parker, Inspector-General; H. K. 
Bell, Herald ; W. C. West, Warden ; James N. Peb worth, Sentinel. 
Present number of members, sixty. 

FRIENDSHIP CONCLAVE NO. 2, 

was chartered by the Supreme Conclave January 4th, 1869, upon 
petition of J. Richard Lewellen, J. P. Hodges, W. E. Foster, W. 
H. Halstead, R. H. Kellinger, Henry C. Harrison, A. J. Dal ton, 
W. A. Edwards, James Barron Hope, A. H. Cherry and others. 

Present Officers — E. Wharton, Arehon ; W. F. Gregory, C; 
J. Arrington, Provost; Miles Diggs, Prelate; James M. Black, 
Treasurer ; P. H. Dann, R. S.; E. M. Solomon, F. S.; Amos P. 
Jordan, Inspector General ; R. D. Satchell, Herald ; J. K. Barnes, 
Warden ; W. C. White, Sentinel. Present number of members, 52. 

Thes ; Conclaves are in fine condition ; the members are taking 
fresh interest in the precepts and tenets of their beautiful Order, 
and the day is not far distant when their membership will be 
doubled. A higher branch of the Order has been organized under 
the jurisdiction of the Supreme Conclave, called the Encampment, 
which has nothing to do with the Grand Conclave of the State. A 
member, however, has to pass through a subordinate Conclave 
before he can become a member of it. 

OLIVE ENCAMPMENT NO. 1 

was chartered June 17th, 1868, by the Supreme Conclave, and is 
the only one in the State. The names of W. E. Foster, Thomas 
H. Tucker, William F. Britzell, William Baker, E. M. Solomon, 
P. H. Dann, J. K. Barnes, Samuel Hofflin, J. J. Pullen, C. T. 
Davis, A. H. Dudley, H. F. Lewis and others appear on the orig- 
inal charter. 

Present Officers— George S. Hubbard, E. C.j W. H. Wheeland, 
C; J. F. Parker, P.; E. M. Soloman, R. S.; P. H. Dann, F. S.; 
W. F. Britzell, I. G.; William Baker, T.; W. F. Edwards, P. 
Present number of members, 35. 

All of these Lodges meet at Heptasophian Hall, on Bank street. 
The two Conclaves have weekly meetings, and the Encampment 
holds semi-monthly meetings. 

THE RED MEN. 

ORIGIN, HISTORY AND OBJECTS OF THE ORDER — PRESENT OF- 
FICERS OF WYANDOTTE TRIBE NO. 42. 

Christopher Columbus, believing that there were undiscovered 
and inhabited countries in existance, danced attendance upon 
and sought the favor of the Spanish Queen Isabella, in the 



246 

fifteenth century, beseeching her to fit out vessels anrl a command 
in order that he might go into the drooping west and find another 
continent. The noble Queen heard him, for his much speaking 
and little fleet was fitted and rigged. Guided by the mariner's 
faithful needle the bold adventurer set sail in search of other lands. 
Days and weeks were spent in the dreary voyage,and still the same 
wide expanse of water and sky greeted his anxious and despairing 
crew. The monsters of the deep glared from out the depths of the 
sea upon the frail barks which sailed above their beds. No friendly 
sails of returning vessels hailed them in that vast expanse of water 
to tell ol news in distant ports. All hearts sickened and sighed for 
home save the hopeful and dauntless heart of Columbus, and he 
alone, with prophetic knowledge and wishful eye, saw a Western 
shore. Strange birds came twittering through the sky. The air 
was changed from the salt and breezy smell of the sea, and soon 
the sailor beheld the blessed land whereon he hoped to set his foot 
once more, and as he neared the coast, he was greeted by the strange 
red man of the forest — the solemn and mysterious child of the 
Great spirit ! Who can give account of these red men ? 

The Jewish Bible contains the history of the twelve tribes of 
Israel, and furnishes knowledge of the Gentile nations with whom 
they had been in contact. The Egyptian and Babylonish records ten 
of their people and thenations with whom they had lived in peace and 
striven in battle. Alexander the Great marched across Asia, and 
beside the Indus, captured the Mongolian and the " heathen 
Chinee." Roman and Grecian history speak of strange nations and cu- 
rious people. But in all this vast record of time there was no word of 
the Red Man of America — no type, no generation from which he 
could be traced. Modern history and experience teaches us that 
the Indian dies without fear and believes in the immortality of the 
soul. He looks not for punishment in death, but for reward. To 
him the " Kishe Maneto " — the Master of Life, is not fierce and 
avenging, but is a kind, loving and tender father, who folds his poor 
children to rest and happiness, when the chase of life is finished in 
the forest of the earth. His religion teaches him unfaltering trust 
in the Great Spirit. His honor demands that he keeps with un- 
blemished faith the secrets and counsels of his Chief and people, 
and no fear of death, no promise of reward, can induce a true In- 
dian to betray or turn against his tribe. 

THE IMPROVED ORDER. 

The secret order of which we write is known as the Improved 
Order of Red Men, and is founded upon beautiful traditions of the 
original Indian Tribes. It is a secret society of men, formed to aid 
in bearing one another's burdens, to comfort and cheer one and 
another in distress and old age, to create happiness for each other 
and to enjoy each other's society and true friendship. From all the 



247 

evidence in our possession the Order was first organized at Fort 
Mifflin, on the Delaware river, and the year 1813 was the time when 
the first "Council Fire was kindled." None but soldiers were 
admitted as members — it was intended for their benefit only. It 
will be remembered u by some that during that period of our country's 
history there were two parties — the war party and the anti-war 
party. Between these factions there had arisen a bitter animosity, 
which spread itself in such a manner as to cause alarm. It forced 
its way into the fort and soon began to disseminate among the 
soldiers. Then it was that Captain James W. Parker, (the Com- 
mander of the post) and Lieutenant Williams, proposed and effected 
among the soldiers the organization of this Order, and fortified it 
by signs, grips and passwords, in order to dipel discord and en- 
gender friendship. From this " Fort Tribe" the Order was carried 
into other States, and after the war, civilians were admitted. 

In 1817 the " Tribe of Columbia" was organized in Philadel- 
phia, and the Order continued to grow until 1835, when a new era 
marked its history, and it Avas placed upon a proper basis. The 
Past Chiefs and other representatives of the various tribes met in 
Baltimore, May 20th, 1835, and organized the " Great Council of 
Maryland and the United States," when the society was announced 
to the world as the Improved Order of Red men, and it is now 
shorn of its political and military character, and has for its motto 
" Freedom, Friendship and Charity." In this Order are adminis- 
tered no oaths binding you to any political or religious creed; there 
is no binding of hands or feet, and as you enter the wigwam so you 
depart — a free man. Free indeed ! for there is recognized not the 
arbitrary, but the necessary grades of the outer world. Socialistic 
barriers are there broken ; birth, education and wealth must yield 
the step to native honor and true nobility of soul ; and he is great- 
est in the tribe — no matter how rugged the exterior — who is the 
purest within, whose heart is the warmest, and whose love is the 
most catholic. 

WYANDOTTE TRIBE NO. 42. 

This is the name of the only tribe in existence in this city. It was 
chartered by the Great Council of Virginia, September 30th, 1873, 
upon the application of E. W. Gaines and " twenty other pale 
faces," and was duly organized and set to work. Since then it has 
greatly prospered, and now numbers 100 members. 

Present Officers.— E. M. Solomon, V. P.; W. C. West, W. S.; 
A. J. Tarrall, Sr., S.j James F. Parker, Jr , S.; J. P. Epes, C. of 
R.; James Wilson, K. of W. 



248 
KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. 

ORIGIN OF THE ORDER — A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TWO LODGES 

IN THIS CITY. 

" In faith and hope the world will disagree ; 
But all mankind's concern is charity." — Pope. 

In presenting a brief history of the early origin of this Order to 
our readers, and in giving an account of the original organization 
and present condition of the Lodges in this city we impart infor- 
mation to persons not connected with the growing prosperity and 
popularity of this established secret society. A writer well known 
to this craft has justly said that our ancestors were wont to make 
their holidays jubilant with merry meetings. The church, appre- 
ciating the wants of our social nature, did not allow the Pagan world 
to absorb the recreation of the times. She appointed the needed 
festivals and consecrated them by religious authority. Thus, Merry 
Christmas remains to exercise its beneficent influence upon old and 
young. The Knights of Pythias have comprehended the moral, 
social and physical wants of the times, and have adapted their 
Order to these conventionalities. They have also appreciated 
chivalry in its legitimate sense, making it a test for separating the 
cultivated gentleman from the ignorant boor, the man of honor 
from the trickster and charlatan, the genial-true-hearted friend who 
would relieve our sorrows from those who labor for mercenary and 
pecuniary ends. The Order cultivates the chivalry of true man- 
hood — an union of hearts and hands, which infuses a new and 
better life into the whole social system. The Knights do not 
put their armor on to contend against imaginary wrongs, but to 
combat the errors of prejudice and tradition which rob mankind 
of many comforts and genuine friendship. The story of 

DAMON AND PYTHIAS 

affords a noble example of friendship and chivalry, and is familiar 
to thousands. When we know how noble Pythias pledged his life, 
and was ready to sacrifice it for the honor of his friend Damon, and 
how the latter appreciated and rescued his faithful friend, 
and thereby won the admiration of his enemies and saved 
his own life and reputation, we naturally say, " there are 
but few such men in these times." But this Order teaches the same 
principles of true friendship, and illustrates these noble characters 
by its works. If its members cannot easily attain the perfection of 
such examples and teachings, they can at least strive for it. They 
can weep with sorrowing friends and rejoice with those that are 
happy. They can rest the weary head, smooth the pillow of the 
dying, and lighten the afflictions of the broken-hearted. They can 



249 

hush the voice of the slanderer, breathe peace to a distracted and 
discordant land and to divided and estranged families and friends. 
This is the mission of the Knights of Pythias, and when, by the 
grace of God, it is wholly accomplished, they will receive the 
plaudit of "Well done thou good and faithful servant ; enter thou 
into the joys of thy Lord." 

THE COVENANT 

between Jonathan and David, as recorded in the book of Samuel, 
chapter twentieth, was not a mere convenient arrangement for the 
time being to meet the exigencies of the hour, but for all time, for 
they swore both in the name of the Lord, saying, "The Lord be 
between me and thee, and between my seed and thy seed forever." 
And upon this covenant is laid the foundation of the friendship and 
brotherly love, taught by this charitable institution. 

FOUNDATION OF THE ORDER. 

The Order of Knights of Pythias, in which there blends so much 
strength, beauty and symplicity in brotherly fellowship, with true 
knightly friendship inculcated and maintained, was founded in its 
present system of government at Washington, D. C, at which place 
the first Grand Lodge was organized April 8th, 1864, with Joseph 
T. K. Plant as the Grand Chancellor. The present Ritual of the 
Order dates from that time, although the principles upon which it is 
based are coeval with the oldest institutions of the world. During 
the many great convulsions of olden times in the affairs of nations, 
in which governments were overthrown and empires rose and fell, 
the long established laws and customs of society were uprooted and 
changed. Through all of these varied changes we have reasons for 
believing that the principles of the Pythian Order remained intact, 
although the forms and ceremonies of the opening and closing of 
Lodges, together with the beautiful initiation service were lost, and 
with them perished the unnumbered volumes of records of the 
heroic deeds of men whose lives were spent in the service of Cove- 
nanted Friendship — thousands of whom immolated themselves 
upon that altar for the sakes of those with whom they were 
Knighted Brothers. We have the story of Damon and Pythias 
from profane history alone, and if 'twere only from one historian it 
might be doubted ; but one after another of the great writers of the 
past corroborate the story and dwells earnestly upon the strength 
of the friendship that bound these two noble men together. 

The Grand Lodge of Virginia was formed upon a charter granted 
by the Supreme Grand Lodge at Washington, in 1868, and many 
subordinate Lodges were authorized and chartered io this as well as 
other States. The interest then taken in the Order fully established 
its success, and it has continued to grow ever since. The first officers 
of the Grand Lodge were Hugh Latham, V. G. P. ; W. H. Wade, 



250 

Gr. C. ; James W. Mugan, V. G. C, and their subordinates. On 
the 16th of April, 1869, they granted a charter to 

NORFOLK LODGE NO. 9, 

upon the petition of the following charter members, viz : Henry 
Armstrong, J. W. Thompson, D. P. Morris, W. A. Edwards, J. 
D. Parham, N. F. McCann, J. J. Sturdivant, Henry L. Turner, 
W. R. Russell and J. B. Upshur. Soon thereafter the Lodge was 
duly organized, and has prospered until now. The following is a 
list of its 

Present Officers— W. G. Wilbern, P. C; Walter A. Edwards, 
CO.; E. T. Thomas, V. C.; R. W. B. Happer, Prelate; C. E. 
Davis, M. at A.; W. S. Morris, K. of R. and S.; J. G. Spruill, M. of 
Ex.; W. S. Rudd, M. of F.; George W. Hill, I. G.; Duncan 
McLeod, O. G. Present number of members, 103. 

CHARITY LODGE NO. 10 

was chartered August 16th, 1869, upon the application of the fol- 
lowing charter members, viz.: T. F. Rogers, T. R. Gary, John J. 
Morris, A. W. Moise, J. C. Rowe, J. VV. Grandy, Jerome Baxter, 
W. L. Broaddus, R. Evans and others. It was organized soon 
after the organization of No. 9, and is likewise in a flourishing 
condition. The following; is a list of its 

Present Officers— E. W. Gaines, P. C; Jacob Anthonv, C. C; 
J. L. Rogerson, V. C; W. S. Franklin, Prelate ; B. F. Crandall, 
M. at A.;Chas. Pickett, K. of R. and S.; William Gibbs, M. of F.; 
J, W. Grandy, M. of Ex.; M. W. Holmes, I. G.; R. R. Pitts, O. 
G. Present number of members, 56. 



TEMPERANCE. 

the st. mary's total abstinence and benevolent society 
of norfolk, va. 

The St. Mary's Catholic Total Abstinence Society of Norfolk, 
(No. 582, C. T. A. Union, of America,) was organized on the 23d 
day of January, 1876, with twenty-one members. The officers 
then elected were as follows : 

Charles A. McCourt, President; William E. Glennan, Vice- 
President; Thomas M. Barry, Treasurer; George W. Downing, 
Recording Secretary ; John J. Hodges, Financial Secretary ; Thos. 
McGlennan, Sergeant-at-Arms ; Rev. M. O'Keefe, Spiritual 
Director. 

Board of Investigation — C. A. McCourt, W. E. Glennan, Rev. 
M. O'Keefe, G. W. Downing, John Doran and Mark Reynolds. 

The pledge which each member is required to take is as follows : 
" I promise with the Divine assistance, and in honor of the sacred 



251 

thirst and agony of our blessed Redeemer, to abstain from all in- 
toxicating liquors; to prevent as far as in me lies, by a Ivice and 
example, the sin of intemperance in others, and to discountenance 
the drinking customs of society." The pledge binds a member, 
while he remains in the Society, to abstain both in public and in 
private, from intoxicating liquors, except when in sickness he may 
be ordered by a regular physician to use them ; and then only in the 
quantity and for the time required and prescribed. 

The constitution requires all members of the Society to receive 
Holy Communion in a body four times a year, and on the days ap- 
pointed by the By-laws. No person is admitted as a member who 
is not of good moral character and standing, and who is not willing to 
abide by the Constitution and By-laws ; nor any person who is in 
any way unfit to earn a livelihood, or without visible means of 
support, nor any one who sells or manufactures intoxicating liquors, 
or permits his wife to do so; and no one is admitted as a beneficiary 
member who is not of sound bodily health. If any member be 
convicted of felony, or other disgraceful crime; if he follow any 
unlawful or disreputable calling ; or if he or his wife commence to 
manufacture or sell ardent spirits, or in any other manner become 
interested in the sale of such liquors, lie shall cease ipso facto to be 
a member, and it shall be the duty of the Investigating Committee 
to strike hismamefrom the roll of the Society. Should any mem- 
ber be so unfortunate as to violate his pledge, upon proof thereof, 
he shall be reprimanded in full presence of the Society by the 
Spiritual Director, and be fined such a sum as the Board may di- 
rect ; but if a member violate his pledge a second time, he shall 
forfeit the sum of $5, and be put on probation for three months — 
during which time he shall be denied all benefits of the Society 
If the pledge be violated the third time by any member, promp 
and absolute expulsion is the penalty for the offence. In case of 
sickness the Society allows a member $5 per week, provided he be 
in good standing and fellowship, and the sum of $20 is paid to a 
member upon the death of his wife, and $40 to the widow of a 
member who dies while in good standing in the Society. 

This Society was admitted into the Catholic Total Abstinence 
Union of America, on the 13th of July, 1876. Its present mem- 
bership numbers 65. The only losses to the body since its or- 
ganization have been, to- wit; three members resigned and five 
names stricken from the rolls. 

Present -Officers. — Wm. Newstead, President ; Geo. B. Hart 
Vice-President ; Chas. A. McCourt, Treasurer ; Geo. W. Downing' 
Recording Secretary ; Jas. Ferris, Financial Secretary; Jas. Camp< 
Sergeant-at-Arms ; Rev. Mathew O'Keefe, Spiritual Director. 

The Board of Investigation consists of the President, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Recording Secretary, and John Doran and Lawrence Fore- 



252 

man. The Auditing Committee consists of the same officers, and 
Robert D Parrott. 



THE RECHABITES AND GOOD TEMPLARS. 

The Independent Order o£ Rechabites is a temperance or total 
abstinence organization, and has for its object the noble and glorious 
teachings of " Temperance, Fortitude and Justice." The Order is 
in a very prosperous condition in Norfolk aud no doubt accom- 
plishes much good. The Tent here is designated by the title of 

PALESTINE TENT NO. 40, 

and was chartered by Columbia District Tent No. 2, Independent 
Order of North America, August 12th, 1871, upon the petition of 
J. P. Epes, L. Morris, J. M. Coleman, Frank Maitland, E. W. 
Gaines, A. W. Fentress and others. 

Present Officers. — W. H. King, Shepherd ; Richard Morris, P. 
C. R.; George W. Black, C. R.; Cader R. Dozier, D. R.; John T. 
Cross, R. S.; R. R. Morris, F. S.; E. Black, Treasurer ; James L. 
Belote, Levite ; James H. Nottingham, I. G.; R. W. Barrett, O. 
G.; Jerome P. Epes, Chaplain ; J. E. Coffman, R. S. to C. R.; A. 
J. Dozier, L. S. to C. R.; Charles R. Oliver, R. S. to D. R.; J. F. 
Dozier, L. S. to D. R. This Tent has nearly 100 members. 

JUNIOR ORDER. 

Arabian Tent No. 12, Junior Branch, Independent Order of 
Rechabites, was organized January 25th, 1874, with the following 
charter members : Jackson Gordon, Charles Plummer, Walter V. 
Eustice, Charles W. Bain, William Pettis and others. It is com- 
posed entirely of boys, and is in a very flourishing condition. It 
has about fifty members. This Tent is under the control of the 
members of the Senior Order, who are unremitting in their atten- 
tions. 

Present Officers. — Robert Morris, S.; James Brownly, P. C. R.; 
William R. Dashield, C. R.; Thomas Dashield, D. R.; William R. 
Johnson, R. S.; Leroy Oliver, F. S.; J. P. Epes, Treasurer; 
Sidney Belote, Levite ; Owen Belote, I. G.; Charles Whitehurst, 
O. G. 

THE GOOD TEMPLARS 

is another total abstinence Order upon the principles which govern 
the Rechabites, with this difference : The Good Templars' obliga- 
tion is taken for life, and he who breaks the oath, forfeits his honor 
in the estimation of the brethren of the Order. 

Harmony Lodge, G. T., of this city, was organized October 



253 

15th, 1875, by Theodore N. Ramsay, Esq., of North Carolina. 
The charter was granted by the Grand Lodge upon the petition of 
William F. Gregory, Mrs. Mattie Gregory, W. S. Morris, Miss 
Lnla Gale, J. W. Moore, Mrs. Susan Moore, E. Black, Miss Kate 
Barrett and about twenty other members- 
Present Officers — Duncan McLeod, W. C. T. ; Miss Cornelia 
Thomas, W. V. T. ; Luther Edwards, W. C. ; Miss Cora Elling- 
ton, W. T. ; Robert Morris, W. F. S. ; W. C. Small, W. R. S.j W. 
F. Ingram, W. M. ; Miss Nettie Thomas, W. I. G.j John J. Jones, 
W. O. G. ; W. F. Gregory, D. G. C. T. 

Present number of members, 35. The ladies connected with 
this Order in Norfolk take a great deal of interest in it and are 
zealous in their efforts to save young men from the evils of the 
" intoxicating cup." 

OUR JEWISH CITIZENS. 

THEIR SECRET ORDERS IN NORFOLK. 

The Jewish population of Norfolk cannot be correctly given, 
numerically, at this time, without much trouble", but may be esti- 
mated at about seven hundred persons above the age of six years. 
The general characteristics of this people, historically known as the 
" Scattered Nation," are the same in Norfolk as in other cities ; and 
when properly considered, these traits of character, hereditary na- 
tional, reflect credit upon the Jews. They are peaceable, quiet, 
industrious, frugal, smart, virtuous, and moral according to their 
religious faith and precepts. Their success in the business pursuits 
of life fully establishes their claim to be an industrious, economical 
and energetic people. The absence of their names upon the records 
of our courts, prisons, almshouses and public orphan asylums 
proves that they are inoffensive and self-sustaining as a class. They 
are kind and sociable in their nature, generous and affectionate to 
their families, brotherly and charitable in their secret orders, and 
remarkably liberal in their religious and political views. They are 
not forbidden by their religion or their associations from joining 
secret orders ; hence we find them here, as well as in other 
places, prominent among the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of 
Pythias, Heptasophs and other brotherly and charitable organi- 
zations. They also have secret orders peculiar to their own race, 
and have Lodges in Norfolk. The oldest of these Orders is known 
as 

THE I. O. B. B., 

or Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, which has for its object the 
great work of uniting the Sons of Israel in promoting the highest 
interests of humanity — especially to alleviate the wants of the poor 



254 

and needy, to visit and attend the sick, to protect and assist the 
widow and orphan, and to develop and elevate the mental and 
moral character of the Jewish race, by a liberal support of science 
and art, and the inculcation of the holiest and purest principles of 
honor and patriotism : and above all, to promulgate the doctrines 
and teachings of Judaism among its professors, and to defend, 
preserve, and diffuse their faith into' society at large. The cardinal 
principles of the Order are as follows : 

1st. " All men are brothers, sons of one God, vested with the 
same inalienable rights. 

2d. " While nations and associations must be governed by law — 
the incarnation of absolute justice — the social relations among indi- 
viduals, should be regulated by the dictates of love. 

3d. "Charity and enlightenment are for suffering humanity, and 
are the choicest gifts of love. The Sons of the Covenant are 
specially charged with the practice of the former, and the diffusion 
of the latter. 

4th. " The great interests of humanity are best promoted by the 
combined efforts of associated philanthropists, and protected against 
all undue interference of opponents, by wise measures and provi- 
sions. 

5th. "The divine and everlasting doctrines of Judaism, are the 
basis of civilization, enlightenment, charity and fraternization; 
therefore, their promulgation and observance are but the inculcation 
and practice of all these great boons of humanity." 

MAON LODGE NO. 172, 

I. O. B. B., was chartered in January, 1871, upon the petition of 
H. Hamburger, Z. Hofheimer, I. Goodman, S. Weil, E. Campe, 
J. Adelsdorf, Charles Myers and fifteen other members. It was 
formally instituted on the 3d of March following, and has now 
about fifty members. The present officers are S. Weil, President ; 
I. Hecht, Vice-President; S. Haas, Recording Secretary ; I. 
Moritz, Financial Secretary ; T. Goodman, Treasurer; S. Moritz, 
Mentor; E. Jacobs, Assistant Mentor; F. Selig, Warden ; J. 
Fisher, Guardian. Meetings are held on the fourth Sunday of each 
month at Castle Hall, Main street. The Lodge is in a flourishing 
condition and is productive of much good. 

O. K. S. B., 

or Order Kesher Shel Barzel, is another secret order among the 
Jews, which no doubt originated from the Order of B'nai B'rith, 
as its objects are almost identical. This Order is very popular in 
the United States. It has a Supreme Lodge, with headquarters in 
New York ; the Supreme Body charters District Grand Lodges, 
and they charter the subordinate Lodges. 



255 

The cardinal doctrines of the O. K. S. B. are to-wit : 

1. "The union of all Israelites upon the broad platform of Ju- 
daism, for the furtherance and maintenance of its time-honored 
principles. 

2. " The moral support of all means tending to educate and ele- 
vate the Hebrew race. 

3. "The support and care of the widow, the orphan and the 
aged, and the diffusion of the spirit of charity and universal be- 
nevolence." 

The motto of the Order is the following — " Truth, Love and 
Justice." 

twin city lodge no. 129 (o. k. s. b.) 
was chartered by District Grand Lodge No. 3, of Pennsylvania, on 
March 14th, 1875, upon the application of twenty-six members, 
among whom were the following names of the prime movers in 
perfecting the organization, to-wit: Bev. S. Mendelsohn, Jacob 
Hecht, Moses E. Myers and C. S. Blun. The Lodge now has 
thirty-six members, and though this is the smallest membership of 
any Lodge in the District, its fund is the largest, comparatively 
speaking. Its flourishing condition at this early stage of its ex- 
istence speaks well, and points to a prosperous and successful future. 

Present Officers — M. Umstadter, President; C. S. Blun, Vice- 
President ; M. E. Myers, Secretary ; J. B. Lowenberg, Treasurer ; 
E. Fishier, Assistant Secretary; Isaac Gutman, Conductor; Samuel 
Haas, Assistant Conductor; Sol. Hecht, Outside Guardian ; J. 
Whitlock, Inside Guardian ; E. Ball, S. W. Seldner, S. Jacobow- 
sky, Trustees. 

The stated meetings of the Lodge are held on the first and third 
Sundays of each month, provided those days do not occur upon a 
Jewish holiday. Quarterly meetings are held in March, June, Sep- 
tember, and December. Independent of these secret organizations, 
the Jews of Norfolk have two Synagogues with a large member- 
ship of worshippers. They have schools for their children, and are 
now talking of erecting an Orphan Asylum. 

The Jewish ladies of the city also have a charitable and benevo- 
lent Association which has been kept up for years, and is still in a 
a prosperous condition — dispensing charity among worthy objects, 
and doing good in many ways. 



THE I. O. M. 

The Independent Order of Mechanics is a benevolent institution, 
more like Odd Fellowship than any other Order ; but it is not 
founded strictly upon Bible texts, as are most of the ancient orders — 
it is more of a practical and classical society, but, nevertheless, 



256 

teaches Friendship, Morality, and Brotherly Love: also, harmony, 
wisdom and unity of hearts in the bonds of peace and good fellow- 
ship. There are only two Lodges now in operation in Virginia — 
one in Alexandria and one here. However, the Order is very 
prosperous in the Western States. The Grand Lodge of Virginia 
was organized in 1872, and a charter was granted to 

ATLANTIC LODGE NO. 8, 

of Norfolk, in April of the same year, upon the petition of Major 
Wm. E. Foster, M. H. Stevens, L. T. Blick, Joel C. White and 
others. 

Present Officers. -W. E. Foster, W. M.; James Bryan, J. M.; 
Joel 0. White, R. S.; J. E. McCoy, F. S.; S. T. Oliver, Treasurer; 
Aug. Peed, Conductor ; W. T. Owens, Chaplain. Present number 
of members, 59. Meetings are held every Friday night in Castle 
Hall, Main street. 

The Grand Lodge of Virginia was disbanded in 1874, at the 
time the several Lodges in Richmond, Va., were broken up. At- 
lantic Lodge No. 8, of Norfolk, is working prosperously under the 
jurisdiction of the Supreme Lodge of the United States, which 
meets once a year at different places. 

MEXICAN VETERANS. 

The Norfolk and Portsmouth survivors of the Mexican War 
have formed themselves into an Association, sociable and charitable 
in its nature. They are petitioners to Congress for the removal of 
the disabilities which were imposed upon t.hem by reason of their 
being true Southern men, who espoused the Southern cause during 
the late war, and it would be a simple act of justice to these gallant 
"old men" if Congress would harken unto their appeal. It is not 
right that they should be denied certain rights and privileges because 
they gave aid and sympathy to their native State in time of war. 
What they did in the Mexican war cannot be blotted from the 
records ; and their devotion to the cause of Southern independence, 
and principles which they thought right, is but another evidence 
that they are entitled to honor and credit for their valor and 
patriotism. 

The Association here comprizes 71 members, and there are in the 
two "cities by the Sea," 13 widows, who are justly entitled to pen- 
sions if Congress will only remove the disabilities so unjustly 
imposed. The Norfolk and Portsmouth Society was organized 
October 22d, 1873. Its present officers are as follows : President, 
James F. Milligan ; Vice-President, John Smith; Secretary, John 
D. Simms ; Treasurer, Benjamin Peddle ; Chaplain, Rev. P. A. 
Peterson ; Marshal, John Fullerton ; Attorney, George D. Parker. 



'257 
ST. JOSEPH'S SOCIETY. 

The organization bearing the above name is a charitable and be- 
nevolent one, instituted April 9th, 1871, to promote the interests 
of the Sunday School of St. Mary's Catholic Church. It is ben- 
eficiary — pecuniarily and otherwise, to its members, who coutribute 
a monthly sum of money as dues. The work of this Society has 
been successful and productive of good results. Its present officers 
are: 

Joseph C. Carroll, President. 

B. McNally, Vice-President. 

Robert fe\ Lawler, R. S. 

J. J. Burke, F. S. 

J. B. Loughran, Treasurer. 

Rev. John Hagan, Chaplain. 

James Camp, Messenger. 

ST. PATRICK'S SOCIETY 

Is another beneficial and charitable Association, conducted bv 
the Catholics of Norfolk. It was first organized January, 1852, 
but was broken up by the yellow fever epidemic, in 1855, and was 
not re-organized until June, 1868, when the following officers were 
elected : M. Glennan, President ; M. Flanagan, Vice-President ; 
Samuel Phillips, Recording Secretary ; John Samuel, Assistant 
Secretary ; Daniel Maloney, Treasurer ; Rev. M. O'Keefe, Chap- 
lain; W. Hannan, Messenger. 

The teachings of this Society point out the duties of man, as 
exacted by the requirements of religion, of morality and humanity. 
Its present officers are to- wit : 

Daniel Maloney, President. 

¥m. Newstead, Vice-President. 

George B. Hart, Recording Secretary. 

John R. Coleman, Financial Secretary. 

Wm. P. Hennelley, Treasurer. 

Dennis Mack, Sergeant-at-Arms. 

THE NORFOLK PRESS. 

The newspapers of Norfolk now in existence, are as follows, 
according to age: 

The Norfolk Day Book, a Republican afternoon penny- 
paper, owned and published by John R. Hathaway, Esq., who is 
also its Editor-in Chief. Local Editor, Maj. James F. Milligan ; 
Bookkeeper and Portsmouth Reporter^ Thomas G. Minton,, Esq. 



258 

The Norfolk Virginian, a daily and weekly Democratic 
Journal, owned and published by M. Glennan, Esq. ; Editor-in- 
Chief, Captain John S. Tucker Local Reporters, H. W. Burton 
and Henry L. Brooke ; Portsmouth Reporter, J. H. Wilcox ; 
Book-keeper, S. S. Nottingham, Jr. ; Collector and Solicitor, Wm. 
F. Gregory ; Assistant Collector and Solicitor, J. A. Dalby. ■ 

The Norfolk Landmark, a daiiy and weekly Democratic 
paper, published by an incorporated Company, under the firm and 
style of James Barron Hope & Co., (first issued October 1st, 1873). 
Editor-in-Chief, Captain James Barron Hope; Business Manager 
and Cashier, Joseph L. Youiiii, Esq. Local Editor, C. E. Perkins, 
Esq. ; Portsmouth Reporter, li. E. Glassett, Esq. ; Collector and 
Solicitor, W. Thompson Barron, Esq. 

The Public Ledger, a Democratic afternoon penny-paper, 
published by J. Richard Lewellen, Walter a. Edwards and Jos. G. 
Fiveash. Editor-in-Chief, Col. J. Richard Lewellen ; Local 
Reporter and Financier, Jos. G. Fiveash, Esq. 

THE HUNTER WOODIS CLUB. 

In the Fall of 1872, a Social Club, bearing the above name was 
formed by a few young men of St. Mary's Catholic Church. The 
name was given in honor of the memory of the lamented Hunter 
Woodis, Ex-Mayor of the city, who died in 1855. 

The first meeting of the Club was held December 22d, 1872, 
when the By-Laws and Constitution were formed by a Committee 
appointed for the purpose, and the following officers were elected : 

James O'Rourke, President ; Robert D. Parrott, Vice-President ; 

Thomas A. Farren, Secretary; Wm. Donovan, Treasurer. 

Board of Directors — M. Glennan, Thomas Kevill, Samuel C. 
Phillips, M. Flannagan, Frank O'Connor, and Wm. A. Power. 

The Club was incorporated by act of the Legislature, in 1874, 
and numbers now about sixty members. Its present officers are : 

Robert D. Parrott, President. 

Wm. Hart, Vice-President. 

John R. Coleman, Treasurer. 

Wm. E. Glennan, Recording Secretary. 

J. J. Burke, Financial Secretary. 

P. Magee, Librarian. 

Directors — Samuel C. Phillips, J. J. Lawler, and Jas. Ferris. 

THE VIRGINIA CLUB. 

The Virginia Club is another social organization, instituted in 
Semtember, 1863, and incorporated by the Legislature in 1874. 
The Club Room is located on Main street, next door below the 



259 

Customhouse, and continues to grow in the favor of its patrons. 
The present officers of the Club are, to wit : 

Walter H. Taylor, President. 

Thomas Pinckney, Vice-President. 

John R. Todd, Secretary. 

Walter H. Doyle, Treasurer. 

The business affairs of this institution are managed by an Execu-- 
tive Committee, composed of seven members, appointed annually; 
and this Committee acts by the advice of the Governors of the Club, 
who. at present, are to-wit : Walter H. Taylor, Thomas Pinckney, 
Walter H. Doyle, Thomas B. Ward, John T White, J. Gary 
Weston,* Thomas B. Rowland, John S.Tucker, Wm. H.White, 
Allen Saunders, Henry Chamberlaine, A. Meade Smith, L. W 7 . 
Tazewell and Thomas R. Borland. Number of members, seventy- 
eight. 

THE NORFOLK TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION. 

This organization needs no introduction to those who are chiefly 
interested in its workings. We simply desire to state that there is 
such an one in Norfolk, and that it is properly conducted. It was 
instituted November, 1865, and chartered January 1866. Its 
present officers are : 

George T. Barrom, President. 

Donald McLeod, Vice-President. 

C. H. Sexton, Financial and Corresponding Secretary. 

J. A. Crockett, Recording Secretary. 

E. W. Gaines, Treasurer. 

Trustees— C M. Loughlin, W. T. Fatherly, J. E. Sexton. 
Meetings are held on the last Saturday in each month. 



OUR CHURCHES. 

Norfolk is well supplied with Churches as the following list 
abundantly proves : 

The First Presbyterian Church, Rev. George D. Armstrong, D. 
D., pastor, is situated on Church street, near corner of Holt street. 
Services on Sabbath, morning and night. 

The Second Presbyterian Church, Rev. N. M. Woods, pastor, is 
located on Freemason street, near Boush street. Services on Sab- 
bath, morning and night. Seats free. 

Atlantic City Presbyterian Chapel, (no pastor). Services every 
Sabbath afternoon, by one of the Presbyterian ministers. Seats 
free. 



260 

The First Baptist Church, (Cumberland street), Rev. Thomas 
Hume, pastor. Services on Sabbath, morning and night. Seats 
free. 

The Second Baptist Church, (Freemason street), Rev. W. D. 
Thomas, D. D., pastor. Services on Sabbath, morning and night. 

The Princess Anne Avenue Baptist Chapel, (Church street), no 
pastor. Sunday School in morning, and preaching in afternoon, by 
different Baptist ministers. Seats free. 

Cranby Street M. E. Church, Rev. S. S. Lambeth, pastor. 
Services on Sunday, morning and night. 

Cumberland Street M. E. Church, Rev. W. H. Christian, pastor. 
Services on Sunday, morning and night, at usual hours. Seats free. 

Queen Street M. E. Church, was completed during the past few- 
months, Rev. B. F. Lipscomb, regular pastor. Services are held 
there on Sabbaths, both morning and night. 

Methodist Episcopal Tabernacle, Rev. John Ryan, D. D., pastor, 
Services morning and night on Sabbath. Seats free. 

Methodist Protestant Church, Rev. John Farrow, pastor. Services 
every Sabbath, morning and night. Seats free. 

The Disciples' Chapel, Rev. J. M. Tribble, pastor. Preaching 
every Sabbath, morning and night. Seats free. 

Christadelphian Chapel — Preaching both morning and night on 
Sundays. Seats free. 

Seamen's Bethel, Rev. E. N. Crane, chaplain, is located near the 
corner of Water and Madison streets, for the benefit of seamen gen- 
erally. Services are held both morning and night of each Sab- 
bath. Seats free. \ 

St. Mar if s Catholic Church, corner Chapel and Holt streets, 
Rev. Father M. O'Keefe, pastor, and Rev. Father John Hagan, 
assistant. Services every morning in the week and three times on 
Sundays. 

Cumberland Street Jewish Synagogue, Rev \ L. B. Fould, rabbi, 
is opened for service every Saturday morning. 

Fenchurch Street Synagogue, Rev. D. Levy, reader, is also opened 
for service every Saturday morning. 

Emanuel Episcopal Chapel, Rev. Robert Gatewood, pastor. Ser- 
vice on Sundays, morning and night. Seats free. 

St Luke's Church (Episcopal), Rev. John B. Newton, D. D., 
rector. Services on Sabbath, morning and night. Seats free. 

Christ Church (Episcopal), Rev. O. S. Barten, D. D v rector. 
Services on the Sabbath, both morning and afternoon. 

St Paid's Cnurch (Episcopal), Rev. N. A. Okeson, D. D., rector. 
Services every Sabbath, both morning and afternoon. 

[" Old St. Paul's Church," as it is familiarly called, is one of the 
ancient landmarks of Norfolk, and is now, we believe,the only survivor 
of the great fire which destroyed the town in January, 1776. " It 



261 

is cruciform and built of imported bricks, the ends of which are 
| glazed, and gives the edifice a checkered appearance." The lot 
• upon which it is built is a large one, and was given to the people 
of the "Borough" by Samuel Boush, in 1733, to be used as a bury- 
ing ground. The building was erected in 1739, and on the side 
facing Cove street this date is given, with the letters "S. B." in 
large figures formed by projecting bricks. On the south corner, 
next to Church street, may now be seen, half embedded in the 
bricks, a small cannou ball, which was fired from one of the Brit- 
ish ships, and struck the church in 1776, when the town was bom- 
barded and destroyed. It is an interesting relict of the past, and 
is permitted to remain there " as a mute relator of the malice of 
the foes to liberty. A short, battlemented tower, built of wood, 
is a modern addition to the building, but with this exception, its 
exterior is the same as when Norfolk was destroyed by Lord Dun- 
more." Its interior has been entirely changed and modernized. 

Since the war it was by some persons thought best to tear down 
the old walls and build a church upon a new plan ; but the idea 
was speedily cried down by the people at large. About that time 
the following verses were written on the subject, and published in 
the Virginian : 

A PLEA IN BEHALF OF THE ANTIQUE. 

Workman spare those walls, 

Break not the ancient pile ; 
Oh, clothe, not old St. Paul's 

In garb of modern style ! 

A relict of the past, 

We love it for its age : 
Thus may it ever last 

To grace our history's page. 

Our citizens take pleasure in showing the old church of 1739 to 
their friends from abroad who visit them.] 



THE NORFOLK SCHOOLS. 

The public school system of Virginia is equal in every respect 
to that of any State in the Union ; and the public schools of Nor- 
folk, both for white and colored children, superintended by Gen. 
B. L. Page, an accomplished gentleman and ripe scholar, will rank 
with those of any city in the entire South. The} are extensively 
patronized and the rapid progress now being made in the education 
of our youth is plainly perceptible and truly gratifying, and no tax 
put upon the people of this city is paid more cheerfully than the 
school tax. 



262 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 

The private schools of Norfolk are also a pleasing feature in our 
midst and we take pleasure in mentioning a few of them in this 
volume, regretting that we cannot notice them all : 

The Webster Military Institute, is properly a continuation of the 
Virginia Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy, established in 
Portsmouth, Va., in 1840, by the late Captain Alden Partridge, 
formerly Superintendent of the United States Military Academy at 
West Point, Chief of the North East Boundary Survey, and Presi- 
dent of Norwich, Vt v University. Prof. N. B. Webster, a tutor in 
the Norwich University, joined the V. L., S. & M. Academy in 
December, 1840, resigned its superintendence in 1842; in 1843 
conducted a similar school in Charleston, S. C; was re-appointed 
principal of the V. L., S. & M. Academy in 1844, and continued 
in charge till the sale of the property to the public schools, when 
he taught a preparatory school in Richmond, Va., and in 1847-48 
was lecturer in charge of the Natural Sciences in the Richmond 
College. After discharging the duties of Civil Engineer in the 
Norfolk Navy Yard, for about two years, Prof. Webster, re-opened 
the Portsmouth Academy under the name of the Virginia Collegiate 
Institute. This very flourishing school was discontinued in 1862 
on account of the war, when its principal removed to Canada and 
established a similar institution at Ottawa. In 1869 the Webster 
Institute was opened at Nos. 45 and 47 Charlotte street, by the 
former principal of the Portsmouth Academy and Collegiate Insti- 
tute, and it has continued to flourish ever since. 

The Norfolk Half •Academy (old Academy building on Bank street) 
is taught by Rev. Robert Gatewood, an Episcopal minister of pro- 
found learning. This school is well patronized and has an excellent 
reputation. Mr. Gatewood has able assistants in his arduous duties 
and has made his school a decided success. 

Professor William B. Gait's school for boys, is also a well known 
institution of Norfolk, and is annually growing in favor. Mr. Gait 
is one of our most useful and intelligent citizens, and enjoys the 
esteem and confidence of all who know him. 

Rodman Collegiate Institute, No. 233 Bute street, is another very 
excellent school. It was founded by the late Prof. Wra. B. Rod- 
man, and is now conducted by John J. Morris, Esq., an able and 
popular teacher. 

St. John's Seminary, for young men — a Catholic school, taught 
by Revs. M. O'Keefe and John Hagan, with competent assistants, 
is also a fine institution of learning, with increasing popularity — 
probably the best school in the city for the study of ancient 
languages. 

Misses Leach and Wood's school for young ladies, is an institution 
second to none of its kind in the country. It has been established here 



263 

just six years, and during that time some of the most talented and 
accomplished ladies in our community have completed their studies in 
it. The splendid success which has crowned the efforts of these 
two highly cultivated teachers has been faithfully earned, and is 
sufficient testimony of their competency. They teach the usual 
branches of an English education, together with a complete course 
of the languages, music, drawing, painting, &c, &c. 

The Norfolk Collegiate Institute for young ladies, is another most 
excellent and very popular school. Rev. R. M. Saunders, a Meth- 
odist minister, loved and honored by our entire community, is 
President of this Institute, and has for years been winning golden 
opinions from his many patrons — both in this city and Portsmouth. 
He employs an able corps of teachers, and has educated many young 
ladies who now adorn society as maids and matrons. Mr- Saunders' 
school is always full, and gives universal satisfaction. 

There many accomplished ladies in Norfolk who conduct schools, 
and are well and favorably known to the community — among them, 
Miss Maggie Broughton, Miss Blanche Baker, Mrs. V. C. Fletcher, 
Mrs. John W. Lee, Miss F. E. Hall, Miss M. E. Rowland, 
Miss Julia Robertson, St. Mary's Select School (which has been 
already noticed in this volume), and others. Surely, the city is 
not deficient in 'her institutions of learning. 



CONCLUSION. 

In concluding this the first book we ever attempted to write, we 
feel inclined to rob our " preface" of a few lines, by making some 
apologies. This work was not at first intended to be so extensive, 
and we admit that we have not given it the careful consideration, 
particular pains and dignified tone, that should characterize an 
historical volume. There has been much unsaid ; and a great deal 
said, that would have been better, unsaid. Some of our reflections 
and criticisms — both in regard to persons, events and measures, 
may appear harsh, unjust, or out of place, and we may have been 
too free at times in giving vent to our own opinions — but it cannot 
be helped now. 

We have labored hard to make this volume interesting to the 
people of Norfolk, and have tried to be correct in the details given 
herein ; and if we have failed, the error is of the head and not of 
the heart. Excellence is not matured in a day, and the cost of it is 
an old story. The beginning of Plato's " Republic," it is said was 
found in an old tablet and written over in a variety of ways. Ad- 
dison, we are told, wore out the patience of his printer; frequently, 
when nearly a whole impression of the Spectator was worked off, 



264 

he would stop the press to insert some new proposition. Lamb's 
most spirited essays were the result of intense brain labor ; he used 
to spend a week at a time in elaborating a single humorous letter to 
a friend. Tennyson is reported to have written " Come into the 
garden Maud/' more than fifty times over before it pleased him ; 
and " Locksley Hall," the first draught of which was written in two 
days, he spent the better part of six weeks, for eight hours a day, in 
altering and polishing. Dickens, when he intended to write a 
Christmas story, shut himself up for six weeks, living the life of a 
hermit, and came out as haggard as a murderer. 

Moore thought it quick work if he wrote seventy lines of " Lalla 
Eookh" in a week. Buffon's " Story of Nature" cost him fifty 
years of labor, before he sent it to the printer. " He composed it in 
a singular manner — writing on large sized paper, in which as in a 
ledger, five distinct columns were ruled, in the first column he 
wrote down the first thoughts ; in the second he corrected, enlarged 
and pruned ; and so on until he reached the fifth column within 
which he finally wrote the results of his labor. But even after this 
he would compose a sentence twenty times, and once devoted four- 
teen hours to finding the proper word to round off a period." John 
Foster often spent hours on a single sentence. Ten years elapsed 
between Goldsmith's " Traveler" and its completion. So, if we 
could afford the time, trouble and expense, this volume should be 
rewritten and materially altered — in language, not in sentiment, 
even though it took years to do it. Our apologies, therefore, are 
for the style in which the book is written, and for the gramatical 
and typographical errors it contains — but for nothing else " gentle 
reader." 




56 and 58 Roanoke Avenue, 

I©EF§UL ¥jL 



THE VIRGINIAN is an unrivalled medium through which the public of 
Eastern Virginia and North Carolina m;:y be reached. Its success lias been 
without a parallel in the history of the press of Virginia, and it points to-day 
with pleasure at the extensive patronage it receives from the hands of the busi- 
ness men of Norfolk. 

THE DAILY VIRGINIAN contains every morning a summary of the latest 
Foreign and Domestic Intelligence by Telegraph, with a full transcript of Local 
matters. Its Commercial Department gives accurate quotations of Foreign and 
Home Markets, Receipts, Statistics, &c.; and its Marine Intelligence of the Ports 
of Norfolk, Portsmouth; and Hunpton Roads, is complete and full. 

The circulation of the Daily exceeds that of any other paper published in 
Eastern Virginia. Its city circulation is nearly double that of any other, and its 
Weekly is in excess of all the others combined. 

The circulation extends through the Eastern Shore, the Peninsula, Eastern and 
Southwestern Virginia, and all through Eastern and Central Norih Carolina. 
This is so especially of our Weekly Edition. 

Below will be found our Advertising Rates, to which we call special attention. 
They will be found liberal. Merchants, business men and others will find it to 
their advantage to make use of our columns. 

ADVERTISING RATES 

OF THE 

Daily and Weekly Norfolk Virginian. 

RATES FOR THE DAILY: 

1 week. 1 mo. 3 mo. 6 mo. 1 year. 

One Square $2.50 $8.00 $21.00 $36.00 $"60.00 

Quarter Column 15.00 42.00 80.00 160.00 236.00 

Half Column 28.00 70.00 160.00 300.00 475.00 

One Column 48.00 120.00 275.00 500.00 900.00 

RATES FOR THE WEEKLY : 

1 week. 1 mo. 3 mo. 6 mo. 1 year. 

One Square $ 75 $ 1.75 $ 4.00 $ 7.00 $ 12.00 

Quarter Column 4.25 8.00 18.00 32.00 48.00 

Half Column 7. 14.00 32.00 60.00 90.00 

One Column 13.00 24.00 55.00 100.00 175.00 

JgilP A Square consists of ten lines Nonpareil. On advertisements inserted 
every other day a deduction of one-third of the above rates is made; and on those 
inserted twice a week a deduction of one-half. 



COTTON" WAREHOUSE OF 




O. "VST". GKE^^lsriDir Ss SOlsTS, 

'8®- ESTABLISHED 1845. cc ®g 
OOTTOINT FACTORS, »TC3»H3E»C>XjSS:, Va-. 



A^WRENN, 

Manufacturer and Dealer in 

HARNESS, SADDLES, 

BRIDLES, COLLARS, CARTS. 

WHEELS, AXLES, 

Farm Gear, Horse Clothing, 

LAP ROBES, &c. 
14, 16, 24 & 26 UNION STREET, NORFOLK, VA. 




Established 1835. 

THOS. D. TOY & CO., 

DRUGGISTS and CHEMISTS. 

Our stock comprises 

CHEMICALS, PAINTS and OILS, GARDEN SEEDS, &C 

We are Proprietors of FORREST'S JUNIPER TAR, FINCH'S 
CHOLERA REMEDY, FINCH'S 10— I— C. Correspondence soli- 
cited in regard to WRIGHT'S COD LIVER OIL AND TAR, the 
greatest remedy ever found for Diseases of the Lungs. We also call 
attention to our VEGETABLE PURGATIVE CORDIAL. 

BILLIARD SALOON. 

THE 

Cosmopolitan Billiard Saloon 

Is the only one in the city containing 

THE MODERN CAROM TABLES, 

EDWARD L. CUNNINGHAM, Proprietor, 

No. 185 (Up-Stairs) Main Street, NORFOLK, VA., 

Over Adams' Express Co.'s Office. 

Established in 1819. 

DRUG, PAINT AND OIL STORE. 

M. A. & C. A. SANTOS, 

ATLANTIC BLOCK, 

118 MAIN STREET, and 1, 2 and 3 ATLANTIC STREET, 

NORFOLK, VA. 
We offer a large stock at low prices for cash or approved credit. 



STERLING T. OLIVER, 



OFFICE— CORNER COVE AND CHURCH STREETS. 

RESIDENCE— 307 CHURCH STREET, 

THE FINEST HEARSE SOUTH OF BALTIMORE. 

SOLE AGENT IN NORFOLK FOR THE AMERICAN 

METALLIC BURIAL CASES. 

WALNUT and all styles of COFFINS, from the PLAINEST TO 

THE MOST HIGHLY FINISHED, constantly on hand. 

Jggl** All orders promptly attended to day or night. 

Established in 1831. 

S. MARCH & CO., 

96 AND 98 WATER STREET, NORFOLK, VA., 

Sole Manufacturers of the Celebrated 

ATLAS'AID ItONEWlIIi PJbOWS. 

The premiums below, together with the fact that 14,000 of them 
have been sold since their introduction in 1873, are a sufficient 
guarantee of their superiority. 

First Premiums 

at Raleigh, Wel- 
don and Wilming- 
ton, N.C., in 1873, 
1874 and 1875. 

First Premiums 
at Laurel, Del., and 
Bridge ville, Md., 
in 1875 and 1876. 

We manufacture and have for sale all Plows and other Farming Implements 
suited to the wants of this market. We keep on hand the largest stock of IRON, 
STEEL, AXLES, SPRINGS, HUBS, SPOKES and RIMS to be found in the 
city, to which WE INVITE THE ATTENTION OF BUYERS. 

GEORGIA FURNITURE STORE. 

SOUTHERN, WESTERN AND EASTERN 

FURNITURE. 

HANDSOMEST WAREROOMS, BEST ASSORTMENT, 

NEWEST DESIGNS. 

184, 186 and 188 MAIN STREET, NORFOLK, VA. 

j£@°* Original Designs made to order. 

J. B. PLATT & SON, FROM AUGUSTA, GA., Proprietors. 




LEIGH BROS. & PHELPS, 

GENERAL 

AD C T I Q N E E R S AN ft REAL ESTATE AG EHTS, 

106 Water Street, and 34 & 36 Roanoke Avenue, 

NORFOLK, VA. 

REGULAR SALES— Dry Goods, Clothing, Boots, Shoes, &c, 
TUESDAYS. Furniture, Glass and Crockery Ware, &e. 3 FRI- 
DAYS. Real Estate, MONDAYS, WEDNESDAYS, THURS- 
DAYS. Carriages, Vehicles, Horses, &c, &c, SATURADYS. 
CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED AND CASH ADVANCES MADE 



W. H. BUKKOUGHS, Late City Judge. J. J. BURROUGHS. 

BURROUGHS & BRO., 

ATTORNEYS AT LAW, 

No. 24 Bank Street, NORFOLK, VA. P. O. Box 152. 

Htfjeg^ A specialty made of Questions arising under the Tax Laws 
of the State or Municipalities, Customs and Internal Revenue. 

Courts — Norfolk and Portsmouth Cities and Surrounding 
Counties ; U. S. District and Circuit Courts, Norfolk ; Court of 
Appeals, Richmond; United States Supreme Court, Washington, 

ESTABLISHED 1843. ■ 

YICKERY&CO., 

Booksellers f Stationers, 

And Dealers in 

PHOTOGRAPHIC ALBUMS, PICTURE FRAMES, MUSIC, &C. 

PUBLIC SCHOOL BOOKS A SPECIALTY. 
No. 7 Bank Street, NORFOLK, VA. 



COMMISSION MERCHANT, 

And Dealer in 

HIDES, WOOL, FURS, FLAXSEED, BEESWAX, &C. 

NO. 134 WATER STREET, 
NORFOLK, VA. 



WILLIAM S. JOHNSON, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

Cigars and Tobacco. 

SOLE MANUFACTURER OF THE WELL KONWN 

"TRANSIT" CIGAR. 

93 MAIN STREET, NORFOLK, VA. 

SLADE, STEVENS & CO., 

Wholesale Dealers in 

EGGS, BUTTER, POTATOES, APPLES, 

And all kinds of 



11 and 13 Commerce Street, NORFOLK, VIRGINIA. 



JOHN p. GAMAGE, 

101 and 103 WATER STREET, NORFOLK, VA. 

Manufacturer of 

SHELL LIME, 

And Dealer in 

Rockland, Rockport, Thomaston and Washington City Limes; 

Hydraulic and Rosendale Cement ; Calcine and Land Plaster ; 

Goat and Cattle Hair, Laths, Slates. Tar, Bricks, &c. 






FOR 



SUMMER A.RR^Llsra'EMETSrT. 



The Merchants' and Miners' Transportation Company are now 
running their new and splendid first-class steamships 




JOHNS HOPKINS, Captain Hallett, 
WILLIAM CRANE, Captain S. Howes, 
GEORGE APPOLD, Captain Loveland, 
WILLIAM LAWRENCE, Captain F. M. Howes, 

Leaving Norfolk every Tuesday and Friday. The regularity, 
safety and dispatch of these steamships cannot be surpassed. 



A steamer leaves Norfolk for Providence every Wednesday and 
Saturday. Freight not arriving here in time for shipment to 
Boston by the direct line will be forwarded via Providence at same 



rates. 



VERPOOL 



by the CUNARD LINE EVERY SATURDAY. For Liver- 
pool, by WARREN'S & LEYLAND'S LINE twice each month. 
For further information apply to 

V. D. GRONER, Agent. 



NORFOLK STEAM BAKERY. 

(established 1856). 

JAMES REID & CO., 



, &L 



Manufacturers of all kinds of superior 

BISCUITS, BREAD, Mm, 

87 MAIN STREET, NORFOLK, VA. 
Factory — Holt's Lane and Elizabeth street. 
JAMES EEID. W. T. NIMMO. A. W. EEID. 



WM. A. GRAVES, 

71V I 




Ship MU .mv. «.,u wj,«, „i«,w,, 

LUMBER MANUFACTURER, 

Saw and [Planing Mills, Scroll Sawing, 
No. 211 and 212 Water Street, 

NORFOLK, VA. 



IN os. 4 and 5 Campbell's Wharf, 
NORFOLK, VA., 

MERCHANT. 

Wholesale Dealer in 

Fish, Oysters, C*ame, Terrapins, and all kinds 

Country Produce. 

Packing for safe transit guaranteed. Orders solicited. 



THE 



Virginia Cotton Press, 

USED BY HAND, HORSE OR STEAM POWER, 

HAS TAKEN FIRST PREMIUM AT ALL THE COTTON 

STATES' AGRICULTURAL FAIRS. 




(PATENTED JUNE, 1870), 

WAS AWARDED THE GRAND CENTENNIAL MEDAL 
OVER ALL OTHER COMPETITORS. 



By an attach- 
ment of wheels 
and cranks, the 
follower can be 
run up in one 
minute, and also 
run down until 
sticks have to b e 
used. 




This press has 
no equal on 
\ earth, and it is 
simple, durable 
and cheap. No 
planter should 
be without it. 



jfgg^The above Presses can be used for pressing both Cotton and 
Hay. Address, 

TAPPEY & STEEL, 

PETERSBURG, VA. 

Also, Manufacturers of Engines, Castings and General Machi- 
nery, and of BALL'S COTTON PLANTER and IMPROVED 
COTTON GINS and COTTON SEED CRUSHERS. 

S@rORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO. 




(house established in 1845), 

COTTON FACTORS 



AND 



General Commission and Shipping 



NORFOLK, VA. 

LIBERAL CASH ADVANCES MADE ON CONSIGNMENTS. 

gggr* When Cotton is sold currency will be sent as you may 
direct, or proceeds held subject to your order. 

CONSIGNMENTS OF COTTON ESPECIALLY SOLICITED. 



AND 



STANDARD BRANDS OF BAGGING 

SUPPLIED AT LOWEST FIGURES, DIRECT FROM THE FACTORIES 
TO OUR PATRONS, FREE OF COMMISSION. 



We make the SALE OF COTTON A SPECIALTY, and 

keep ourselves posted in the market by numerous telegrams daily 
from Liverpool and New York. Our business is strictly com- 
mission, to which we devote our entire time and attention. All 
who favor us with the consignment of their Produce, are assured 
that it shall receive our prompt and personal attention. 



^nnr<T^ t^t^ 



9 
DEALER IN 




No. 132 Water Street, 

NORFOLK, VA. 



Livery, Sale and Exchange Stables, 

Nos. 37 and 39 Union Street, Norfolk, Ya. 




PARTICULAR ATTENTION PaID TO 
DROVERS. 

CALL AND SEE US. 



MARTIN & ROGERS, 

. IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

Crockery, China, Glassware, 

KEROSENE LAMPS AND TRIMMINGS, 

17 Market Square, Corner of Union Street, 
NORFOLK, YA. 



A. A. McCUIXOUGH, 
Coal Dealer 

AND MANUFACTURER OF AND "WHOLESALE DEALER IN 

ALL KINDS OF LUMBER. 

OFFICE AND YARD ON 

KIMBERLY'S WHARF, Foot of Church Street, 

NORFOLK, VIRGINIA. 



S. S. GRESHAM. WM. GAMP. S. S. GRPJSHAM, Jk. 



GENERAL 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 



AND 

i a 



ssaie rroviswn ueaiers, 

NO. 9t WATER STREET. NORFOLK, VA. 



11 JEj vV 
(established 1860). 

BOOKSELLERS^STATIONERS; 

AND DEALERS IN 

PHOTOGRAPHIC ALBUMS, PICTURE FRAMES, MUSIC, &C, 

NO. 157 MAIN STREET, 

IRON FRONT BUILDING, NORFOLK, VA. 

C. G. ELLIOTT, - J. T. WHITE. 

ELLIOTT & WHITE, 
Wines and Spirits 

AT WHOLESALE, 
104 WATER STREET, NORFOLK, VA. 

\V. F. ALLEN. J. T. BORUM. 

W. F. ALLEN & CO., 
WHOLESALE GROCERS, 

99 Water Street, and 18, 22, 26 and 30 Kothery's Lane, 
NOKFOLK, VA. 



R. C. TAYLOR. 



B. P. LOYALL. 



TAYLOR & LOYALL, 

IMPORTERS OF 

FINE WINES, BRANDIES and OTHER LIQUORS, 
PORTER, ALE AND CIGARS, 

AND DEALERS IN 

FINE FANCY AND FAMILY GROCERIES and SHIP STORES, 
NORFOLK, VA. 



S. HAMBURGER, 



H. HAMBURGER. 



HAMBURGER BROS. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



TOBACCO. 

FACTORY, SECOND STREET, PETERSBURG, VA. 

OFFICE AND WAREHOUSE, 93 and 95 WATER STREET, 

NORFOLK, VA. 

ESTABLISHED 1836. 




CITY STOVE HOUSE. 



D. S. CHERRY & SON, 



MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 



STOVES and TINWARE, 



Corner Water Street and Roanoke Square, 



NORFOLK, VA. 



GTEL, 

isro^iEnoiLjiK:, ya. 
R. S. DODSON, Proprietor. 

BOABD $2.50 and $3 PER DAY, According to Booms. 

Jg@p a> Special rates by the week or month. Extensive improve- 
ments have been made in all the departments of this Hotel since it 
was purchased by the present proprietor, and it is now a FIRST- 
CLASS house in every respect. 



Gxmr Lo^nsr office, 

NO. 16 BANK STREET, 

Egg* Moneys Loaned on all kinds of Collateral Securities. Dia- 
monds, Gold and Silver Watches, Charms, all kinds of Jewelry 
always on hand, and at prices that defy competition. All articles 
guaranteed. 



ITEM PICKET NINirS 

OLD BAY LINE 

FOR BALTIMORE AND ALL POINTS NORTH, EAST & WEST. 
THE ONLY DAILY LINE BETWEEN NORFOLK AND BALTIMORE- 

The Steamers of this line leave Norfolk daily at 5 p. m., and 
Portsmouth at 6:45 P. M., (Sundays excepted) for Baltimore, 
touching at Old Point. These steamers, consisting of the FLOR- 
IDA, GEORGE LEARY and ADELAIDE are the most com- 
plete and comfortable and elegantly fitted steamers on the Chesa- 
peake Bay, and in point of safety and speed are unsurpassed by any 
in the United States. Their appointments and table are well 
known to the travelling public. 

In addition to the above-named steamers the Company's well 
known freight steamers SEABOARD, WESTOVER, ROAN- 
OKE, TRANSIT and PETERSBURG, are run daily or as 
often as business demands, thus affording to shippers the quickest 
and most valuable freight line between Baltimore aud the South. 

For further information, apply to L. W. THOMAS, Agent, 
Portsmouth; H. PHOEBUS, Agent, Old Point; or to 

W. A. ELDREDGE, Agent. 



DEALER IN 



s, ij^ps I 



mm Firs 



148 MAIN STREET, 
Head of Market Square, Norfolk, Virginia. 



L. &pa*jlding. 



Elias E, Guy. 



SPAULDING & GUY, 

PRACTICAL PLUMBERS 

' : : STEAM AND GAS FITTERS, 

NO. 28 BANK STREET, NORFOLK, VIRGINIA, 



W. H. Taylor. 



T. E. Elliott. 



J. IT. V/atters* 



TAYLOR, ELLIOTT & WATTERS, 



IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 



i m 



: T> 



CUTLERY, GUNS, &C, 



CORNER OF MAIN STREET AND MARKET SQUARE. 



NORFOLK, VIRGINIA. 



TEA _A_ SPECIALTY. 



JOHN C. HAYNES & CO., 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

TEAS, COFFEES, FAMILY GROCERIES and SHIP STORES, 

NO. 9 BANK STREET, NORFOLK, VA. 



C. F. GREENWOOD. FRED. GREENWOOD. 

"THE CASKET." 



C- F. GREEt 

WATCHMAKERS and JEWELERS, 

NO. 158 MAIN STREET, NORFOLK, VA. 

LARGEST STORE AND STOCK IN THE CITY AND LOWEST PRICES. 
Watches, Clocks and Jewelry repaired in the best manner. 



E. V. WHITE, \ f Consulting and 

CHAS. SHROEDER, j \ Marine Engineers. 

E. V. WHITE & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS, 

RAILROAD, STEAMBOAT AND MILL SUPPLIES, 

IRON, STEEL, OILS, PAINTS, AND CORDAGE. 

Steam Engines, Boilers, Tools and Machinery, Belting, Packing, 

Lace Leather, Copper Rivets and Burs, Gum and Leather 

Hose, Wrought Iron Pipe and Fittings. 

Globe Valves, Steam Cocks, Whistles, Oil Cups, Waste, Files, Lamps, 
Lanterns, White and Red Leads, Bolts, Nuts, and Washers. 

NO. 12 COMMERCIAL ROW, NEAR FERRY WHARF, 

NORFOLK, VA. 




ARROW & CO, 



ilUlJ 



i 



iHl 



IK 



UU 



1 



NO. 122 MAIN" STREET, 

(Successors to BOTTIHOBEj MARROW & CO.) 

Goods manufactured in the East expressly for our trade, 
under the personal supervision of our senior parner. 
Orders filled promptly and all goods guaranteed. 

E. P. TABB &' CO., 

Wholesale Tobacconists, 

COR. COMMERCE AND MAIN ST8, 
Norfolk, Va. 




i|f| 



T. P. S. CAEEY, 1 
JNO. S. SHIPP, j 




**#♦ 



W@M MAM! MTMEMT, 



NORFOLK, VA. 



M. Umstadter. Established 1844. C. Myers. 

M. UMSTADTER & CO., 



DEALERS IN 



OR! GOODS, TRIMMINGS UNO LACES, EMBROIDERIES, 

FANCY GOODS AND FURS, 

INTO. 188 MA.HST STREET, 

NORFOLK, VA. 

Orders for Samples or Merchandise Promply Filled, 

PETEE SMITH. 

"THE LEADER OF LOW PRICES;' 

Importer, Wholesale & Retail Dealer in Foreign &. Domestic 



9 

No. 144 Main Street, 

NOEFOLK, V-A.. 

The Welcome Restaurant, 

No. 65 Main Street, 

Norfolk, Va. 



JAMES JONES, Proprietor. 

The Finest Wines, Whiskies, Brandies, &c, 

ALWAYS ON HAND. 

LYNNHAVEN OYSTERS, AND ALL KINDS OF GAME IN SEASON. 

HOUSE KEPT \U FIRST-CLASS STYLE. 

The Proprietor can refer with pleasure to any respectable citizen 
of Norfolk. fv 



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